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2017届高三英语(北师大版)一轮复习语法 第五讲 名词性从句资料_图文

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第五讲 名词性从句

单句语法填空 1.(2015· 全国卷Ⅱ语法填空)As natural architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly how thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days.
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2. (2014· 广东高考语法填空 )I didn’t understand why/how this would happen and my credit card had already been charged for the reservation. 3. (2015· 北京高考改编) How we understand things has a lot to do with what we feel. 4. (2014· 浙江高考改编)“Every time you eat a sweet, drink green tea.” This is what my mother used to tell me. 5. (2014· 四川高考改编)Grandma pointed to the hospital and said, “That' s where I was born.”
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6.(2014· 重庆高考改编)—Is it true that Mike refused an offer from Yale University yesterday? —Yeah, but I have no idea why he did it; that' s one of his favorite universities. 7.(2014· 陕西高考改编) When the delayed flight will take off depends much on the weather. 8.(2013· 浙江高考改编)The only way to succeed at the highest level is to have total belief that you are better than anyone else on the sports field.
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名词性从句指的是在主句中起的作用相当于名词的从句, 主要包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。 一、主语从句 1.引导主语从句的连接词:从属连词that, whether/if;连 接代词what, who, whom, whose, whatever, whichever, whoever 等;连接副词when, where, why, how, whenever等。 ①That they were in truth sisters was clear from the facial similarity between them. 从她们的面貌相似度就能清楚地看出她们真是亲姐妹。
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②What struck me most in the movie was the father’s deep love for his son. 影片中最打动我的是父亲对他儿子深深的爱。 2. 主语从句一般放在句首, 但有时也可用 it 作形式主语, 而将主语从句移到句子的末尾。常见的句型: (1)It + be +形容词 (necessary/likely/important/uncertain 等)+that 从句 (2)It + be + 名 词 ( 短 语 )(a pity/a shame/no wonder/no surprise 等)+that 从句
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(3)It+be+过去分词(said/reported/decided/believed等) +that从句 (4)It+不及物动词(seem, appear, happen等)+that从句 ①It is uncertain what side effect the medicine will bring about, although about two thousand patients have taken it. 尽管大约两千名患者已经服用了这种药,但是它会带来 什么样的副作用还不清楚。 ②It’s no surprise that our team has won the game. 我们队获胜一点都不令人吃惊。 ③It is decided that the meeting will be put off till next Monday. 会议被推迟到下周一召开已经定下来了。
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二、宾语从句 1.引导宾语从句的连接词:从属连词that, whether, if; 连接代词what, who, whose, whatever, whichever, whoever 等;连接副词when, where, why, how等;从句用陈述语序。 ①We promise whoever attends the party a chance to have a photo taken with the movie star. 我们许诺,任何参加这个聚会的人都有跟那个电影明星 合影的机会。

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②I truly believe that beauty comes from within. (2015· 北京高考单选) 我确信美来自内在。 ③We must find out when Karl is coming, so we can book a room for him.(2015· 重庆高考单选) 我们必须弄清楚卡尔什么时候来,以便我们可以为他预 订房间。

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2.it作形式宾语的宾语从句 (1)一些动词后的宾语从句有宾语补足语时,则需要用it 作形式宾语,而将that引导的宾语从句后置。常见的这类动 词有:find, feel, think, consider, believe, guess, suppose, make等。 He has made it clear that the meeting will not be postponed. 他清楚地表明会议不会被推迟。

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(2)动词hate, like, dislike, appreciate, enjoy等表示“喜 欢”、“厌恶”的动词以及一些动词短语see to, depend on, rely on等常用it作形式宾语,而将宾语从句后置。 I shall see to it that he is taken good care of when you are absent. 你不在的时候,我会确保把他照顾好。

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三、表语从句 1.引导表语从句的连接词:从属连词that, whether;

连接代词what, who, whose, whatever, whichever, whoever 等;连接副词when, where, why, how等;从句用陈述语序。 ①Jerry did not regret giving the comment but felt that he could have expressed it differently. 杰里不后悔给出评论,但是觉得自己本来可以用不同的 方法来表达的。

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②I’d like to start my own business — that’s what I’ d do if I had the money. 我愿意自己创业——那就是如果我有钱将会做的事情。 2.as if/as though引导的表语从句 as if/as though引导的表语从句常跟在be动词,seem,

look, taste, sound, feel, appear等动词之后。 The thick smog covered the whole city. It was as if a great black blanket had been thrown over it. 浓雾覆盖着整座城市。好像把一个巨大的黑色的毯子扔 到它的上面。
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3.because, why引导的表语从句 because, why也可引导表语从句,但because引导的表语 从句,主语不能是reason或cause (该结构常用that引导)。常 用于以下句型: ? ?This/That is/was why ... 这/那是……的原因。 ?This/That is/was because ... 这/那是因为…… ? ?The reason why ... is/was that ... ? ……的原因是…… ?

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① From space, the earth looks blue. This is because about seventyone percent of its surface is covered by water. 从太空中看,地球是蓝色的。这是因为地球表面大约 71%被水覆盖。 ② The reason why he didn’ t pass the exam was that he was too careless. 他没有通过考试的原因是他太粗心了。

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四、同位语从句 同位语从句在句中作某一名词的同位语,位于该名词之后, 用以说明该名词的具体内容。 1.常见的后跟同位语从句的名词有: advice 建议 doubt 怀疑 idea 主意 news 消息 promise 诺言 conclusion 结论 fact 事实 information 信息 order 命令 question 问题 demand要求 hope 希望 message 消息 possibility 可能性 request 请求 plan计划
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suggestion 建议 thought 想法
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①I made a promise to myself that this year, my first year in high school, would be different. 我对自己承诺:今年,我高中的第一年,会有所不同。 ②—Is there any possibility that you could pick me up at the airport? —No problem. ——你有可能到机场接我吗? ——没问题。

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2.引导同位语从句的连接词有:that, where, when, why等。

whether,

how,

①Evidence has been found through years of study that children’s early sleeping problems are likely to continue when they grow up. 通过多年的研究发现:有证据表明孩子的早期睡眠问题 很有可能会随着他们的成长继续下去。 ②She asked a question why there was a delay. 她问了发生延误的原因。 ③I have no idea when he will come back home. 我不知道他什么时候回家。
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[名师指津]
在同位语从句中,that, whether不作句子成分。that 无实义,whether意为“是否”,if一般不引导同位语从 句。引导同位语从句的连接词一般都不能省略。

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[典题精选]
(2015· 全国卷 Ⅱ )After looking at

[我来改正]

[常设误点]
(1)从属连词与连接副 词之间的错用 从属连词有that/ whether/if等,连接副 词有when, where等。 从属连词不作成分, 而连接副词作状语。

1 that the toy for some where→□
time, he turned 或去掉 around and found □ 2 where where his parents were missing.
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[典题精选]

[我来改正]

[常设误点]
(2)连接代词(what, which和 who等)之间的错用

(2013· 辽宁高考) That is which other teachers say.

which→
3 what □

引导名词性从句且在从句 中作主语或宾语时应用 what(什么);which(哪一 个);who(谁)等,注意它们 之间意义的差别。

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[典题精选]
(2016· 银川二中 一模) For one thing, that you are studying is badly needed nowadays in our country.

[我来改正]

[常设误点]
(3)that与what之间的错用 what在名词性从句中可作

4 what that→□

主语、宾语或表语;而 that本身没有意义,不作 任何成分,只起连接作 用。

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[典题精选]

[我来改正]

[常设误点]
(4)从属连词that与

(2016· 山东师大附 中模拟)There is

whether/if之间的错用
whether→
5 that □

that不作成分,没有 实际意义;whether/if 也不作成分但有实际 意义,有“是否”之 意。

no doubt whether it is of great help to their study and future life.

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[典题精选]
(2016· 遵义航天高 级中学模拟)And you should also

[我来改正]

[常设误点]
(5)从属连词that的缺 失

have a belief you are sure to succeed as long as you keep your direction all the time.

在belief后加
6 that □

that引导主语从句、 表语从句和同位语从 句时一般不能省略, 引导宾语从句时可以 省略。

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[常考题点对点练]
Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.(2016· 南昌十所重点中学交流试卷)The family was rather poor but the honest man decided to give the bag to its owner. He gave it back to Sam and asked him to check whether/if the bag had 50 gold coins. 2.(2016· 江西上饶三模) What you can learn from the ant philosophy is: Never give up, look ahead, stay positive and do all you can.
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3.(2016· 济南高三针对性训练)They expressed the hope that they would come over to visit China again. 4.(2016· 潍坊高考模拟)He has heart disease. That is because he has been smoking too much. 5.(2016· 大庆质量检测二)People who visited me used to ask me ____ how I could sleep. “Doesn’t the sound of the traffic bother you? How can you get used to so much noise?” 6.(2016· 山师大附中模拟)There was a horrible summer thunderstorm this evening and the power went out, and your candles were just what we needed.
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7.(2016· 大连模拟)The notice came around two o’clock in the afternoon that the meeting would be put off. 8.(2016· 龙口模拟)He worked very hard. It’s no wonder

that he got the first prize. ____
9.(2016· 临沂模拟) Whether we should help up a fallen old person or not remains a heated topic in China. 10.(2016· 贵州高三考前适应性考试)We still have some doubt whether they can complete the task on time. 11.(2016· 太原五中一模) Who will come to help with my English hasn’t been decided.
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12.(2016· 湖南株洲二中月考改编)With an optimistic attitude and a strong will, we can overcome whatever difficulties we might meet with and achieve our goals. Ⅱ.单句改错 1.(2016· 贵州七校联考短文改错)Secondly, watching TV is a good way to kill our spare time. Finally, we can predict that may happen in the future and be prepared.

that→what
what→how

2.(2016· 日照检测短文改错)As time went on, I realized what ridiculous I had been at that time.

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3. (2016· 东北三省四市第一次联考短文改错 )Now I am writing to tell you that my city has done to reduce traffic jams in the last few years.

that→all/what

4. (2016· 银川质量检测短文改错 )I had thought if perhaps the woman would blame the man. Beyond my expectations, the woman answered with a smile.

if→that或去掉if

5. (2016· 郑州第三次质量预测短文改错)Fortunately, I had a mobile phone with me, so I called the police and told them that had been found.

that→what

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6.(2016· 河南三市第二次联考短文改错)That college students are mainly concerned about is employment and their dream to have wellpaid jobs where they can live their lives to the fullest.

That→What

7.(2016· 豫东、豫北名校联考)There is no doubt if English has become a universal language nowadays.
if→that

8.(2016· 云南师大附中月考)That you should learn is how to write down the most important words, not the whole sentence. Remember that you need information, not sentences.
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That→What
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[高考题型综合练]
Ⅰ.语法填空 (2016· 东北三省三校一模)The “selfie” is used to describe the selftaken photo, often from a smartphone. Someone takes about 10 selfies each time he does, and he only ends up __1__ (post) one or two of those. He picks the one that he feels make him look the __2__(good). In that picture, he gains confidence. For that moment, everything bad or terrible that has happened to him__3__ (remove), because that smile is what gives him the__4__ (determine) to love himself.
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I read__5__ poem recently and the young man said, “If I ask you__6__ you love, the answers will most likely roll off your tongue.You love to read. You love to write. You love your mom, your daughter, or your best friend. How long do you think you can go on and on before you say ’I love__7__(I)’?” That statement hit me like a ton of bricks.I’ve struggled with confidence all my life.I still do.And in__8__ way am I saying that taking a selfie is a gateway__9__ confidence.__10__, the selfie does deserve some credit for allowing individuals to express themselves.
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语篇解读:很多人会把自己满意的自拍照发到网上去,他们 认为这样可以使自己增强爱自己的决心。
1. posting end up doing sth.为固定用法,意为“以……而

结束,最终做了某事” 。 2. best 由语境可知此处表示从众多自拍照中选一张自己认

为最好的,由此判断此处应用good 的最高级。 3. is removed 由语境可知应用一般现在时,又因remove与

everything为被动关系,故用一般现在时的被动语态。
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4. determination

give sb.sth.“给某人某物” 。 又根据设

空处前的the 也可判断设空处应用名词。 determination 为不可数名词,后面常用不定式作定语。 5. a 设空处的 poem为可数名词,在本句中表泛指,故与 不定冠词连用。 6. what 所填词在宾语从句中作宾语,故应用what。 7. myself 由空前的 I及语境可知设空处用反身代词。

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8.no

根据本句中“am I saying”的倒装语序,可推知设空

处应为否定词。表示否定意义的介词短语放在句首时, 后面的主谓部分常用部分倒装形式。 in no way “决不”。 9. to a gateway to ...为固定搭配, 意为“通向……之路”。 前后句之间是转折关系,并由后面的逗号可

10.However

知应填 However。

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Ⅱ.短文改错 (2016· 江西师大附中三模)All of us students want to grow up healthily and happily. Here are some tips to you to achieve this goal. First of all, we should have the positive attitude to life. As we all know, there is not only sunshine and also hard times in our life. So when face with difficulties, we should fight against it bravely. What’s more, we must work hard. The reason is because knowledge is power. Only by working hard we get the power to make contributions to our motherland. Final, it is important to take exercises regularly and have balanced diets.
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We’d better do all the these things. The healthier we are, the happier we will be. 答案:第二句:第一个to→for
第三句:the→a 第四句:and→but 第五句:face→faced; it→them 第七句:because→that 第八句:we前加can 第九句:Final→Finally; exercises→exercise 第十句:去掉the或these
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