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英语论文摘要应该如何写?How to Write Abstract?


How to Write

Abstract

What is abstract?
Basically, an abstract comprises one paragraph which describes the main content of a paper and appears at the very beginning of the paper. As electronic publication databases are the primary means of finding research papers in many subject areas today, abstracts have become increasingly important. So everything relevant to potential readers should be in the abstract, everything else not.

STRUCTURE of Abstract
Classification of abstracts Structure of an informative abstract Features of an abstract

Structure of abstract | Classification of abstracts
informative abstract - the primary research objective or purpose - method employed in solving the problems - principal findings or results - major conclusions and serves as a substitute for the full paper descriptive abstract outlines the topics covered in the paper and is like a table of contents in paragraph form.

Structure of abstract | Structure of abstract an informative
Background – why do you want to do the research? Research question – what question are you trying to answer and what is the research topic of your paper? Method – how (what material, what method, and what procedures) do you get answers to your research question? Results – what is your answer to the question? Conclusions – what implications does the answer imply?

Structure of abstract | Features of an abstract
Concise – write everything relevant to the paper in as simple terms as possible. Objective – states objectively the main points of the paper. Consistent – be consistent with the other parts of the whole paper, and never include what has not been mentioned in the paper. Complete – cover all the main points of the paper and be a miniature of the paper. Brief – conveys in as few words as possible the essential information contained in the body of the paper.

Useful EXPRESSIONS

To DEFINE the background and argument of the present study
Although (the research subject)…, (the related problem)… is as yet undetermined. (The research subject)…, however, (the related problem)… remains unsolved. (Previous studies) have examined…, (the related problem) is that…, despite… (Problems in certain research area) are…, yet (the present solution) has frequently been questioned because… This paper describes/presents… (the argument) within… (a theoretical context) While (the debate on certain research subject) seems to…, (the present agreement) is still problematic.

To STATE the purpose of the present study
This paper advances the view that… The article advocates/discusses/develops/focuses on/gives detailed explanation for/investigates into/proposes/holds that/… The purpose/intention of this paper is… The primary goal/aim of this research is… The overall objective of this study is… In this paper/study, we aim at… The work/investigation presented in this paper focuses on… This research is designed to determine/measure/evaluate… The author intends/attempts o outline the framework of/obtain some knowledge of…

To DESCRIBE the angle of observing issues
… from the angle of… … in the light of the context that… To view something at a different angle/from various angles… From the point of view of… From the perspective of…

To INTRODUCE the main participants or materials
The present study has investigated… by using/analyzing… (participants/materials) In this study, we inquired/examined/evaluated… (participants/materials) The experiments/investigations of the present study involved… (participants/materials)

To DESCRIBE research method and procedures
Detailed information has been acquired by the authors using.. Several sets of experiments have been performed to test the validity of… The technique the author adopted is referred to as… The experiments consisted of four steps, which are described in… The method/approach used in the present study is… The experiment/investigation in the paper is conducted by adopting… The procedure the present study followed can be briefly described as… The experiment/study consisted of the following steps: … Included in the experiment were… Based on the idea that…, we conducted the present study, categorized…, and evaluated…

To PRESENT results, findings and conclusion
The results of the experiment indicate/suggest that…; it is also found that… The results are as follows: … The analysis of the samples indicates that.. The data obtained seem to be very similar o those reported earlier by… It is concluded that..; the results also imply the further study into… The investigation/experiment varied by… and the results also revealed that… These findings of the research have led the author to the conclusion that…

To PRESENT results, findings and conclusion
Based on/upon the outcome/findings of the research, … The data/results obtained appear to…, thus we may conclude that… As a result of the current experiments, we conclude that… The author points out/recommends/concludes that… In summing up it may be stated that… All the preliminary results throw light on the nature of… These findings of the research have naturally led the author to the conclusion that…

SAMPLE Abstracts

The Sample of ABSTRACT
Abstract: This paper reports a longitudinal study on the changes in speaking vocabulary by English majors through four years’ learning, which was then compared with the native speakers’ performance./ The English learners involved in the study were56 students who were enrolled in a university in 2001./They were asked to complete an oral task by producing a three-minute monologue after three minutes’ preparation in a language lab./ The native speakers were 15 American college students who accomplished the same task as the English learners./The developmental changes were measured in terms of three indexs: fluency ,word variations and lexical frequency profile. /

The Sample of ABSTRACT
The performance on the three indexes on the three indexes of the across for years and the native speakers form a conyinuum. /However , Year Four students were significantly lower in fluency and word variations than native speakers ,but similar to the native speakers in lexical frequency profile. /The period between Year Two and Year Three saw the most noticeable progress. /The students with different starting levels of the three indexes varied in terms of their changes. /The low-level group mad greater progress than the middle-level group which produced slightly faster progress than the high-level group.

The Translation of the SAMPLE
摘要:本研究采用英语专业学生四年的口语跟踪语料,用流利度、词汇多样性与词频 摘要 广度三个指标分析词汇的使用,并与美国大学生的语料进行比较,旨在揭示其变化 的趋势与特点。学习者语料来源于2001年入学的56名英语专业学生,他们每天在语 言实验室里完成一篇议论文文体的口头作文。本民族语语料源于15名美国大学生, 其口头作文的要求同于中国大学生,研究结果表明,学习者总体样本在流利度、词 汇多样性和词频广度上的发展呈上升趋势,与本族语大学生的表现形成连续体。四 年级学生在流利度和词汇多样性方面显著低于本族语大学生,但在词频广度上的差 别与本族语大学生的差异不具有统计意义。2-3年纪是三个指标变化的最佳时段。三 个指标起点不同的组别,进行轨迹不完全相同。低起点组明显进步显著大于中起点 组,中起点组稍高于高起点组。

Analysis the SAMPLE|Structure of abstract |
Background, Research question, Method, Results, Conclusions.

Let’s Review The SAMPLE
? the background ? the of the researchreports ? targets developmental This paper a longitudinal study on the changes in speaking vocabulary by English majors changes

2th-4th

through four years’ learning, which was then compared with the native speakers’ performance./ The English learners involved in the study were56 students who were enrolled in a university in 2001./They were asked to complete an oral task by producing a three-minute monologue after three minutes’ preparation in a language lab./ The native speakers were 15 American college students who accomplished the same task as the English learners./The developmental changes were measured in terms of three indexs: fluency ,word variations and lexical frequency profile. ? the result /The performance on the three indexes on the three indexes of the across for years and the native ? the speakers form a continuum. However, Year Four students were significantly lower in fluency and conclusion word variations than native speakers, but similar to the native speakers in lexical frequency profile. The period between Year Two and Year Three saw the most noticeable progress. /The students with different starting levels of the three indexes varied in terms of their changes. /The low-level group mad greater progress than the middle-level group which produced slightly faster progress than the high-level group.

1th

5th

9th-10th

6th-8th

Analysis the SAMPLE|Features of an abstract|
Concise Objective Consistent Complete Brief

Analysis the SAMPLE | Features of an abstract
This paper reports a longitudinal study on the changes in speaking vocabulary by English majors through four years’ learning, which was then compared with the native speakers’ performance./ The English learners involved in the study were56 students who were enrolled in a university in 2001./They were asked to complete an oral task by producing a three-minute monologue after three minutes’ preparation in a language lab./ The native speakers were 15 American college students who accomplished the same task as the English learners./The developmental changes were measured in terms of three indexs: fluency ,word variations and lexical frequency profile. /The performance on the three indexes on the three indexes of the across for years and the native speakers form a continuum. However, Year Four students were significantly lower in fluency and word variations than native speakers, but similar to the native speakers in lexical frequency profile. The period between Year Two and Year Three saw the most noticeable progress. /The students with different starting levels of the three indexes varied in terms of their changes. /The low-level group mad greater progress than the middle-level group which produced slightly faster progress than the high-level group.

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