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上海高考英语语法填空解题技巧


上海高考英语语法填空解题技巧
2014 上海高考英语学科改革,推出语法填空新题型.这种题型能全面检测学生在英语词汇、语法,甚 至是句法上的运用能力,能更科学地反映学生的英语综合水平。本题型分两种情况:一种为已给单词提示, 一种为不给单词提示。本人就这种题型进行了分析,总结出十条语法填空的解题技巧。 一、已给单词提示题型的技巧:此类题可以考查学生对代词、动词、形容词等形式变化的掌握程度。

技巧一:动词形式变化。动词的形式变化比较多,有谓语的变化(时态、语态、语气、情态动词),
有非谓语的变化(不定式、动名词、现在分词、过去分词)。学生复习时需要花一定的功夫对动词部分的语法 知识进行一次全面复习。 例 1: A talk (give)tomorrow is written by Professor Zhang.句中的 is 是整句的谓语,所以横线所在的动 词应当用作非谓语。从 tomorrow 可以看出,报告是“将来”作的,故用不定式;且报告是 give 动作的承受 者,故可以判断出横线所在处用 give 的不定式被动式——to be given。 考点聚焦知识体系 : 时态:考纲要求的 11 种时态 谓语动词 动词 语态:主动语态和被动语态 be+过去分词 情态动词 动词不定式 非谓语动词 动名词 分词 过去分词

一般式、进行式、 完成式

主动与被动

一般式、 完成式 主动与被动 现在分词 一般式、完成式 主动与被动

技巧二:代词形式变化。代词形式变化通常是与人称变化有关的三大类五小类,即人称代词(主格和
宾格)、物主代词(形容词性和名词性)、反身代词。另外还有几个不定代词的形式变化,如 no one/none、 other/another 等。 例 2:The king decided to see the painter by (he). 由介词 by 可以看出,横线处应填反身代词 himself。 考点聚焦知识体系 1.人称代词 第一人称 主格 宾格 所有格 形容词 性 名词性 I me my mine we us our ours 第二人称 you you your yours you you your yours
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第三人称 he him his his she her her hers it it its its they them their theirs

反身代词

myself

ourself

yourself

yourselves

himself

herself

itself

themselves

其它类介词的考查方法是不给提示词的。如. 指示代词:this that these those such same 不定代词:some any each every one none no one few a few little a little all both other another others neither either 等 疑问代词:what which who whom whose 等,用于特殊疑问句 连接代词和关系代词是考主从复合句的连接关系,应根据主从复合句的关系确定选用。

技巧三:形容词、副词比较级变化。英语中大部分形容词和表方式的副词都有原级、比较级和最高级
的变化。构成比较级和最高级的方式,或通过加后缀一 er 和.est,或在词加 more/less 和 most/least, 且形容词的绝对最高级还要冠以 the。 例 3:I am (tall)than Liu Wen.He is the tallest students in my class. 此题后句交代了 Liu Wen 是班上最高的学生,那“我”肯定比他矮,所以不能用 taller,只能用表示 程度不如的“less tall” 。 考点聚焦知识体系: 原级 构成 比较级(在形容词或副词后加 er 或在前面加 more) 注意不规则变化 最高级(在形容词或副词后加 est 或在前面加 most) 形容词副词 比较等级 同级比较 比较级 基本句型 最高级 其它特殊用法 二、未给单词提示题型的技巧:此类题难度较大,但也是有方法对付的。

技巧四:固定短语结构。根据句中横线前后及整句来判断横线前后是否构成一个固定短语。
例 4:The children were playing on the ground,enjoying____,dirty but happy. 从句中的 happy 可以 猜出孩子们是开心的,所以应用 enjoy oneself 短语,故其答案为 themselves。 例 5:His boss was____angry as to fire him. 如果“跳过”横线后面的 angry,就可以发现这里用到一个关联短语 so... as to,所以,so 是正解。

技巧五:从句引导词。从句是此题型最为常见的一个方向,主要检测学生对引导词的掌握程度。
例 6:He did not do_____his father had asked him to do. 审题可知,横线所在为宾语从句的引导词,此引导词在从句中充当宾语,且指物,所以是 what。 例 7:Those_____want to go to the village must sign here. 经过观察可以判断横线所在为定语从句的引导词,进一步观察可知先行词为 those,且指人,所以只 能填入 who。
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考点聚焦知识体系 (本知识体系也适用于技巧八) 肯定 陈述句 一般问句 否定 特殊问句 疑问句 1.简单句 反义问句 选择问句 祈使句 do don’t let What how 连接词 2.并列句 句子 名词性从句 并列连词 that 连词 whether, as if, as though because 连接代词 what,who whom whose which how many/much no matter+wh-等 连接副词 when where why how -ever no matter+wh- 等 主语从句 表语从句 种类 宾语从句 同位语从句 先行词 3.从句 关系词 定语从句 限制性 种类 非限制性 表时间 表原因 表地点 表条件 表目的 表结果 表让步 表方式
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感叹句

关系代词 that which who whim whose As 等 关系副词 when where why

状语从句

表比较 技巧六:短语介词结构。短语介词即多个词的组合
起介词作用的短语,如:except for,due to 等。 例 10:Mr Smith took a plane to London ____ of taking a train. 此题中说到两种交通工具,所以可以理解此句有“坐……而不是坐……”的意思,故答案为 instead, 以构成介词短语 instead of。 例 11:Just then,he saw a blackboard in_____ of him.细心观察,可以看出填人 fr0nt 即可构 成 in front of,此题得解。

技巧七:连词、关联短语结构。常用的连词有 and,or,but,so,for,while 等,常用的关联短语
有 both……and,either……or,neither……nor,not only……but also 等。 例 12:Little Wang Jun could not go to school,_____his family was too poor. 此处表示原因, 引导的分句其实是一种解释说明, 不是必然的因果关系, 且前面有逗号隔开, 所以填 for。 例 13:____ Marrie and Jannie like going to the theatre. 横线处的词与后面可以构成 both...and,故答案为 Both。

技巧八:冠词、介词和常用的副词。冠词只能是在 a,an,the 之间判断;常用的介词有 in,at,on,
before,during 等,通常考查固定搭配;副词的量还是比较多,如:however,never,yet,much 等,但 一般不会考查.ly 形式的方式副词. 例 14:Jackie likes to drive at____ high speed.这里考查的是不定冠词的习惯用法,答案为 a, 构成 at a high speed, “以高速”开车。 例 15:Old Tom’s grand·daughter used to visit him _____ Saturday afternoons. Saturday afternoons 是指定的某天下午,所以不用介词 in,而用 on 才是正解。 例 16:Though Liu Qiang did the same work ____ Zhang Wen did,he got a lower pay ______ Zhang Wen. 第一条横线可由前面的 the same 断出用 as,第二条横线则可由 lower 断出比较意义,故答案为 than。 例 27:It was only one day left , _____ ,his father had no idea to answer him. 观察上下句,可以看出是转折关系,且横线与前后用逗号隔开,排除 but,所以答案是 however。

语法填空作为一种新颖的题型,能全面地考查学生的英语综合应用能力。上述十条技巧概括了此题 型的多数考查方向,在高考备考复习中能起到很好的加强作用,真正做到事半功倍,较大地提高学生在此 题型上的得分率。

2014 高考英语新题型 –语法填空高频考点与高分技巧
(1)按该题 2014 高考课改考纲要求及已考该题型省份(广东卷)7 年的考试规律,“纯空格题”仅考冠词、 介词、代词和连接词以及功能性结构副词等四类词;“用括号中所给词的适当形式填空”考了谓语动词的时 态和语态、非谓语动词、形容词和副词的比较等级等。 (2)介词、连接词、动词每年会有两道小题,是考查的重点,也是复习训练的重点。 (3)冠词:考查不定冠词的最基本的用法,表示“一个(次/本…)”,这无疑是复习和训练的重点,但也要
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关注不定冠词的其他用法,同时注意定冠词的基本用法。 (4)代词:主要考查了在句中作宾语的人称代词宾语、只能在名词前作定语的形容词性物主代词、it 的 用法和不定代词。备考中,除重点关注已考的热点外,也不要忽视反身代词和疑问代词。 (5)连接词:考查了引导宾语从句的连接代词 who、引导同位语从句的 that、引导定语从句的关系副词 where(三年考了两年)、表示转折的并 列连词 but,这些仍是复习的重点;备考中,要训练名词性从句:主 语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句;状语从句、定语从句的连接词。 如何判断名词性从句? 规律:可以从从句所处的位置判断是主语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句还是表语从句。 注意:名词性从句中如果缺少主语、宾语 或 表语时常填 what; (whatever) ; who (whoever) (6)动词:时态重点考查一般过去时和一般现在时,也要留意一般将来时、现在完成时、过去完成时等 各种时态。语态只考查了一般过去时的被动语态,一般现在时和一般将来时的被动语态值得重视。 非谓语动词重复考的是不定式作状语,过去分词、动词-ing 形式。

答案特点: (1)纯空格题:试题要求中已明文规定“在空格处填入一个适当的词”,即一个小题或者一个空格只能填 一个单词。已先行考试的广东卷 7 年高考题的答案印证了这一点。 (2)用括号中所给词的适当形式填空:试题中要求“使用括号中词语的正确形式填空”,这个词的“正确形 式”,不可以出现所给词以外的其它词。究竟由几个单词组成?没有规定,高考题的答案是填一个或两个单 词。若需填两个单词,一个是不定式,一个是被动语态。 (3)要求填的词(即答案)都是一些拼写简单的单词,平均每词约 4-6 个字母。 (4)若所填词位于句首,第一个字母要注意大写。 特别提醒: “使用括号中词语的正确形式填空”的答案只填一个或两个单词, 但是我们在平时的训练中应当不局限于 此,要训练填一个、两个或多个单词的情 况。非谓语动词中,带 to 的不定式、现在分词的完成式都可能填 两个单词;谓语动词的将来时、进行时和完成时等也都可能填两个单词,而现在完成进行时等就可 能填三 个单词,被动语态至少都要填两个单词。 答题思路: (1)纯空格试题。首先,分析句子结构确定填哪类词。然后,根据句子的意思,确定具体填什么词;根 据两句间的逻辑关系确定具体用哪个连词。 我们知道,语法填空空格在形式上主要有二种类型: (1)纯空格题(无提示词) :通常考——冠词、代词(形容词性物主代词、人称代词、不定代词、指示代
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词、反身代词 )、介词、和连词、从句引导词。 (2)用括号中所给词填空:通常考——谓语动词的时态、语态和主谓一致、.非谓语动词、词类转换等。 两个分句结构连接,考查语法点: 各类复合句中连词,引导词的用法。 1.…The exam, ________was originally to be held in our classroom, was changed to the library at the last minute. 2…the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to a small town some 20 kilometres away ________there was a garage. 3. It is such an important issue ______ we couldn’t afford to ignore. 4. We shouldn’t spend our money testing so many people, most of ________ are healthy.

答案:which 具体分析方法: (一)纯空格题 1、缺主语或宾语,一定是填代词或名词(多考代词)。

where as whom

[例 1] I can send a message to Kenya whenever I want to, and __38_ gets there almost in a second. and 连接前后两个句子,and 后面的句子缺主语,应填名词或代词;结合前一分句,不难推知,“马上可 到达那里”的是 the message,替代 the message 用代词 it。

2、名词前是空格,若该名词前没有限定词,很可能是填冠词 his, their 等形容词性物主代词,或 some, any, other(s), another 等限定词。 [例 2] It is said that a short-tempered man in the Song Dynasty (960—1279) was very anxious to help __33__ rice crop grow up quickly. 名词 rice crop 前还没有限定词,应当填限定词;根据句意,这个急性子人当然是急于使“他的”禾苗长得 快,故填形容词性物主代词 his。 [例 3] The little boy pulled ___33___ right hand out of the pocket … (his) [例 4] …the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to__35_ small town some 20 kilometres away where there was a garage. 因单数可数名词 town 前还没有限定词,应填限定词;根据句意,是指将车拉到离那里大约有 20 公里 远的一个小镇上去修理,表示“一个”,用不定冠词,故填 a。

3、名词或代词前面是空格,而该名词或代词在句中不作主语、表语,也不作动词的宾语时,很可能是 填介词。 [例 5] … who should have the honour of receiving me 33 a guest in their house.
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因 a guest 在句中不作主语、表语、动词的宾语,前面一定是填介词,使其成为该介词的宾语;又由句 意可知,他们“把我当作客人”来接待,表示“当作”,用介词 as。

4、若两个或几个单词或短语之间没有连词,可能是填连词。 [例 6] …two world-famous artists, Pablo Picasso dollars. 因与 Pablo Picasso (毕加索)与 Candido Portinari (坎迪多?波尔蒂纳里)这两个名词之间没有连词,一定是 填连词;两者是并列关系,应填 and。 (考 and 的可能性较小) [例 7] …all I saw was this beautiful girl, whose smile just melted me completely new sense of what life is all about. 因 melted me 和 gave me 两个动宾短语之间没有连词,一定是填连词;两者是并列关系,故填 and。 (考 and 的可能性较小) 36 almost instantly gave me a 34 Candido Portinari, which are worth millions of

5、若两句(主谓关系算一个句子)之间没有连词,也没有分号或句号,一定是填连接词。 [例 8] I wanted to see as much of the city as possible in the two days 32 I was to return to Guangzhou.

因 I wanted to…是一个句子,I was to return…也是一个句子,这两个句子之间没有连词,也没有分号或 句号,一定是填连词;根据句意和两句之间的逻辑关系,可知“参观这个城市的尽可能多的地方”应是在“返 回广州”之前,故填 before。 [例 9] He was very tired after doing this for a whole day, 37 he felt very happy… 因 He was very tired…是一个句子,he felt very happy…也是一个句子,这两个句子之间没有连词,也没 有分号或句号,一定是填连词;根据句意和两句之间逻辑关系,可知“干了一整天活累极了”与“感到非常高 兴”是转折关系,故填 but。

6、若结构较完整,空格后的谓语动词是原形,特别是与上下文时态不一致或主谓不一致时,很可能是 填情态动词或表示强调或倒装的助动词(do, does, did 等)。 [例 10 ]What is acceptable in one country 31 be considered extremely rude in another.

句中 What is acceptable in one country 是主语从句, 空格后的 be considered 是谓语; 因其中的 be 是原形, 故空格处必定是填情态动词或助动词 does(由语境可知是一般现在时,主语是第三人称单数);由句意及作者 的语气可知,需填表示“可能”的情态动词 may。 [例 11] He had no time or energy to play with his children or talk with his wife, but he ___33___ bring home a regular salary. 这是一个由 but 连接的并列句,由前一分句的谓语动词 had 是一般过去时可知,后一分句的谓语动词 bring 也应用一般过去时;可是,bring 却用的是原形,既与语境的时态不符,也与主语 he 不一致,该句不 是倒装句,因此,此处必定是填情态动词或表示强调的助动词 did;由句意和作者的语气推测,应当填对谓
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语动词表示强调的助动词 did(的确)。 7、若缺状语,一定是填副词(在纯空中考的可能性不大)。 8、由特殊的句式结构来判断空格应填的词。 (1)由 it is…that…强调结构形式,判断填 it 还是 that。 [例 12] …and 40 was only after I heard she became sick that I learned she couldn’t eat MSG (味精)! 由句式结构可知,本句为强调句,应填 it。 (2)由倒装句式判断,是填构成倒装的条件的 only, so, neither, nor, never, hardly, seldom, not, until, had 等,还是填 do, does, did 等。 [例 13] __41__with hard work can you expect to get pay rise. 由 can you expect to…可知,这是倒装句,根据构成倒装的条件可知,应填副词 only,因为“only +状语 (with hard work)”放在句首,句子要用倒装。 (3)由 it 作形式主语或形式宾语的句式判断,空格处是否填 it。 [例 14] …as 32 took them just three minutes to steal paintings by two world-famous artists…

由句式结构可知,这是 it takes, sb. some time to do sth.句型,本句的不定式 to steal paintings 是真正的主 语,空格处填形式主语 it。 [例 15] Dating sites also make 36 easy to avoid someone whom you are not interested in.

由句式结构可知,to avoid…是真正的宾语,easy 是宾补,空格处应填作形式宾语的 it。 (4)so /such…that…句型。 [例 16] This made the goat so jealous___34___it began plotting against (谋划对付) the donkey. 由句式结构可知,这是 so…that…句型,应填 that。 (5)more…than… (与其说……不如说……,比……更……)句型。 [例 17] Cynthia’s story shows vividly that people remember more how much a manager cares much he pays. 由句式结构可知,这是 more…than…句型,故填 than。句意是与经理所给的报酬相比,雇员更铭记于 心的是他的关心。 40 how

(二)给出了动词的试题。 1、动词不在主语或宾语的位置 首先,判断要填的动词是谓语动词还是非谓语动词。然后按以下两点进行思考。 若句中没有别的谓语动词,或者虽然已有谓语动词,但需填的动词与之是并列关系时,所给动词就是 谓语动词;若是谓语动词,就要考虑时态语态。 [例 18] His fear of failure ____36____(keep) him from classroom games that other children played with joyous abandon. 因主语 His fear of failure 后没有别的谓语动词,需填的动词应为谓语动词;因主语与 keep 是主动关系,
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应用主动语态;由从句谓语动词 played 可知,要用一般过去时,故填 kept。 [例 19] That was definitely not an attractive idea so I politely declined her invitation, and walked away. 虽然句中已有谓语动词 declined,但由 and walked 可知,所填词与 declined 和 walked 是并列关系,所 以也用一般过去式 closed。 [例 20] In Logan, three people __38__ (take) to a hospital, while others were treated at a local clinic. (梅州二 模) 因主语 three people 与 take 是被动关系,即三个人被送进医院,故用被动语态;由 were treated 可知, 要用一般过去时,故填 were taken。 若句中已有谓语动词, 又不是并列谓语时, 所给动词就是非谓语动词。 若是非谓语动词就要确定用—ing 形式、—ed 形式,还是用不定式形式,确定的方法主要有: 2、作主语或宾语,通常用—ing 形式表示习惯或一般情况,用不定式表示具体的情况。 [例 21] …but it is not enough only 35 (memorize) rules from a grammar book. 40 (close) my book

因 it 是形式主语,后面用不定式作真正的主语,故填 to memorize。 [例 22] __35__ (speak) out your inner feeling won’t make you feel ashamed, on the contrary… 句中已有谓语 won’t make,所以 speak 应为非谓语动词;谓语前面应为主语,作主语,表示一般情况, 要用动名词短语,故填 Speaking。 3、作目的状语或者在形容词后作状语,一般用不定式。 [例 23] _______ (complete) the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day. 因句中已有谓语 will have to work, 所以 complete 应为非谓语动词; 因“(为了)按计划完成这项工程”是“我 们每天不得不额外多工作两小时”的目的,作目的状语,用动词不定式,故填 To complete。 [ 例 24] Some people say that oldest children, who are smart and strong-willed, are very likely ___33 (succeed).

因在形容词 likely 后作状语,要用动词不定式,故填 to succeed。 4、作伴随状语,常用分词,与逻辑主语是主动关系,用现在分词,是被动关系,用过去分词。这样的 题一般要特别注意空格前的逗号。 [例 25] He saw the stone, 37 (say) to himself: “The night will be very dark.”

句中已有谓语 saw,所给动词与 saw 不是并列关系,应当是非谓语动词;又因 He 与 say 是主动关系, 故填 saying 作伴随状语。 [例 26] The headmaster went into the lab, ___40___ (follow) by the foreign guests. 句中已有谓语 went,而 follow 又不是与之并列的,故为非谓语动词;又因 the headmaster 与 follow 是 被动关系,故用过去分词作伴随状语。 5、不论非谓语动词在句中作何种成分,若判断需要用分词,与逻辑主语是主动关系用—ing 形式,是 被动关系用—ed 形式。
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[例 27] There will be a meeting, __40__ (start) later this year to review the film. 因 a meeting 与 start 是主动关系,用现在分词短语作定语,补充说明 a meeting,故填 starting。 [例 28] Lessons 39 (learn) in sports can help us in our dealing with other people. 因句中已有谓语 can help,所以 learn 应为非谓语动词;又因 lesson 与 learn 是被动关系,要用过去分词 短语作定语,故填 learned。

点睛技巧: 语法填空要求考生阅读一篇短文,然后按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求完成 10 道语法填空 题。做题要求:一是在空格处填入适当的词;二是使用括号中词语的正确形式填空。 1.语法填空的考查范围 (1)语境测试(上下文); (2)语法测试:动词、名词、代词、冠词、介词、固定搭配、情态动词、复合句、形容词和副词的比较 级与最高级及构词法、倒装等。 ①动词:时态、语态、主谓一致、非谓语动词等; ②引导词:一些从句的使用, 如定语从句、名词性从句、状语从句等; ③形容词、副词、名词、动词之间的词型、词性转换, 形容词与副词的比较级、最高级等; ④介词:一些常用介词的基本用法、介词短语的用法; ⑤名词、冠词:注意名词的单数、复数、可数、不可数以及冠词的特殊性用法; ⑥代词:注意代词所指代的对象和前后对应的关系; ⑦并列词:and, so, or, otherwise 等表示并列、对比的词,以及表示承接、转折的副词 therefore, however 的用法; ⑧句型:要求归纳整理, 并且牢固掌握一些基本常用句型, 如:not...until...; not only...but (also)...; so...that...; not...but...; as...as...; either...or... ; more...than...; neither...nor... ; such...that... ; hardly...when...; no sooner...than...等。 2014 高考英语语法填空高频考点 考点 1. 动词的时态和语态 (1). The sun was setting down when my car ______ ( break ) down near a remote and poor village . (2). Being too anxious to help an event develop often ________ ( result ) in the contrary to our intention. (3).People stepped on your feet or ______ ( push ) you with their elbows. (4).“Your father has at last decided to stop smoking,” Jane ________ ( inform ). (5).After a four-day journey, the young man ______ ( present ) the water to the old man. (6). He ______( pretend ) that a tiger toy was real and giving it a voice.
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broke; results;pushed;was informed;presented;was pretending 小结: 动词的时态、语态是每年的考点, 也是历年高考重点考查的项目,通常 1-2 道题。 重点考查 的是时态 ,且多与语态一起考查。时态理解错误在考生中是常见的, 把握命题人的意图是至关重要的。 1).先判断所给动词是谓语动词还是非谓语动词, 2). 谓语动词的话, 判断用主动语态还是被动语态, 3). 判断用那种时态(根据具体的语境、时间状语或另一动词) 。 4). 确定所填动词的形式,保证谓语动词时态、语态、人称和数的一致。 5). 特别注意:时态变化时不规则动词的拼写。 考点 2 . 非谓语动词 (1). While she was getting me _______ ( settle ) into a tiny but clean room. (2). The Proverb, “ Plucking up a crop _______( help ) it grow,” is based the following story. (3). She wished that he was as easy ________ ( please ) as her mother. (4). He spit it out , ______ ( say ) it was awful. (5). --- and then I noticed a man ______ ( sit ) at the front.

settled ;to help;to please;saying;sitting / sit

小结: 非谓语动词每年必考, 至少 1 道题, 主要考查: 1). 动名词和不等式做宾语的区别; 2). 非谓语动词做宾补的区别; 3). 非谓语动词的时态、语态、否定式和复合结构。 解题: 确定非谓语动词; (先分析句子结构,若句子已有谓语动词且不是并列谓语时,所给的动词就是非谓语 动词) ; 确定用那种非谓语动词; (在句子中作什么句子成分,结合固定搭配和习惯用法) ; 确定语态; (结合与逻辑主语的关系,确定填那种语态) ; 确定用那种时态; ( 非谓语动词所表示的动作与句中谓语动词的动作生的先后关系确定时态) 。

考点 3. 情态动词

小结: 情态动词主要考查: 推测和可能性; 情态动词+ Have done ;虚拟语气; shall, should, can 和 must 所表示的特定语气。 重点注意:
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1).must , can, could, may, might 表示可能性( 按可能性大小排列 )。 2). must/ could/may/ might ( have done) 表示对发生事情的推测。 3).should/ought + to + have done 表示对过去的责备。 4).will/ shall 表示请求、许可。 5). could /might/ should + have done 表示虚拟语气等。

考点 4. 冠词 (1).--- the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to _____ small town some 20 kilometers away. (2).Shopping at this time of the year was not ______ pleasant experience. (3).A young man came across a spring of clear water, _______ water was sweet. (4).We had _______ amazing conversation.

a ;a ;the ; an 小结: 冠词是高考的常考点。 若空格后面的名词 或 形容词+ 名词前没有物主代词、不定代词、名 词所有格、指示代词等限定词时, 很可能填冠词。实战: 1) . 如果空格及后面的名词可翻译成“ 一个 ( 本、种、杯 ------) ” 时, 一般填 a/an. 如果可翻译成“ 这、这些、那、那些 ”时, 一般填 the . 2) . 泛指填 a\an , 特指填 the. 3). 如果名词后面有: of 短语、不定式、分词或从句等做定语时可能填 the. 定冠词的用法比较不好记,下面的顺口溜或许能帮助大家。 特指双熟悉, 世上独无二, 普转专有名, 上文已提及; 序数最高级; 习语及乐器。

语法填空讲练第 1 篇 阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填入一个适当的词 或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空,并将答案填写在答题卡标号为 31――40 的相应位置上。 According to a recent survey, violence did exist in schools. Students showed their fear and parents and teachers also expressed their great concern about it. Experts hope the whole society pay more attention to the mental health of adolescents. Nowadays, school violence is 31 hot issue. I think this is a phenomenon, 32 calls for our great concern. We should try every effort 33 (prevent) violence happening at school for more and more students would drop out of school 34 their personal safety could not 35
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(guarantee). In fact, violence can 36 (learn). Children learn violent behavior from adults or from 37 they see on television or on the Internet. If I meet with school violence, I will not answer violence 38 violence, for it will result in 39 (much) fighting. I will tell my teachers or parents about it. I think they will help me deal with it well and they will protect me from the bad guys. All in all, every student should behave 40 (he) and keep away from violence. 答案: 文章向我们介绍了作者对校园暴力的看法。 31.a 这里需要一个不定冠词表示某个的意思。 32.这里要用 which 引导一个非限制性定语从句,因为先行词为物,所以要用 which。 33.to prevent 不定式作目的状语。 34. if/as long as 人身安全得不到保障是辍学的条件, 所以应该用引导连接条件状语从句连词。 35.be guaranteed 所给动词和其逻辑主语是动宾关系,所以要用被动语态。 36.be learned 事实上;暴力是可以学的。 37.what 引导一个宾语从句,并且在从句中作宾语,所以要用 what。 38.with 表示方式,意思是“用”。 39.more 由语境可知,以暴力对付暴力,只能产生更多的暴力。 40.himself behave oneself 表现良好,行为良好。 语法填空讲练第 2 篇 阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填入一个适当的词 或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空,并将答案填写在答题卡标号为 31――40 的相应位置上。 In the 1950s, a family that owned a farm near Beulah, Michigan kept a bull chained to an elm (榆树). The bull paced 31 the tree, dragging the heavy iron chain, which led to a groove (槽) in the bark (树皮). The groove 32 (deep) over the years. Though for whatever reason, it did not kill the tree. 33 some years, the family took their bull away. They cut the chain, leaving the loop around the tree and one link 34 (hang down). Then one year, agricultural catastrophe struck Michigan in 35 form of Dutch elm disease. All of the elms lining the road leading to the farm became infected 36 died. Everyone thought that the old elm would be the next. The farm owners considered 37 (go) the safe thing: pulling it out and chopping it up into firewood before it died. Amazingly 38 (amazing), the tree did not die. Nobody could understand 39 it was the only elm still standing in the county. It' s said that 40 doesn' t kill you will make you stronger. Or, as a plant pathologists (病理学家 ) put it , "Life breaks us all, but afterwards, many of us are strongest at the broken places." 答案: 这是一篇夹叙夹议的文章。文章通过叙述一棵老榆树大难不死的故事告诉我们这样一个道 理:经历疼痛才能变得坚强,才能抵挡住更大的困难甚至是灾难。 31.around 下文告诉我们,树皮被铁链磨出了一个槽。由此可以看出,这是由牛绕着树来回 踱步造成的。 32.was deepened 随着岁月的流逝,磨出来的槽逐渐被加深了。所以要用被动,另外,由于 动作发生在过去,所以动词要用过去式。 33.After after+时间段,表示经过一段时间之后。
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34.hanging down hang down 和其逻辑主语 one link 是主谓关系,所以用现在分词表示主动, 构成 leave+宾语+现在分词。 35.the in the form of 固定用法,意思是:以……的形式。 36.and 榆树受到感染,继而死去。 37.going consider 后跟动名词作宾语。 38. Amazingly 副词作状语,修饰整个句子。 39.why 谁都不理解为什么只有这棵榆树依然耸立在那里。 40.what 引导一个主语从句,并在从句中作主语,所以用 what。 语法填空讲练 第 3 篇 阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填入一个适当的词 或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空,并将答案填写在答题卡标号为 31――40 的相应位置上。 词数:213 完成时间:8 分 难度:** 钟 I was going to the store one cold evening and as I was approaching the store there 31 a man in the front of the store. He looked at me and said really loud "Hi." I replied, "Hi, how are you?" He said "I am fine." and then he looked at me as if he recognized me and asked, " 32 is your mother?" Of course, I didn't know what to say to that question 33 my mother had been dead34 (die) for several years. I found this really strange so I finally said, "She is fine, thank you and how are you?" He also said he was fine. I then answered, "Good. Can I do 35 to help you at all?" All he said 36 I really could use a hug. I 37 (hug) him for a while this poor soul and a stranger. I said, "Where are you staying? Do you 38 a ride?" He said, "No, I have my bike. I am living at the Church down the street." I answered, "Let me give you something. It's not much, but that is all I 39 afford." So I took out $10 from my purse and gave it to him then went home. To tell you the truth, I always feel helping others 40 really great. 答案: 31.Was.此处是 there be 句型,时态为过去式,另外句子主语为单数形式。 32.How.根据下文的内容,这里是问“你妈妈好吗?”。 33.because.从此处的逻辑关系和意义看,从句部分表示原因。 34.dead.此处用 die 的形容词形式,用作表语。 35.anything.该词用在疑问和否定句中,意为“我能帮你做点什么吗?”。 36.was.句子主语 all he said 为单数。 37.hugged.这里的时态为过去时形式。 38.need.该句的意思为“你需要坐车吗?”。 39.can.afford 常和情态动词连用。 40.is.主语是 helping others,分词作主语按单数处理,这里的时态为一般现在时。 语法填空讲练第 4 篇 阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填入一个适当的词 或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空,并将答案填写在答题卡标号为 31――40 的相应位置上。 词数:154 完成时间:8 分 难度:** 钟 No one knows what would happen in the future for sure. 31 we often think of the future
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and wonder what the world would be like 32 a hundred years' time. Think of space. Perhaps 33 permanent station on the moon will have been set up. Perhaps people will be able to visit the moon 34 tourists. Cheap rockets for space travel will have been developed, 35 (permit) long journeys throughout the solar system. 36 that time comes, people will be taking holidays in space 37 visiting other planets, such as the Mars Colony and the Venus Exploration Outpost. Scientists of the future will almost certainly find other ways to make life last 38 (long). 39 probably will find cures for most diseases. Hospitals will probably have "body banks" that can give you almost any new part you need to keep on 40 (live). People of the future may live to be a lot older than 100 years. 答案: 31.But.本句与上一句是转折关系,故用转折连词 but。 32.in. 表示将来多长时间之后时用“介词 in+一段时间名词”结构。 33.a. station 是可数名词且表示泛指,前面应有不定冠词 a。 34.as. as 表示“作为”,符合题意。 35.permitting. cheap rockets 与 permit 之间是主动关系,应用现在分词短语作状语表示伴随 情况。 36.When. 此处表示将来的时间,应用 when 引导时间状语从句。 37.and. 因两个动作表示并列关系,应用并列连词 and 连接。 38.longer.由意义可知,此处表示找到延长人类寿命的方式,故 long 应用比较级形式。 39.They. they 用来指代上句中主语 scientists。 40.living. keep on doing sth.意为“继续……”,故此处应用 live 的现在分词形式。 语法填空讲练第 5 篇 阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填入一个适当的词 或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空,并将答案填写在答题卡标号为 31――40 的相应位置上。 词数:153 完成时间:8 分 难度:** 钟 Although most people believe that formal schooling is required for scientific success, a college degree is not always necessary. 31 excellent example of a man who won fame as a scientist 32 academic(学术的) training is Vincent J. Schaefer. His formal education ended 33 two years of high school when he had to go to work in an untrained job at General Electric. Because 34 his inventive mind and his skill as a model maker, he was soon allowed to try his own experiments in the company laboratory. His natural curiosity35 (curious) made him wonder about clouds. He developed, after many tries, a method of making clouds rain 36 they would not normally do so. This method, 37 (call) seeding, has been very helpful38 (help) to farmers, and 39 made him win much fame. Schaefer believes that for people 40 most of all, are interested in the world and everything in it, a college degree is unnecessary. 答案: 31.An. 因 excellent 以元音音素开头,应用不定冠词 an。 32.without.without 和名词连用表示某种状况,意为“没有”。 33.after. 表示过去的一段时间之后应和介词 after 连用。 34.of. because of 是复合介词,意为“因为”,后接名词或代词。 35.curiosity. 此处须用名词作主语,curious 的名词形式是 curiosity。
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36.when. 此处表示时间,应用 when 引导时间状语从句。 37.called. this method 与 call 存在被动关系,应用过去分词作定语。 38.helpful. very 后应接 help 的形容词 helpful“有益的”。 39.it. it 此处指前一分句的整个情况。 40.who. who 用来引导定语从句,在从句中作主语,先行词是 people。 语法填空讲练第 6 篇 阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填入一个适当的词 或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空,并将答案填写在答题卡标号为 31――40 的相应位置上。 词数 197 完成时间 9 分钟 难度 *** I remember my first Christmas adventure with Grandma. I remember tearing across town 31 my bike to visit her on the day my big sister dropped the bomb. "There is no Santa Claus." she laughed. “Even dummies(傻瓜) know that!" I 32 (flee) to Grandma 33 I knew she would be straight with me. She always told the truth. "No Santa Claus?" she said. "Ridiculous! Don't 34 . Put on your coat, and let's go." "Go where, Grandma?" I asked. As we walked through the doors of the general store Grandma handed me ten dollars and said, "Buy something for someone 35 needs it. I'll wait for you in the car." I was only eight years old. Never had I shopped for anything all by myself. For a few moments I just stood there, 36 (wonder) what to buy, and who 37 (buy) it for. I thought of everybody I knew. Then I thought about Bobbie Decker. He was my classmate with bad breath and messy38 (mess) hair, and he sat right behind me. He didn't have a coat. I knew that because he never went out to play games during the winter. I fingered 39 bill with growing excitement40 excitement (excite). I would buy Bobbie a coat. 答案: 本文主要讲述的是“我”与爷爷一起经历一次难忘的圣诞节。 31.On on one’s/the/a bike=by bike。 32.fled 结合全文可知此处应使用一般过去时,注意其不规则的形式。本题稍难。 · 33.because/as 因为相信爷爷会对我说真话,所以立马跑到他那儿去求证。本题稍难。 34.it/that 指代“There is no Santa Claus.”。 35.who/that 判断分析句子结构可知,此处为 who/that 引导的定语从句修饰 someone。 36.wondering 根据前面的逗号,可知应该使用动词的—ing 形式作伴随状语,表示主动 含义。 37.To buy 与.What to buy 构成并列平行结构。本题稍难。 38.messy 修饰名词 hair 当然用形容词 messy。 39.the 特指上文爷爷给的“ten dollars”。 40.excitement 作介词 with 的宾语,要用名词,但注意 excitement 为不可数名词。

关于从句的语法填空练习:

1.We saw a film yesterday afternoon , after _____we had supper in a nearby restaurant. 2.There comes a time in every man's life_____ he has to think
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3.Although he knew little about the large amount of work done in the field, he succeeded_____ other more well-informed experiments failed. 4.On the third floor there are two rooms, the larger of_____ is used as a meeting-room.

5.--- Are you familiar with the music ? --- Yes. There was a time _____ this kind of music was quite popular. 6.He has got himself into a dangerous situation ____ he is likely to lose control over the plane. 7.The passenger was very impolite to the conductor, ____ , of course , made things even worse. 8._____ was known to all, William had broken his promise ______ he would give us a rise. 9.John knocked at the door for nearly five minutes ____his wife opened it. . 10..---The thread of my kite broke and it flew away. ---I had told you it would easily break _____ it was the weakest. 11.They were surprised that a child could work out the problem ____they themselves couldn't. 12.I had been puzzled over the problem for over an hour without any result, _____ all at once the solution flashed across my mind. 13.Sally worked late in the evening to finish her report _____ her boss could read it first thing next morning. 14._____much advice I gave him, he did exactly what he wanted to do. 15.Generally speaking, when_____( take) according to the directions , the drug has no side effect.

16.Someone called me up in the middle of the night, but they hung up _____ I could answer the phone. 17. The idea of fish being able to produce electricity strong enough to light a lamp is almost unbelievable, _____ ,several kinds of fish are really able to do this. 18. Is it true that______ the rain stops , it will be as hot as in the summer here? 19.. ---_____ I watch TV, I'll turn it down and never make any noise. --- Good. ______ you are doing should never disturb others. _______ how important you are, never forget about how others feel. 20. ______ they live in the same house, we would no trouble finding them. ---But as traveling salesmen as well as seasonal herdsmen and farmhands, as you know, they move
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house ___often___ many of the Americans who live on wheels. 21. _____ he thought he was helping us with the work , he was actually in the way. 22.The most exciting thing for him was_____ he finally found two tinned fruits in_____ seemed to him to be a servant's bedroom. 23.______ surprised me most was______ they had finished the so quickly. 24._____ seems strange to us is ______ she can sing so many English songs beautifully. 25.My parents used _____ they had to get a new car for my brother. 26.The question came up at the meeting _____ we had not enough money to do the research. 27.Is this hotel _____ you said we were to stay in your letter? 28.A modern university has been set up in ______ used to be. Key: 1.which .2.When. 3.where 4.which 5. when 6. where 7. which 8.As; that 9. before10.where 11. while12. when 13. so that 14. B. However 15. taken 16. Before 17.but 18. When 19. Whenever; Whatever; No matter 20.C. As long as; as often as 21.Although 22.that; what 23What; that 24.What; that 25.what 26.that 27.where 28. what

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