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新视野大学英语听说教程第四册听力原文


Uint1 III. Listening In Task 1: Soft answers turn away wrath. Mary: Dam! You’re spilled red wine on me. My new dress is ruined. John: I’ m terrible sorry! What can I do to help? Here’s some water to wash it off. Mary: Stop splashing water on me! Oh, this is so embarrassing! I’m a mess. John: Well, you do look a little upset. Please don’t blow up. Don’t lose your cool. Mary: Hmm, you’ve got the nerve talking like that! Who shouldn’t fly off the handle? This dress cost a fortune. John: You look really cute when you’re mad. I kid you not. Some people do look attractive when they are in a rage. Mary: This is very expensive dress. I saved for months to buy it, and now it’ s ruined. Look at this stain! John: Accidents do happen. Give me your dress, and I’ll take it to the cleaners. Mary: Sure! You want me to take it off right here in public and give it to you? I don’t even know you! John: This might be a really goof time to get acquainted. I’m John Owen. Mary: Mmm, at least you’re polite. I guess I really shouldn’t have flared up. After all, it was an accident. I’m Mary Harvey. John: Come on. I’ll take you home. You can change your clothes, and I’ll get the dress cleaned for you. Mary: Now you’re talking. Thanks. You’re a real gentleman. John: You’d better believe it. I’m glad to see that you’ve cooled down. Feel look a bite to eat afterward? I’m starving. Mary: Ok. You’re pretty good. I’m not nearly as mad. If you can get this stain out, I’ll be very happy. John: I’ll try my best. But if I can’t get the stain out, please don’t let your happiness turn to wrath. Task 2: Big John is coming! A bar owner in the Old West has just hired a timid bartender. This (S1) owner of the establishment is giving his new hire some instructions on (S2) running the place. He tells the timid man, “If you ever hear that Big John is coming to town, (S3) drop everything and run for the hills! He’s the biggest, nastiest (S4) outlaw who’s ever lived!” A few weeks pass (S5) uneventfully. But one afternoon, a local cowhand comes running through town (S6) yelling, “Big John is coming! Run for your (S7) lives!” When the bartender leaves the bar to start running, he is knocked to the ground by several townspeople rushing out of town. (S8) As he’s picking himself up, he sees a large man, almost seven feet tall. He’s muscular, and is growing as he approaches the bar. He steps up to the door, orders the poor barkeep inside, and demands, “I want a beer NOW!” He strikes his heavy fist on the bar, splitting it in half. (S9) The bartender nervously hands the big man a beer, hands shaking. He takes the beer, bites the top of the bottle off, and downs the beer in one gulp. As the terrified bartender hides behind the bar, the big man gets up to leave, “Do you want another beer?” the bartender asks in a trembling voice. “Dang it, I don’t have time!” the big man yells, (S10) “I got to get out of town! Don’t you hear Big John is coming?” Task3: A View of Happiness Dr. Smith has proposed a reasonable, if perhaps somewhat oversimplifies, view of happiness. According to his theory, happiness might be described as a state if balance. And when human or certain animals achieve that balance, they rend to remain in that condition in order to repeat the happy feeling.

To illustrate this, we may study two magnets. When their positive and negative poles meet, they are comfortably joined, and they remain there. In other words, they have attained a balance or state of happiness. If on the other hand, one of the poles is reversed, and positive pole is presses against positive pole, there is resistance, instability, imbalance a state of unhappiness. Animals with some degree of intelligence seem to find happiness in reinforcement. Once they have gained one or more of their goals such as food, and water, they learn to repeat the actions that led to satisfaction of those goals. This repetition or reinforcement produces a state of balance or sense of happiness. According to this theory, only animals with a significant capacity to learn should be able to experience happiness. But in truth learning can take place through surprisingly simple short-term action such as scratching an itch, followed by pleasure, followed by more scratching, and so on. Thus learning can occur with almost no conscious thought. For human beings, blessed with the ability to reason, goals are not limited to the short-term satisfaction of needs. Indeed, there is a strong link between happiness and the fulfillment of long-term goals. Even if human strive for goals that are more complex and longer-term than the animals’ goals, once those goals are gained, happiness is reinforced. Let’ V. Let’s Talk Hello, everyone. Today I invite you to join me in an exploration off the causes of depression. There ate many factors involved, but I believe some deserve special attention. Heredity certainly plays a role. .The tendency to develop depression may be inherited; there is evidence that this disorder may run in families. Physiology is another factor related to depression. There may be changes or imbalances in chemicals which transmit information in the brain called neurotransmitters. Many modern antidepressant drugs attempt to increase levels of certain neurotransmitters so as to increase brain communication. While the causal relationship is unclear; it is known that antidepressant medications do reliever certain symptoms of depression. Researchers also study psychological factors. They include the complex development of one’s personality and how one has learned to cope with external environmental factors, such as stress. It is freeqently observed that low self-esteem and self-defeating thinking are connected with depression. While it is not clear which is the cause and which is the effect, it is known that sufferers who are able to make corrections to their thinking patterns can show improved mood and self-esteem. Another factor causing depression is one’s early experiences. Events such as the death of a parent, the divorce of the parents, neglect, chronic illness, and severe physical abuse can also increase the likelihood of depression later in life. Some present experiences may also lead to depression. Job loss, financial difficulties, long periods of unemployment, the loss of a spouse or other family member, or other painful events may trigger depression. Long-term stress at home, work, or school can also be involved. It is worth nothing that those living with someone suffering from \depression experience increased anxiety which adds to the possibility of their also becoming depressed. DepressionDepression-causing Problem Description Solution Factors Heredity It is inherited and run in families. Physiology changes or imbalances in Antidepressant drugs chemicals called relieve certain neurotransmitters, which symptoms of

transmit information in the depression. brain Psychological Low self-esteem and Sufferers who make Factors self-defeating thinking are correction to their connected with depression. thinking patterns can show improved mood and self-esteem. Early Experiences Event like the death of a parent, the divorce of parents, neglect, chronic illness, and severe physical abuse can increase the likelihood of depression. Present Experiences Job loss, financial difficulties, long periods of unemployment, the loss of a spouse or other family member, or long-term stress may trigger depression. Living with somebody This causes increased anxiety, with depression which adds to the possibility of their also becoming depressed. VI. Further Listening and Speaking Task1: Reason and Emotion Emotion is sometimes regarded as the opposite of reason; s is suggested by phrase such as” appeal to emotions rather than reason” and “don’t let your emotions take over” Emotional reactions sometimes produce consequences or thoughts which . people may later regret or disagree with; but during an emotional state, they could not control their actions. Thus, it is generally believed that one of the most distinctive facts about human beings is a contradiction between emotion and reason. However, recent empirical studies do not suggest there is a clear distinction between reason and emotion. Indeed, anger or fear can often be thought of as an instinctive response to observed fact. The human mind possesses many possible reactions to the external world. Those reactions can lie on a continuum, with some of them involving the extreme of pure intellectual logic, which is often called “cold”, and others involving the extremes of pure emotion not related to logical agreement, which is called “the heat of passion”. The relation logic and emotion merits careful study. Passion, emotion, or feeling can reinforce an argument, event one based primarily on reason. This is especially true in religion or ideology, which frequently demands an all-or-nothing rejection or acceptance. In such areas of thought, human beings have to adopt a comprehensive view partly backed by empirical argument and partly by feeling and passion. Moreover, several researchers have suggested that typically there is no “pure” decision or thought; that is, no thought is based “purely” on intellectual ” logic or “purely” on emotion—most decisions are founded on a mixture of both. Task 2: Depression Pat: You look depressed. Are you feeling blue? I’ve come to cheer you up. Ted: But there’s nothing that can cheer me up. I’m down in the dumps. Life’ s miserable Pat: You have to try to get your mind off things. Ted: But I can’t. I just feel there’s too much pressure on me sometimes! Pat: You can’t let things get you down. Learn to relax and stop worrying all the time. What’s your problem? Ted: I failed my last exam, and another exam is coming, I get bored. Pat: If I were you, I’d start working hard. If you work hard for a long time, you’re bound to get better grades. You see, “no pain, no gain”.

Ted: It’s easier said than done! If I read for fifteen minutes, I get bored. Pat: You have to learn some self-discipline. But how can I stay cheerful all the time? Ted: Worse than that! If I read for half an hour, I get a headache. Then I start to worry about passing the next exam. Pat: It’s all in your mind. If you stay cheerful like me, everything will soon be OK. Ted: But how can I stay cheerful all the time? Pat: Try to look on the bright side of things. Ted: But what if there isn’t a bright side? Pat: You know the saying: Every cloud has a silver lining. It means there’ re always tow sides to everything—both the dark and the bright sides. So, try to identify your strengths and bring then into full play. Ted: Oh, no! Your corny old sayings are making me even more depressed. Task3: Anger Anger is an emotion that can be hard to control. Despite this, we should learn how to manage anger in a constructive manner. In the most intense moments of anger, we usually have two choices: to fight or to run. Some choose the option of violence, which is a negative reaction to anger; and others choose to run. Some may think running means you are a coward. But the option of walking away and claiming down is the more productive method of handling anger. It is difficult to walk away, especially when your heart is racing, and your anger is boiling over. There are constructive ways of handling anger in any situation. First, you have to stop for a brief moment and think before you act. Take that moment and calm down id you feel yourself being pushed. At that moment you should admit you are angry. If you refuse to admit you’ re angry or hurt, or if you make it appear that everything is peaches and cream, you are not managing angry in a productive way. You should first admit you are angry and let your feelings out before you blow up. Foe example, you can stay in a quiet place by yourself and shout; or you can talk to a close friend to vent your rage. If you do not acknowledge your anger, it only builds up inside you and will eventually explode like a volcano Then, in order to manage your angry, you can ask yourself an important question that we all must ask ourselves, “What made me angry?” When you get the answer, and then ask yourself, “Why did that made me angry?” Through such logical reasoning, one tends to calm down and move toward a sensible solution. Report News Report U.S. Roller Coaster Script The world’s first 4D roller coaster, “X”, took on its first passengers last week at the Six Flags Magic Mountain theme park, just outside Los Angeles. After climbing on board and properly securing their safety harnesses, “X” riders are first to a height of over 66meters. At the top, the passenger train is released and builds up enough speed to race and plummet around the track at speeds of over 130km an hour. The rider takes the daring passengers down an incredible 66m dive and over the top of a 62m loop, in cars that spin independently of the roller coaster train. This unique design allows riders to spin360degree, both forwards and backwards, through the entire ride. Passengers hurtle through this ride often moving in many different directions at the same time ad the cars somersault back and forth and the roller coaster twists, loops, and dives. The complicated series of maneuvers includes two raven turn, one front flip, one twisting front flip, and two back flips. Since passengers aren’t always facing the right direction to see what’s coming

up next, the element of surprise is high. For “X” riders, this adds to the thrill of the ride. The track of this newest roller coaster runs a total length of a little over1, 100meters. The passenger trains measure 6meters wide and 21meters long, large enough to carry 28 passengers at a time. At full capacity, the trains can take 1,600passengers for the ride of their lives each hour. The entire ride lasts for only a total about 2minutes, but you can tell from the exhilarated faces of passengers returning to the boarding dock that they were two of the most thrilling minutes of heir lives. Uint2 III. Listening In Task 1: A Friendly Stylist Stylist: Morning, sir. This chair, please. What can I do for you? Nick: A simple haircut: short on the back and sides. Stylist: Very good. I can, of course, do something fashionable for only $60. Nick: 60 dollars! That’s highway robbery—twice what I ordinarily pay. Stylist: Perhaps, sir. But your haircuts haven’t been in harmony with your character. Your hair is at war with your soul. Nick: I’ve never heard of such a thing. Stylist: If I may say, I’m an expert at matching hairstyle to personalities. Believe me; you’re suffering a “disjunction”. Nick: A disjunction? What the devil is a disjunction? Stylist: Your hair does not match you. Nick: This is utter nonsense. However, I’d like to hear how you’d solve this so-called problem. Stylist: Your character is artistic, imaginative. But your hair is dull. I can correct that imbalance in seconds. Nick: Okay, let me see what can you do about the…uh…disjunction, as you call it. Stylist: We’re going to use scissors to create peaks, which we’ll keep in place with a liberal helping of gel….This tuft in the back we’ll braid into a pigtail. Now, it’s the new you! Nick: I love it. It’s just like me: imaginative and artistic. Now what are you doing? What’s wrong? Don’t you see harmony in my new hairstyle? Stylist: Something’s preventing your hairstyle from being a true fashionable statement. Nick: For heaven’s sake, tell me what’s missing. Stylist: Streaks. By putting in a few yellow streaks in your hair, it will become a work of art. Streaking will cost you more, but… Nick: Do it. Forget the cost. But, by the way, what is the total getting to be? How much am I paying to avoid disjunction? Stylist: That’s…$135. Sir? Sir, are you all right? Oh, he fainted. Task 2: The Voice Lift After the face-lift, the forehead tightened, and the (S1) nose job, something still might be revealing your age: your (S2) voice. For patients who think their trembly, hoarse words don’t (S3) match their newly face and figure, there’s a procedure that claims to make them (S4) sound younger too: the voice lift. There are two general kinds of voice lifts. In some cases, implants (S5) inserted through an incision in the (S6) neck bring the vocal cords closer together. Doctors also use injections of (S7) fat or other substances to plump up the cords, so that the voice sounds younger. (S8) The voice lift is becoming more widely known among an aging population, who try to make themselves sound younger. “I speak in a great deal, or I was shouting, on a particular day, at the end of the day, I would feel exhausted,” said Robert Brown, 75, (S9) a retired

construction engineer who underwent the voice lift several years ago, “I don’ t know if I sound younger, but the hoarseness is gone, which is such a great improvement.” (S10) Voice lift can also benefit people like performers, lawyers, teachers, and telephone operators who need to have a strong voice and hope to shave years off the sound of their voice. Task3: A View of Happiness Men are turning to plastic surgery and cosmetic procedures to brighten up their appearances at a faster rate than women, according to a survey released on Wednesday. Men’s use of fat injections to soften deep wrinkles leaped 47 percent last year from the previous year. Women’s use of the injections fell 36 percent, according to a survey by the American Academy of Facial and Plastic Reconstructive Surgeons. Men’s use of botox injections to eliminate frown lines rose 88 percent, while women’s botox use fell 8 percent. And for smoothing skin, the use of laser resurfacing among men rose 13percent, the survey showed. Meanwhile, women’ use of laser resurfacing dropped 38 percent s during the same time period. The number of men getting nose jobs rose 47 percent, while the number of women doing so rose 5 percent. Typically, men and women visiting plastic surgeons for cosmetic reasons were age 40 to 59. The study said 44 percent of men and 57 percent of women tell their doctor that looking younger is the reason they are choosing cosmetic surgery. By about 18 percent, men are more likely than women to say they want facial cosmetic surgery for work-related reasons. The study was conducted by written questionnaires from January 20 to March 3 among more than 2,600 members of the association, who focus on treatment of the face, head, and neck. By comparison, in the previous year, women’s use of botox rose 60 percent while men’s fell 14 percent; women’s use of laser resurfacing rose 13 percent while men’s fell 19 percent; women’s use of fat injections fell17 percent and men’ s fell 54 percent. Let’ V. Let’s Talk Greetings, ladies and gentlemen. I hope you’ll find it interesting how to be fashionable without spending too much money. Sure, some famous stars always look stylish. They have unlimited clothing budgets that put the latest looks at their fingertips! But you can also look amazing without spending lots of money on your wardrobes. Simple try the following suggestions on for size. First, you should make seasonal purchases; that is, you should buy winter coats, leather jackets, bathing suits, ad summer dress at the end of the season. You’ ll get major discounts as you stock up for the next year. If you want clothes to wear right now, you can go to discount stores. They may not be the place to buy an expensive evening dress, but they’re perfect for buying things like T-shirts There is yet another cheap way of you to buy stylish clothes. Many department stores have a store brand. It means they offer current styles but are much cheaper than big-name brands. To save money, an important principle for you to follow is to not buy “outfits”. With the exception of suits, interchangeable piece are more affordable—buying clothing in separate. Wear-with- anything pieces are always a good buy. For example, you can almost always wear a pair of black trousers and a white dress skirt; you can wear them several times a week, paired with different accessories.

If you can’t afford expensive clothes, you can spend money on accessories such as nice shoes and fashionable bags. Such extras make even the simplest outfit look polished. Finally, a great haircut always helps. When you hair looks fabulous, you look more stylish and fashionable. Money-saving Methods Detailed Description seasonal purchases You should buy things at the end of the season. You’ll get major discounts, and you’ll be stocked up for the next year. discount stores They ’ re perfect for buying things like T-shirts. A store brand Stores offer current styles that are much cheaper than big-name brands. Don’t buy outfits Buying separates is much more affordable. Wear-with- anything pieces You can almost always wear a pair of black trousers and a white dress skirt; you can wear them several times a week, paired with different accessories. spend money on accessories Examples are nice shoes and fashionable bags. Such extras make even the simplest outfit look polished a great haircut You look more stylish and fashionable with a nice haircut. VI. Further Listening and Speaking Task1: Beauty Contests and Plastic Surgeries Juliana Borges, who was named “Miss Brazil” early on Tuesday, had plastic surgery four times and underwent 19 smaller operations. She was just one of many competitors who were determined to improve their appearance through surgery. “Plastic surgery make me more beautiful and gave me confidence in myself and the perfect measurement that won me this title,” said the beauty queen in a green dress, who was representing Brazil’s southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul. Borges, 22, had liposuction and had her chin, nose, and ears worked on, as well as, had her breasts enlarged. With the development of plastic surgery, more and more of Brazil’s would-be beauty queen are finding it easier to achieve the ideal measurements. These days, young hopefuls from the Amazon jungle to big cities in Brazil’ south are planning s surgery. A third of the 27 finalists at the beauty contest went under the scalpel after rules were changed in the 1990s.The new rules permit plastic surgery, colored contact lenses, and hair dye at beauty contests. The organizers of the Miss Brazil contest said, “It’s a war out there, and all of the beauty tools that can be used should be used. Other countries like Venezuela paved the way, and Brazil is going to have to use those tools as well if it wants to compete in Miss University beauty contests.” But Brazil’s love for plastic surgery is not limited to beauty contests. Most young women who undergo surgery want to find a better man or a higher-paying job. Task 2: Is it true beauty?

John: There goes Camilla. She looks gorgeous today, doesn’t she? Her skin is as smooth as a baby’s bottom. Her lips are a perfect Cupid’s bow. She must have dozens of admirers. Becky: I wonder what she looks like without all makeup. She must out it with a spoon. It’s like a mask. I don’t understand what men find so attractive about her. John: Do I detect a hint of jealousy? Becky: She has nothing for me to be jealous about. John: I’ll be you believe in those saying like: Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Becky: True beauty comes from within. Natural materials should be enough to bring it out. John: But do you always stick to those rules? When I went past your apartment last night, I saw you in the kitchen with some green substance smeared all your face. Becky: They were cucumbers. They’re natural healers of the skin. Haven’t you heard people say on TV that they soften the skin, wipe out the roughness, and build strength and resilience? John: Yeah, yeah, yeah! They wipe out lines and age signs. Blah, blah, blah! See, I can even recite that advertisement. Becky: You’ve learned a lot, haven’t you? John: Since you can keep your skin so young-looking and maintain your figure so well, you might as well as write a book on beauty secrets. Becky: Don’t pull my leg. Anyway, you’d do well to try the cucumber treatment on yourself. Put some cucumber slice on your head. At least they’ll keep that bald spot from shining so brightly. Task3: Changing Your Hairstyle to Improve Your Appearance If you want to look better, changing your hairstyle can be a simple fix. If you’ re trying to reach a weight-loss goal, a new hairstyle is a quick and easy way to freshen up your looks—and boost your confidence. According to a popular hair stylist, clients often say, “I want to cut my hair, but I should lose weight first.” But that’s not the right sequence; it’s the other way around. You should know what hairstyle will flatter you the most, the style that will show off you particular feature to the best advantage even before you begin to lose weight. For example, many may want to follow a tread and wear long hair. But some may look better with shorter hair if they have a round face. “When it’s too long, it can drag your face down and actually bring attention to the features you don’ t want to emphasize,” says Guy Riggio, a famous hair stylist in Los Angeles. How short is too short? That depends the length of your neck. Riggio says, “The longer the neck, the shorter you can go.” Some top stylists believe that women should stay clear of bangs. Thick bangs may be fashionable at times, but even thin bangs are hard to wear. “They change the shape of your face, making it seem shorter,” says New York hair stylist O’Connor. Instead, you should pull your hair away from your face. It will make your face look longer. Finally, pick a stylist who’s knowledgeable and whose opinion can be trusted. Then have fun with the new style. Report News Report Miss World The Miss World title went to first black African contestant ever in its 51-year history at the Miss World finals in Sun City, South Africa on Friday. Organizers of the pageant said they expected about one billion people to have turned in to watch the beauty queen extravaganza. The event was hosted by American talk show host, Jerry Springer, at a glitzy resort in the heart of South Africa’ s bush country.

[SOUND BITE] The pageant was created in 1951 by a public relations executive for a small leisure and entertainment company. It was initially intended to be only a one-time event, but was continued after the United States began the rival Miss Universe contest in 1952. In more than half a century, there have been only three Miss World winners from Africa, two of them white South Africa and the third from Egypt. Miss World has until now been dominated by winner from Europe, the Americas, and India, the majority of them being Caucasian. The contestants in this pageant are judges in three different categories: beauty, grace, and charm; talent, poise, and personally; and figure and deportment. After the first round of judging, the original group of 92 contestants was pared down to only ten finalists who would go on to compete for the title. The second-runner up in this ten year’s pageant was Miss Scotland, 18-year-old Juliet-Jane Horne. [SOUND BITE] The People’s Republic of China was represented for the first time this year by 18-year-od Bing Li. [SOUND BITE] The title of first runner up went to Miss Aruba, 19-year-old Zerelda Lee. [SOUND BITE] The competition was fierce as each of the ten finalists took her turn in the spotlight in front of a live audience. But out of the 92 contestants, it was Miss Nigeria, 18-year-old Agbani Darego, who took home covered title and the $100,000 prize. [SOUND BITE] Before being crowed, Darego took the victory walk wearing a lime-green, body hugging dress and waved to a cheering crowd. The news of her victory sparked rapturous celebrations all over Nigeria’ biggest s city, Lagos. Uint3 III. Listening In Task 1: Soft answers turn away wrath. Son: Hi, mom, what are we having for dinner tonight? Mom: I haven’t started yet. Why, have you any requires? Son: How about tsunami for a change—I don’t know what is, but I heard some Japanese people using the word on the bus the other day. Sounds like a food. Maybe it’s similar to sushi. Mom: Nonsense. Tsunami comes from Japanese words meaning harbor and wave. If we had a tsunami, it would be the other way around, young man. Son: Why? What is it? Mom: I mean it may swallow you up. A tsunami is an enormous series of very powerful waves. Son: Could you surf on them? That could be cool. Mom: They’re not cool. They are very destructive. When they pound the shore of populated areas, they cause tremendous damage. They destroy everything in their path. Son: What causes them? Mom: I think they are caused by some sort of shock, like an earthquake, volcano, or landside that starts a chain reaction in the ocean. Son: Do the waves get to big that they crush buildings? Mom: Easily. They can be dozens of meters high. They toss cars and houses around as though they were children’s toys. Son: Can you see them coming? Mom: You can see them at quite a distance. But there’s not much you can do. In the open ocean they move at up to 800km per hour, but when it reaches

the shore, the system slows down and the waves get bigger. Son: How big? Mom: They can reach 30 meters. Big enough to finish you off in one gulp. Dominican Task 2: Flooding in Haiti and the Dominican Republic The death too continues to (S1) climb from last week’s flooding in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. The U.S. Agency for International Development (S2) reports that at least1,068 people are dead, 1,600 are (S3) missing, and 25,000 are in need of emergency food and other forms of (S4)assistance. In Dominican Republic, 414 are dead and 274 are missing, all from the town of Jimani. A key(S5) factor in the widespread destruction is the extensive deforestation and the (S6) presence of settlements along the floodplains of rivers. The flooding was driven by intense rainfall. A low-pressure system (S7) originating in Central America brought exceptionally heavy rain and thunderstorms to Haiti and the Dominican Republic from May 18 t o25. (S8) Rainfall exceeded 500 mm (or 19.7 inches) along the border areas of Haiti and the Dominican Republic during that period. At the town of Jimani, Dominican Republic, 250mm (or 10 inches) of rain fell in just 24 hours, causing the Solie River to overflow its banks from May24 to 25.The heavy rainfall resulted in flash flooding and extensive debris flowed over the entire region. Swollen rivers and debris cut off many of the roads traversing the area along the base of the mountains. (S9) This made it difficult for humanitarian relief worker to rescue stranded people and deliver badly. Now people want to know: How often do floods and related landmass movement also caused landsides in a few places. (S10)Analysis of the past date shows that major floods in the Dominican Republic and Haiti are now a near-annual event. Since 1986, twelve lethal events have occurred on the island. Task3: A Blizzard A blizzard is a sever weather condition characterized by low temperatures and strong winds, greater than 15 miles per hour, bearing a great amount of snow. Because the factors for classifying winter storms are complex, there are many different definitions of what a blizzard truly is. But it is generally agreed that in order to be classified as a blizzard, as opposed to merely a winter storm, the weather must meet several conditions. The storm must decrease visibility to a quarter of a mile for three hours running. Include snow or ice as precipitation, and have wind speed of at least 32 miles per hour, which means Force 7 or more on the Wind Scale. Another standard, according to Environment Canada, is that the winter storm must have winds of 40 kilometers per hour or mi=ore, plenty of snow, visibility less than 1 kilometer, a temperature of less than -25 degrees Celsius, and all of these conditions must last for 4 hours or more, before the storm can properly be called a blizzard. When all these conditions continue after snow has stopped falling, the storm is referred t o as a ground blizzard. An extensive form of blizzard is a whiteout, when the downdrafts, together with snowfall, become so sever that it is impossible to distinguish the ground from the air. People caught in a whiteout can quickly become disoriented, losing their sense of up and down as well as their sense of direction. Severe blizzard can also occur along with arctic cyclones. Let’ V. Let’s Talk A natural disaster is the consequence of a hazardous event, occurring when human activities are affected by adverse natural phenomena such as flood, drought, hailstorm, heat wave, forest fore, hurricanes or typhoons, tornado, tsunami, landsides and mudslides, or volcanic eruption. The resulting deaths or property damages depend on the human ability to resist the disasters. Sometimes two seemingly different disasters may be related to each other. For example, an undersea earthquake may result in a tsunami. While there is a long

dry spell in one area, there may be a great flood in another. It is necessary for human beings to understand and combat natural disasters. A drought is a long-lasting weather pattern consisting of dry conditions with very little or no precipitation. During this period, food and water supplies can run low, and other condition, such as famine, can result. Drought can last for several years and are particularly damaging in areas in which the residents depend on agriculture for survival. A flood follows too much rain or water in a location, and could be the result of many different conditions. Floods can be caused by heavy rainfall from a storm, including thunderstorms, rapid melting of a large amounts of snow, or rivers which swell from too much precipitation upstream, causing widespread damage to areas downstream. Another possible cause of a flood is the bursting of man-made dams. Description Adverse natural phenomena such as flood, drought, hailstorm, heat wave, forest fore, Natural disaster hurricanes or typhoons, tornado, tsunami, landsides and mudslides, or volcanic eruption. They are related to each other. An undersea earthquake may result in a tsunami. While Relationship Between Two there is a long dry spell I none Disasters area, there may be a great flood in another. During a drought, food and water supplies can run low, and other condition, such as famine, can result. Drought are particularly damaging in Drought areas in which the residents depend on agriculture for survival. Floods can be caused by long rainfall from a storm, including thunderstorms, rapid melting of a large amounts of snow, or rivers which swell from too much precipitation upstream, causing widespread damage to areas down stream. Another cause of a flood is the bursting of man-made dams.

Flood

VI. Further Listening and Speaking Task1: Description of a Tsunami A strange hissing noise filled the air, said witnesses to the disaster, and that was followed by an ear-shattering roar. Racing toward the shore at speed of 450 kilometers per hour was a vast black wall of water more than 20 meters high. For sunbathers on the beaches and diners at outdoor beachfront cafes there was no escape. Along with fishing boats, automobiles, trams, trains, early-morning shoppers and beach bungalows they were smashed to the ground and swept as far

as two kilometers inland by the force of the tsunami that came after a force 9 earthquake deep under the sea off the coast of Sumatra. Many local residents, including numerous children, rushed onto the beach to pick up fish thrown ashore by the first giant wave. Before they could return to safety, a second powerful wave struck and swept them to their deaths at sea. When the worst of the waters finally retreated back into the ocean, bodies lay everywhere, and many hung from trees. At least 140,000 people died in the flooding around the rim of the Indian Ocean and as far away as Kenya and Somalia. Still missing are more than a thousand people, among then 200 Indonesian fishmen. Hundreds of fishing village in India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand are cut off from supplies of clean water, food and medicines. Relief efforts from across the globe are rushing towards the disaster area. Whether they will be able to prevent further deaths from disease remain to be seen. Task 2: Drought in South Africa South Africa is heading for a disaster in the new year because of a drought. The water level at some dams have dropped below 20% while the ground water table has dropped by as much s 30 meters Emergency measure have been introduced ensure that millions of people have enough water to survive. In rural areas without dams, the government has to send water by truck and sink new, deeper wells to provide drinking water. Tanked water is provided about 3.5 million South Africans. People here normally use barely 30 liters a day, and is impossible to further limit their usage. That is why agricultural use has to be restricted. More than 100,000 farm workers might lose their jobs if it does not rain soon. Water restrictions, which have a negative influence on the agricultural sector in particular, have already been imposed in several districts. Farmers have been forced to stop irrigating their crops to ensure that enough water is available for domestic use. Maize farmers in the eastern parts of the country have almost no hope of planting their crop in time. They need rain within the next two weeks to be able to start planting. Where farmers did sow, the seedlings have been scorched under the sun. An estimated 40,000 head of livestock have died because of the dry spell. Thousands of stock farmers will have to slaughter their livestock on a large scale because there is no grass left. The parts suffering the most were rural areas without dams. If it does not rain, the people there will face a huge crisis. Task3: Brave firemen A fire started on some grassland near a farm in Alberta, Canada. The fire department from the nearby town was called to put the fire out. The fire proved to be more than the small town fire department could handle, so someone suggested that a rural volunteer fire company be called. Since the company was composed entirely of men over65, there was doubt that they would be of assistance. But with no other help available, the farmer called the fire company away. The volunteer fire company’s men arrived in a dilapidated old fire truck. The truck drove straight toward the fire and, instead of stopping in front of the fire, drove right onto the middle of the flames. The volunteer firemen jumped off the truck and started spraying water in all directions. Soon they had put out the center of the fire, breaking the blaze into two easily controllable parts. After an hour of intense fighting, they had extinguished the fire. The farmer was impressed by the brave volunteer firemen and their work. He was so grateful that his farm had been spared that he presented the volunteer company wit ha check for $10,000. A local news reporter asked the volunteer fire captain what the company planned to do with the funds. The fireman looked him right in the eye and said, “That should be obvious. The first thing we’re going to do is to get the brakes fixed on that stupid fire truck.”

News Report Australian Waterspout A big twister struck the Sydney to Hobart yacht race late on Wednesday, nearly knocking out the team highly favored to win, Nicorette. Disaster struck the Swedish maxi yacht off the east coast of Australia, tearing its mainsail and nearly carrying away skipper Ludde Ingvall. When asked about his encounter with the waterspout, Ingvall described the experience as “surreal”. Ingvall, a seasoned sailor, said that he’s seen twisters before but had always managed to avoid them. This one, however, seemed to be following them and they had no choice but to go right through the middle of it. The encounter with the twister forced Nicorette to drop into fifteenth place overnight. Crew member valiantly battled extreme weather while attempting to keep the yacht o course. Skipper Ingvall reported that the team was now in sixth place and making up ground with the use of its backup mainsail. Nicorette managed to get back on track on Thursday, closing the gap on team Illbruck of Germany, the current leader. This footage from video taken aboard the Nicorette shows the terrible conditions they experienced as they struggled to stay in the race. It took real teamwork to get the unlucky yacht back into this position. Even under these harshest of conditions, the Nicorette team managed to work together to make a miraculous recovery. But the team has a history of successful teamwork. Last year, Nicorette achieved the second-fastest line honors victory in the 57-year history of the 630 nautical mile Sydney to Hobart race. The only yacht to surpass Nicorette’s time was the 60-foot Danish Nokia, setting the record of 1day, 19 hours, 48 minutes, and 2 seconds in 1999. Earlier on Thursday, 8 of the 75 entrants dropped out of the race after a night of thunderstorm activity and winds of up to 30 knots. Team Illbruck is the overall winner so far after two legs o the race, but there is still more race to go. Boat are currently en route to Auckland, New Zealand as they begin the third leg of the around the world race. Nicorette still has a chance to finish in one of the top spots despite the incredible obstacle that almost stopped them. Uint4 III. Listening In You’ Task 1: You’re fired! Joan: Come in, come in. Have a seat. Ah…uh…I want you to know this is going to hurt me more than it will hurt you. Carl: Yes, ma’am. But I’m not quite sure what you’re talking about. Joan: You’re fired. That’s what I’m talking about. Carl: I find that surprising, Miss Jackson. After all, I sold twenty-five percent more of our products than any other salesperson. Joan: Look, I’m not here to argue. You’re fired. Understand? s Carl: I understand perfectly. I just wonder what’ going to happen to the contract I’ve been arranging. It would be a shame to lose it; it could mean a lot of our company. And I’m the only one who knows the details. Joan: No one is indispensable. Just clear out your desk, and that’s the end of it. Do I make myself clear, Mr. Westlake? Carl: Crystal clear—apart from one small detail. Joan: And what, pray tell, is that detail? Carl: I’m not Mr. Westlake. I’m Carl Smith. Joan: Well then, that’s a different kettle of fish, Mr. Smith. I know you’ ve bee n working late almost every night and coming in on Saturdays to

get work done. The company is very happy with your progress. Carl: That’s good to know. I was beginning to think that I wasn’t appreciated. Joan: You’re doing well. We have approved your first salary increase. Carl: That’s great! Thank you! I’ll certainly try to live up to the trust you have demonstrated in me with this raise in pay. Task 2: SOHO The modern concept of small office and home office, or small and home office, often (S1) shorted to SOHO, is concerned with business that employ from one to ten workers. Also (S2) known as a virtual business, the SOHO has not evolved beyond the idea of an (S3) independent business person who has a few support stall members. Business (S4) enterprises that are large are often called Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Before the19th century and the (S5) spread of the industrial revolution around the globe, (S6) nearly all offices were small offices or home offices, with only a few exceptions. Most businesses were small, and (S7) so was the amount of paperwork that went with their business activities. At the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st, the term “Small or Home Office” and (S8) the acronym SOHO have been used t to great extent by companies that sell products to large number of small business with a small-sized office. Some products are often designed specifically for the SOHO market. (S9) Many books are written and sold specifically for this type of office to tell people how to equip a small office. Nowadays many consultants, lawyers, and real estate agents in small and mediumsized towns operate from such home offices. (S10) In the field of software development, engineers often have to work 20 hours or more at a stretch, so they can hardly adapt to normal office hours. They often work in small offices to have more freedom. Task3: The Role of Job Descriptions People who don’t understand what their employers expect them to do may be headed for one of the most common and yet most avoidable career traps. If your boss doesn’t take the time to explain properly what you are expected to do in your position. Then keep asking questions until you know precisely what it is. Don’ t limit your questions to matter of everyday routine. Lee Colby, a management consultant based in Minneapolis, offers his advice. He says you can ask more significant questions like, “What are our departmwnt’s goals? How does my work fit in with the overall objective of the company?” That method helped Lisa James, an assistant manager at an electronics company. When James was transferred to a new department seven years ago, she found herself not only working for the manager of quality control, but assisting three other managers. Because the job was both demanding and ill-defined, James had to put in ten-hour days as well as take work home. To clarify what was expected of her and what she hoped to get from her job in terms of career department, she drafted a list of goals in collaboration with her principal boss. The list proved so well though out that her boss used it as the basis for her annual performance reviews. Shortly afterwards, she was given a raise for her efficient work. If your boss is vague about what your goals should be, try this technique suggested by Atkin Simon, director of a Boston-based management-consulting firm: Read your position description, which most large firms provide, and identify the two or three most important tasks it mentions. Then meet with your boss, point out the tasks you’ve chosen and ask if they accurately reflect what your boss considers important. Let’ V. Let’s Talk Lillian: Mr. Baxter, you have worked in the company for five years, and you manage everything here smoothly, like a clock. Could you tell us the secret of your

successful career? Baxter: Just as the golden rule of real estate is location, location, location, the golden rule of work is relationships, relationships, relationships. Unfortunately, many workers focus so hard on the job at hand that they never develop useful relationships with people in other parts of their organization. Worse, when they do interact with colleagues in other departments, they may not treat then with respect. Lillian: Could you give more details? Baxter: Let’s take Wendy as an example. She switched jobs several months ago in the company. In her first position, as a marketing manager, she frequently found herself in conflict with the financial department over her staff’ expenses. s Her argument for more funds usually ended in vain. Then in her new job as training administrator, she wanted to launch an on-the-job training project. She needed the financial department to support her request for a budget. How did she convince them this time? Although the financial department’s offices were located in another city, Wendy decided to visit them in their offices and try to establish closer relationships. She believed she must first of all understand their mission and their own training needs. Then she found an ally in the company’s chief financial officer, who saw how her group could help develop his staff. So the two forged a long-tern=m alliance, which led to a training program so successful that it has since been picked up by the company’s offices in Germany and Japan. Winning allies throughout your organization has an additional benefit. These days, it’s far too risky to expect your work to speak for itself. Having allies who speak well of you increases your reputation with the top management. Positive Statements Negative Statements The golden rule of work is Many workers never develop relationships. useful relationships with people in other parts of their organization. Worse, they may not treat then with respect. Wendy frequently found herself in conflict with the financial department over her staff’s expenses. Her argument for more funds usually ended in vain. She and the company’s chief financial officer forged a long-term alliance, which led to a training program so successful that it has since been picked up by the company’ s offices in Germany and Japan. Having allies who speak well of you increases your reputation with the top management. VI. Further Listening and Speaking become Task1: A small misstep can become a big career trap. George Adams, a market researcher at a Midwestern firm, finally printed his marketing report. After months of research, hundreds of surveys, and several boring drafts, his report was complete, and just in time. He was going away for the weekend, and he wanted to relax knowing his report was a success. He carefully proofread his document and then delivered copies to all the executives on his distribution list. When he returned to his desk, he discovered his boss, the department manager,

was livid. At first he did not realize he had accidentally gone over his head. Anyway, she had given him the contribution list in the first place. So he thought he was just following orders. But the boss was furious that she hadn’t seen the final document. The boss asked Adams to get back the copies, but it was too late. When Adams got to the CEO’s office, he was already reading the report. Adams had felt friction with his boss before. She was overbearing and tended to find fault with his work after he’d broken his back to meet deadlines. In this instance, however, he realized he had made a serious error. His boss was extremely upset, for his mistake made her look as though she wasn’t in control of her department. From the boss’s point of view, Adams was usurping her authority. The result was simple and natural: Adams left his job soon afterward. Adams’s story illustrates a fundamental truth about the workplace: small, seemingly innocent missteps can sometimes become a big career trap. angry! Task 2: The boss is angry! Sam: Tell me: Does this place look like a nursing home? Sally: No. Why? Sam: Do I look like a male nurse? Sally: Not at all. Sam: Then why do my employees act as though this were a nursing home instead of a work place? Sally: You’re obviously upset. What’s wrong? Tell me. Sam: You’re right. I’m upset about a lot of things. Sally: Can you tell me what the problems are? Sam: First of all I’m upset because so many of the staff have been showing up late for work. Sally: It’s true. A lot of people have been coming in late. They probably think you don’t mind. You know there’s a pretty relaxed atmosphere here. Sam: Maybe it’s because I hang out with a lot of them outside the office. Sally: They must see you more as a buddy than a boss. It’s because you’re so friendly. Sam: You’re right. They don’t view me as an authority figure anymore. I’m afraid they don’t respect me as a boss Sally: So what are you going to do about it? Sam: I’m going to change. No more Mr. Nice Guy. I’m going to start cracking the whip. Sally: Sally: When do you want this change to take place? Sam: Starting today, I’m going to lay down the law. From now on, everyone in the company must follow regulations to the latter. Sally: I’ll post a notice as soon as possible. What should it say? Sam: No more punching in late. No more clocking out early. No more calling in sick without a goof reason or without a doctor’s note. Sally: Anything else? Sam: No more personal phone calls or e-mails on company time! Sally: All right, I’ll get right on it! Three Task3: Three Envelopes After a high –level firing at Supertech, the top executives gathered for lunch to welcome the new Chief Executive Officer, Carl Martin, and say good-bye to the departing CEO, Dick Jackson. Lunch was pretty well over when Jackson took his replacement aside and said: “Carl, it’s a jungle out there in the business world. If we graduate of Harvard Business School don’t stick up for one anther, who will? Nobody, that’s who.” Jackson explained that a tradition the company’s CEOs had. The departing CEO left three numbered envelopes for the new CEO. He handed Martin three envelopes. “Open one if there’s a problem you can’t solve.”

Things went smoothly for Martin at first, but six months later sales took a downturn, and he was catching a lot of heat. At his wit’s end, he remembered the envelopes. He took from his desk the first envelope. The message read, “Blame your predecessor.” Martin held a press conference and tactfully laid the blame at the feet of the previous CEO. The press—and Wall Street—reacted positively, sales picked up, and the problem was soon behind him. A year later, the company was again experiencing a dip in sales, combined with serious product problems. The CEO opened the second envelope. The message read, “Recognize.” This he did, and the company quickly rebounded. After several consecutive profitable quarters, the company once again fell on difficult times. The CEO went to his office, closed the door and opened the third envelope. The meager read, “Prepare three envelopes.” News Report A Wearable Translator The inability to communicate in a foreign language is a problem that many international travelers face. But now, a Minnesota company is developing a system that would make this a problem of the past. Minneapolis-based Via is the company behind the “Mobile Language Translation System”, or MLTS. But they are not the only company trying to develop real-time computer translation. IBM is promoting a new high-speed text translation system, and NEC is working on software that provides rapid voice translations from English to Japanese and vice versa. But Via CEO Ed McConaghay says that the biggest difficulty in developing MLTS hs been to combine existing technology with bidirectional capability and portable packaging. [SOUND BITE] A translator demonstrates just how MLTS works. The translations take about five seconds and are not always perfect. However, the text translation on the screen can help users get the general idea of a conversation. [SOUND BITE] In the future, MLTS may be able to assist military personnel in communicating with foreign language speakers in the field. This system may also be of help to border patrol officers, airport personnel, and local law enforcement. Eventually, though, the device will be available to travelers or anyone in the general public who would like to communicate with a foreign friend. Uint5 III. Listening In Task 1: How to Avoid Bankruptcy Manager: Adam! Have you any suggestions about how we can avoid bankruptcy? Adam: Downsizing would certainly reduce our operating costs. You know, make us lean and mean, the way you have to be in today’s market. Manager: Where do you suggest we start making these staff cuts? The logical place to start would be in administration. They usually Adam: overstaffed. Manager: That’s not going to go over very well with our employees. Some of them have been with the company for years. Adam: It’s painful process, but there’s no choice. They’ll just have to get used to the idea. Manager: We can give them a fairly decent severance package when they’re fired. I know. And I think that if we computerize the office, we could reduce Adam: office staff by about 20 percent just by eliminating a lot of paperwork. Manager: OK. If we lay off 20 percent of the administrative staff, will that

be enough to get the company back on its feet? Adam: Unfortunately not. We’ll also need to make some cuts in the service department. Manager: How can we do that and maintain the level of service that we offer our passengers? Well, we’ll have to retrain the service staff and streamline our Adam: operations, so we won’t need as many people to run things smoothly. Manager: Well, this is serious, but I really don’t think we have any other choice. If we keep losing money like this, we’ll have to shut everything down. HardTask 2: A Hard-nosed Boss Mr. Stone was known far and wide as a hard-nosed boss who (S1) watched his employees like a hawk. He was making one of his regular tours of the factory (S2) when he spotted a young man leaning against a (S3) pile of boxes just outside the foreman’s office. Since George, the foreman, wasn’t around. Stone stood off to the side and watched to see just how ling the young men would stand (S4) around doing nothing. The young man yawned, scratched his head, looked at his watch, and sat on the floor. After ten minutes or so he yawned again and (S5) leaned back on the pile of boxes. Stone stepped from his (S6) hiding place and walked up to the young man. “You!” he yelled, “How much do you make a week?” The young man looked up (S7) indifferently. “Two hundred and fifty dollars,” He said. (S8) Stone rushed into the cashier’s office, took$250 from the cash box, and returned. “Take it,” he said, “and get out! Don’t let me see you around here again!” The young man took the cash, put it in his pocket, and left. (S9) Seeing the young man showed no sign of embarrassment, Stone got furious. Then he went looking for George. When he found him, Stone was red with anger. “That lazy boy in front of your office,” Stone said, “I just gave him a week’s pay and fired him. What’s the matter with you, letting him stand around as though he has nothing to do?” “You mean the kid in the red shirt?” George asked. “Yes! The kid in the red shirt!” George said, “(S10) He was waiting for the 20 dollars we owe him for lunch. He works for the coffee shop around the corner.” Task3: Layoffs can be predicted. In some cases companies inform their employees in advance that layoffs are coming. In other cases, they come without warning: You arrive on time for work on a Friday, but you are told not to come next week. Ouch! In either case, you may be able to sense some bad signs in advance. Maybe the company has tried very hard to avoid layoffs; maybe it has been preparing for the worst for quite some time. If you think about the bad omens carefully, you might know as much or more than some of the employees in managerial positions with management responsibilities. For example, if you work in sales, you might know that quotas have not been met. If you work in field engineering, you might notice far fewer customer installations. If your company’s competitors, suppliers or customers are laying off employees, it ’ s likely your company will too, especially if economic conditions are affecting your industry. Check the layoff statistics from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Search the Net and your local newspaper too for articles concerning layoffs in your industry. Do things like bad sales always mean that layoffs are coming to your company? Not necessarily. Companies have seasonal and economic sales dips all the time, and are always looking for ways to improve their performance. So, if you see only one or two bad signs, don’t jump to a hasty conclusion. But if you see

more, especially along the lines of earnings warnings, budget cuts, hiring freezes, restructuring, and massive layoffs in your industry, it might just be time to get your resume up to date and start looking for a new job. Also, it might e a good idea to cancel your vacation, implement money-saving measures, and become more useful on your job. You should prepare in advance if you think you might get the axe soon. Let’ V. Let’s Talk Kathy: Well, now that everybody I here, let’s call the meeting to order. Today we have to discuss the operation of our software development department. We’re all aware that nowadays market competition is becoming more intense than ever before. If we want to keep our competitive edge, the only way is to offer excellent and considerate service to our customer and, at the same time, lower our prices. So, what I’m thinking is, maybe we could outsource the software side of out business to another company. But what impact will it have on our engineers? It’s a big problem. Mm, I’d be interested to know your thoughts, Warton. Warton: I totally agree with you. Kathy: Could you go into more detail about your opinion? Warton: I think that outsourcing this part of our operation to another company certainly makes a lot sense. Our software engineers ate getting a bit too old, and their technology is a bit out of date. Worse still, their salaries are quite high. Many professional software-designing companies are offering better products at lower rates. With outsourcing, we can give some of the engineers the sack. Jennifer: Sorry to interrupt you. Coming from the PR department, I look at this issue from a different perspective. I think we should consider all sides of this issue before we make a decision. Kathy: Jennifer, I’d be interested t o knot your view too. Jennifer: I think as a large company we should consider not only customers and prices, but also our employees. Our workers have contributed a lot to our company. Some of them even started working here when our company opened. I hope we can find a solution that won’t require us t o lay off our loyal and trust employees. Kathy: I’m very much impressed by what you said. We’d better give this issue more careful consideration. Maybe we could outsource the software side of out Kathy business to another company. But what impact will it have on our engineers? Our software engineers ate getting a bit too old, and their technology is a bit out of date. Worse still, their salaries are quite high. Many professional Warton software-designing companies are offering better products at lower rates. With outsourcing, we can give some of the engineers the sack. Jennifer: Our workers have contributed a lot to our company. Some of them even started working here when our company opened. I hope we can find a solution that won’t require us t o lay off our loyal and trust employees. We’d better give this issue more careful consideration.

Kathy

VI. Further Listening and Speaking Task1: Problems of Joblessness Joblessness can lead to a series of problem, and it is not easy to solve them. First of all, being without a job often means lacking social contract wit h fellow employees, and lacking a purpose for many hours of the day,. Also, it obviously affects your ability to pay bills and t o purchase the necessities of life, Lack of this ability is especially serious for those wit family obligations, debts, or medical costs, and it is especially true id in a country like the United States, where the availability of medical insurance is often linked to holding a job. Some maintain that jobless people can rely on unemployment insurance, but this is no true. Unemployment insurance in the U.S. typically does not even replace50 percent of the income one received on the job, and one cannot receive it forever. Therefore, the unemployed often end up aping welfare programs such as Food Stamps —or accumulating debt: both formal debt to banks and informal debt to friends and relatives. Some hold that low-income jobs provide solution to joblessness, but this is not true. Since it is difficult or impossible to get unemployment insurance benefits without having worked in the past, job-seekers have to accept low-income jobs. Thus, unemployment insurance keeps a ready supply of low-paid workers. To make things worse, many employers take advantage of this. When they resort to such management techniques as low wages and benefits, as well ad few chances for advancement, they bear the unemployment insurance option in mind. Under increasing unemployment pressure, jobless people suffer from a variety of financial, psychological and social problems. Increase unemployment encourages bad health and raises both crime and suicide rates. Task 2: Before the cutback Barbara: I’ve really got to think about my future. You’ve heard of the cutbacks the management’s making, right? Oh, yes. I’ve heard it. But you haven’t anything to be concerned about. Alan: Barbara: Around here you never know from one day to the next whether you can keep your job .Alan: Come on, they won’t let you go. You’ve been for so long. Besides, you’ Alan: re good at your job. Barbara: That might be, but I feel that I’ve reached the glass ceiling in this company. Alan: Glass ceiling? What do you mean by that? Barbara: I’ve been working here for ten years. I haven’t gotten a promotion in three years. I thought I should be Vice President by now. If I were a man, I’m sure I would be Vice President. There’s no official company policy, but it’s true that they don’ Alan: t promote women to management positions here. Barbara: I can see the writing on the wall. I think it’s time to change job, and maybe even careers, if I want to get ahead. Change career? That’s a big jump. If you change careers, what will Alan: you do? Barbara: I’m doing market research here, but I studies public relations in college. I’d like to do PR for a large multinational company. Alan: That sounds exciting, and the pay would be better, too. Yeah, if I would keep an eye on the job positing on the Internet. Barbara: Sooner or later something good is bound to turn up in the job market. Task3: Career Transitions In July of 2001, my husband, a professional in the information technology consulting industry, lost his job. Despite my experience as a career counselor who had counseled hundreds of people about career changes, when the bad news finally arrived, we were both caught unprepared. Unprepared to tell our children,

unprepared for the mix of emotions and most dramatically, unprepared for the sudden loss of routine in our lives. The reality was that thought we both knew well how to find jobs, we had never been in this awkward unemployment situation together before. I remember watching my husband sitting in our office as he patted his forehead and muttered to himself, “ Now what am I supposed to do?” Being laid-off created a whole new set of questions and challenge. We turned to the bookstore for assistance and found lots of books about job search, but not a single book on the day-to-day challenges you face when you get laid-off. Over time we learned what to do. We discovered terrific resources, identified shortcuts, and learned from others going through the same process. I spoke with my colleagues and clients and collected their best tips. Before we knew it, we had gathered enough interesting material for a book on career transitions – the book we needed but couldn’t find last July Now we want to share this goldmine of information with you. News Report U.S. Ford Plants to Be Closed Ford Motor Company has announced plans to close plants ns cut more than 35,000 jobs as part of massive restricting [SOUND BITE] The announcement didn’t seem to come as a surprise to many Ford employees. .[SOUND BITE] Ford Chief Executive, Bill Ford, Jr., called the cuts painful, but necessary to rescue the world’s number two carmaker from going under. The planned cuts include22, 000 jobs in the U.S. and Canada. Certain U.S. models, such as the Cougar, Escort, Villager, and Lincoln Continental will be discontinued due to plant closings. Ford, Jr. said he would receive no salary until the company recovered. [SOUND BITE] Ford’s recent financial troubles reflect a complete turnaround from last year, when the company reported a profit of more than $6 billion for the year2000. The company was hit hard in 2001, when they spent $3 billion during a safety recall. When news of the plant closings and job cuts the workers, many reacted with emotion. [SOUND BITE] Chairman Ford, Jr. says that recovery will be based on getting back to basics in product development and on improving quality and productivity. Uint6 III. Listening In Task 1: David Copperfield is coming. My brother is going to pick up some tickers for the David Copperfield W: show. You interested in coming with us? I don’t know. I’ve been card tricks before, and rabbits from hats. I M: even do tricks myself—watch me change this coin into an ice cream cone. Very funny. David Copperfield is the world’s greatest magician; he’ W: s certainly worth a look. Actually, I have seen him on television. He pulls off some pretty amazing M: stunts. I wish I knew how he performed his tricks. Then I could also make a person float in the air. I could pull a rabbit out of my hat. I could escape from a straitjacket and handcuffs—all underwater. And I could saw a woman in half. A magician never tells his secrets. David attempts the impossible and W: no one has any idea how he does it. I saw him on TV when he walked through the Great Wall of China. How could he do that? M: I have no idea, but I know what I saw: He entered a canvas shelter on W:

one side of the wall, and he came out of a canvas shelter on the other side. yes, bur was he always in full view of the camera, or did they cut to M: a commercial or something else? Not only was the camera running all the time, but he was hooked up a W: heart monitor, and you could track his progress as he moved through the wall. It’s difficult to know what to believe. I know it’s not possible for M: him to do that, but… It sounds to me like it’s a show worth watching. W: Count me in. Instead of an ice cream cone, I’ll turn my money into a M: ticket. Task 2: Is it really bad luck? Are you worried because you have just broken a mirror? Some people believe that breaking a mirror is a (S1) terrible thing to do. They say it will bring you seven years of (S2) misfortune. The reason behind this belief stems the old idea that a person’s soul is in their (S3) reflection, so that if you smash your mirror, you soul will be (S4) damaged too, dooming you do an early death, and not giving you entry to (S5) heaven. Is there any way to reverse this bad luck? Yes—if you very carefully (S6) pick up all the broken pieces of the mirror and throw them into a river or stream, then the bad luck will be”(S7) washed away”.. Of all number, 13 is the most associated with bad luck. (S8) Some people claim that the number is bad luck because thirteen people sat down for the Last Supper before Jesus was crucified, and with this in mind few hosts will serve dinner with thirteen at the table. And according to an ancient Norwegian tale, twelve gods had gathered for a feast when a thirteenth, Loke, entered. After the meal, Loke killed Balder, who was the most beloved of all the gods. (S9) Friday the thirteenth of any month is considered especially bad or unlucky, and Friday the thirteenth of March is the worst of the all. The number seven also has some superstition connected to it. It is said that God created the world in seven days, and any association with the number is luck. The seventh son of the seventh son is said to be the luckiest of men, and (S10) When people talk about the “seven-year itch” they mean that every seven years a person undergoes a complete change in personality. Task3: The Status on Easter Island One of the greatest mysteries on Earth is the statues on Easter Island. The island is one of the most remote places on Earth, located in the southern Pacific Ocean. It was almost uninhabited when it was discovered on Easter Day in 1722 by a Dutch captain, but it is covered with hundreds of giant statues, each weighing several tons and some standing more than 30 feet tall. Who carved these statures, and how and why were they put there? Nobody knows the answer for sure, but many ate trying to find out. There are many theories to explain this mystery. It has even been suggested the space aliens may have played a role regarding these giant statues. Another theory relates to the fact that Easter Island was inhabited by Polynesian seafarers, who traveled thousand of miles in their canoes, guided by the stars, the color of sky and the sun , the shapes of clouds, and the presence of birds making flights out to sea seeking food. The Polynesians first arrived on the island in 499A.D.However, the ocean currents which carried them there would mot take them back. They were trapped and, having arrived there, could not leave. The Polynesians probable cared the statues themselves, perhaps as religious symbols. To date, 887 statues have been discovered on the island. However, only a few statues were carried intended destination. The rest were abandoned along the way. The statues appear to have been carved out of the top edge of walls of a volcano

on the island. After a statue was carved, it may have been rolled or dragged down to the base of the volcano. Then it was put upright, and ropes were tied around it. Using a pulley system, the statue was moves to its intended destination. At its peak, the population of Eater Island is believed to have reached 11,000. Eventually, the resources of the island were exhausted, and the people resorted to cannibalism, eating one another. Work on the statues stopped and the statues were knocked over. When the first Europeans finally arrived on the island, most of the people lad died out. Now Your Turn Let’ V. Let’s Talk Thanks, perhaps, to falling stock markets and unrest in the Middle East, Britons have become even more superstitious than usual, according to a report published today. “There has been a significant increase in superstition over the last month, possible as a result of current economic and political uncertainties,” stated Dr. Dick Armstrong. He launched an Internet Survey of national superstition, and found it to be surprisingly high, even among those with a scientific background. Only more in ten of those surveyed claimed not to be superstitious at all. Three out of four people in Britain feel the need to touch wood, and 65% cross their fingers. It is interesting to note that lucky people were much less superstitious and tended to take constructive action to improve their lives. Conversely, superstitious people tended to regard themselves as among the less lucky, worried about life, had a strong need for control, and could not tolerate ambiguity. The survey also revealed some unexpected beliefs. For example, one respondent could not stay in the bathroom once a toilet had been flushed. There was no evidence that superstitious ever worked, even, when people were instructed to carry lucky charms for a week. They didn’t feel any luckier or more stratified with their lives at the end of that week than when they started. Armstrong attempted to explain this phenomenon: “When students are preparing for exams with a lucky charm, they may trust the charm, rather than doing some extra revision.” Thanks, perhaps, to falling stock markets and Reasons foe unrest in the Middle East, Britons have become More Superstitions even more superstitious than usual Lucky people were much less superstitious and tended to take constructive action to improve their lives. Conversely, superstitious people Who are more tended to regard themselves as among the less superstitious? lucky There was no evidence that superstitious ever worked, even, when people were instructed to carry lucky charms for a week. They didn’t feel Do superstitions any luckier or more stratified work? When students are preparing for exams with a Explanation lucky charm, they may trust the charm, rather than doing some extra revision. VI. Further Listening and Speaking Task1: Horseshoes as a Sign of Good Luck Horseshoes are a traditional sign of good luck. Most people believe this comes from the fact that the horseshoe is shaped like the crescent moon, a period of prosperity and good fortune. One legend has it that the Devil was in disguise and wandering at large, looking for trouble. He happened to call on St. Dunstan, who ea skilled in shoeing horses. St. Dunstan recognized the Devil and tied him to a wall with only his feet free to move. He then set to work shoeing him as

though he were a horse, but with such roughness the Devil cried out for mercy. St. Dunstan stopped his work and released the Devil after making him promise never to enter a home on which a horseshoe was fixed. Witches fear horses, so they are also turned away by a door with a horseshoe mounted on it. The big issue regarding horseshoes is whether they should be hung points up or points down. The original superstition was that the horseshoe is points up to keep the luck from pouring out. Despite this view most buildings with horseshoes in their sign hang them the opposite way. The Horseshoe Casino in Las Vegas hangs its horseshoe with the arc on top. They may be hoping their customers’ luck runs out, but this is usually not something you advertise in your sign. Finger rings made of horseshoe nail are said to keep away bad luck. Also, robbing two horseshoes together is said to bring good luck. Task 2: Superstitions or real bad lucks? Joan: Pass me that mirror, would you? I’ll see if my makeup is OK. Dick: OOOPS!! Sorry I dropped it…but is it you or me that gets the seven years of bad luck? Joan: You, I hope, but probable neither of us. I wonder where that “old wives’ tale” originated anyway. Dick: There used to be a lot of superstitions: black cats, ladders, numbers. My parent and grandparents are full of them. Joan: I agree. People today are much more educated than before. These superstitions are just amusing pieced of history rather than beliefs, don’ t you think so? Dick: Perhaps, but some people today still go for them. People whose livelihoods depend more on luck—like professional athletes, or fishermen—often they have superstitious routines. Joan: It’s rue. I have heard of athletes who wear lucky socks or a treasured medal to bring them good fortune. Dick: And let’s not forget lucky numbers. We all know about the number4,6, and 8 in China. Joan: I know 4 is death and 8 is wealth, but what is the significance of 6? Dick: 6 means good luck. Some people include 6 in their e-mail address just for luck. Joan: Maybe we are not as smart as we think we are. Dick: Well, there are many things in the universe that we cannot control, and that’s why people are superstitious. Task3: Career Transitions There was a king in Africa who has a close friend that he grew up with. The friend has a habit of looking at every situation in his life and saying, “This is good!” One day the king and his friend were out hunting. The friend would load and prepare the guns for the king. The friend had apparently done something wrong in preparing one of the guns, for after taking the gun from his friend, the king fired it and his thumb was blown off. Examining the situation, the friend remarked as usual, “This is good!” to which the king replied, “No, this is NOT good!” and proceeded to send his friend to jail. About a year later, the king was hunting in an area that he should have known to stay clear of. Cannibals captured him and took him to their village. They tied him to a stake surrounded by wood. As they came near to set fire to the wood, they noticed that the king had but one thumb. Being superstitious, they never ate anyone that was less than whole. So they set the king free. As he returned home, he was reminded of the event that had taken his thumb off and felt badly sorry about his treatment of his friend. He went immediately to the jail to speak with his friend. “You were right,” he said, “it was good for my thumb was blown off.” Then he apologized, “I’m very sorry for sending you to jail for so long. It was bad for me to do this.” “No,” his friend replied, “this is good!”

“What do you mean, ‘this is good’? How could it be good that I sent you, my good friend, to jail for all this time?” “If I had not been in jail, I would have been with you—and eaten.!” News Report Egyptian Tombs Archaeologist have uncovered two tombs that date back more than 2,500 years in the part of Cairo where the ancient city of Heliopolis once stood, according to Egyptian antiquity authorities. Although there is a modern suburb of Heliopolis in Cairo southeast of its ancient namesake, the original Heliopolis was known as a center of learning and academic study in ancient Mediterranean times. The 26-century-old tombs that date back to the years 664 to 625 BC were developed during a routine archaeological inspection of an empty plot of land in the Eins Shams district of northwestern Cairo. This district covers part of the ground that used to be the ancient city of Heliopolis. The owner of the land was seeking construction rights and by law, construction cannot begin without a permit certifying that the site has no historical significance. The first of the two limestone tombs to be opened contained a sarcophagus and sixteen statuettes, said the chief state archaeologist for the Cairo-Giza area, Zahi Hawass. Hawass said in a statement that the tombs were found in a downtown residential area, three meters below the ground. [SOUND BITE] Hawass went on to give a more detailed account of the important find. [SOUND BITE] It appears that the tombs have not been raided by grave robbers, but they have been damaged by leaking sewage water. The first tomb to be uncovered belonged to a builder named Waja-Hur. His name was engraved on the statuettes, which the ancient Egyptians placed in tombs to answer questions for them in the afterlife. Te process of recovering these artifacts can be long and tedious, but the historical significance of these pieces makes the painstaking work worthwhile. [SOUND BITE] Egyptian archaeologists plan to open the second tomb on Sunday. Uint7 III. Listening In I’ Task 1: I’m doing a lot of things on the computer! Barbara: Jack, you’re sitting in front of your computer again! The sea and the sand are only steps only away. Why are you wasting these beautiful holidays? The summer will be over before you know it. I’m not wasting the holidays as you say. The computer is a good thing. Jack: On the Internet you can go to any part of the world; I can see everything in the world. It’s more real than reality. Barbara: But…but you can’t spend your entire summer watching that screen. You’ ll get a big bottom. I’m not just watching the screen. I’m doing a lot of things—I’ Jack: m sending e-mails, I’m learning things, I’m chatting in chat rooms… Barbara: Right! But I’ll bet you’re spending most of your time playing computer games—a time-wasting, mindless activity that I’ll turn your brain into Chinese doufoo. No, it isn ’ t a single mindless pastime. It ’ s many activities: Jack: role-playing games, arcade games, adventure games, strategy games… Barbara: I understand the computer is a wonderful thing, but you have to be careful not to get too much of a good thing. Every life needs some variety in it. It would be a lot healthier if you played a chess game outdoors,

in the park. It wouldn’t be the same. In those games in the park I can’t play against Jack: the grandmaster of Moscow, can I? And there are creative games in the computer, where I can learn city planning and psychology. Barbara: Well, what about me? Don’t you think I’d like a little attention? Now, Baby, that’s no way to talk. After all this time together, you Jack: know I love you. Barbara: I’m not so sure any more. It’s time you made a choice. Is it going to be more me or the computer? Well… Jack: Task 2: A Magician and a Parrot A magician was working on a deluxe cruise ship in the Caribbean. The (S1) audience was different each week, so the magician did the same (S2) tricks over and over again. He felt he could cast a spell over the audience (S3) whenever he wanted to. There was only one problem: The captain’s (S4) parrot watched every show and began to understand what the (S5) magician did in each trick. Once he understood that, he started shouting in the middle of the show. “Look, it’s not the same (S6) hat!” “Look, he’s hiding the flowers under the table!” “Hey, why are all the (S7) cards the Ace of Spades?” (S8) The magician was furious. Each time the parrot revealed one of his secrets, the audience roared with laughter. The performance he intended to be dark and mysterious turned into a comedy. He was in a rage. (S9) He dreamed of various ways he could do away with the troublesome bird. But he didn’t dare to touch it. It was the captain’s parrot after all. One foggy night the ship collided with an enormous iceberg and sank. The magician found himself on a piece of wood, in the middle of the ocean, and the parrot was by his side. (S10) They stared at each other with hate, but did not utter a word. This went on for several days. After a week the parrot finally said, “Okay, I give up. But I hope you’ll tell me what trick you are going to do with the boat.” Task3: The Modern Circus The first modern circus was staged in London in 1768 by Philip Astley, a former English cavalry officer, who performed as a trick ride. Beginning with a visit to Paris in 1772, Astley introduced the circus in cities throughout continental Europe and was responsible for establishing permanent circuses in a number of European countries as well as in England. A circus was first presented in 1793 at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg. By the early 19th century, several permanently-based circuses were located in larger European cities. In addition, small traveling shows moved from town to town in covered wagons in which the performers lived. The traveling shows were usually simple affairs, featuring a fiddler or two, a juggler, a ropedancer, and a few acrobats. In the early circuses such performers gave their shows in open spaces and took up a collection for pay; later, the performers used elaborate shows. In the earlier part of the 19th century a main feature of the permanent circus program was the presentation of grams that included displays of horsemanship. Throughout the 19th century the circus evolved in programming and management. Initially, trained horse and horsemanship performances dominated circuses, but ropedancing, juggling, acrobatic acts, wild-animal acts, and clowning were all introduced within the first few decades. The flying trapeze,

an important part of the modern circus, was not invented until 1858, and the street parade and sideshow did not become standard circus events until later in the 19th century. Tents are believed to have come into use in the 1820s, but it is uncertain whether they appeared first in Europe or in the United States. Nowadays, the entertainment activities offered at a circus are more elaborate, generally consisting of displays of horsemanship, exhibitions by gymnasts, aerialists, wild-animal trainer, performing animals, and comic performance by clowns. Let’ V. Let’s Talk The notion of a weekly rest is ancient. Christian religions celebrate a day of rest known as the Sabbath, also called the Lord’s Day. It is on Sunday. The weekend as a holiday is a rather modern invention. Before the industrial revolution the wage labor force was a small fraction of the population. The day of the Sabbath was viewed as one dedicated to God, not one of relaxation. The early industrial period in Europe saw a six-day work week with only Sunday off, but some workers had no days off at all. Only the workers’ rights movements in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century saw a five-day work week introduced as Saturday became a day of rest and relaxation. This movement began in England. In many ways this has been a great boon to the economy as it leads to a great increase in consumer spending on Saturdays as restaurant visits, motorcar journeys, or trips to the movies became common on Saturday. Many jurisdictions continued to enforce strict Lord’s Day laws on Sunday, which meant that most places of recreation, such as stores and theaters, were forced to close on that day. These regulations began to weaken in the years after the Second World War, and Sunday also became a day of recreation for many. After centuries of development, the weekend is now a part of the week usually lasting two days in which most paid workers do not work. This is a time for leisure and recreation, and for religious activities. Christian religions celebrate a day of rest known as the Sabbath, also called the Lord’s Day. It is on Sunday. Before the industrial revolution the day of the Sabbath was viewed as one dedicated to God, not one of relaxation. The early industrial period in Europe saw a six-day work week with only Sunday off. Only the workers’ rights movements in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century saw a five-day work week introduced as Saturday became a day of rest and relaxation In many ways this has been a great boon to the economy as it leads to a great increase in consumer spending on Saturdays. After the Second World War, and Sunday also became a day of recreation for many. The weekend is now a part of the week usually lasting two days in which most paid workers do not work. This is a time for leisure and recreation, and for religious activities. VI. Further Listening and Speaking Task1: The History of Chinese Acrobatics Welcome to the magnificent world of the Beijing Acrobats! Here the impossible is made of possible, and “ daring ” only begins to describe their amazing performance. The Beijing Acrobats are comprised of the finest acrobatic troupes in China today and have received acclaim from countries around the world. An outgrowth of Great China Circus, popular during the 1920’s, this group became

an integrated professional acrobatic company in 1958. Many of the magnificent and sophisticated feats we see today were performed even in ancient times. The history of Chinese acrobatics is rich in tradition and dates back over 2,000 years. It began with folk arts; tumbling, juggling ordinary household objects and balancing. Myth and religion also influenced the acrobatic performing arts. The Lion Dance is Buddhist in origin. It was a symbol for the spirit of renewal and for avoiding bad luck. Throughout the history of China the acrobatic arts flourished, but in varying degrees. Originally, court entertainments were formal and monotonous, quite the opposite of the lively folk arts of the people. Eventually, however, the excitement of the acrobats’ amazing feats caught and held the attention of the ruling class. Acrobatic performers were routinely invited to the court to entertain and impress the Emperors. These varied acts of tumbling, singing, dancing and juggling became known as “The Hundred Entertainments” in the Han Dynasty, more than 2, 000 years ago. The acrobatic arts have always maintained their popularity with the people. Today the acrobatics of families carry on this highly-acclaimed tradition. Children begin training at a young age to do handstands on a chair, balance jar, spin plates and throw knives; they stick to a strict training schedule which they follow the rest of their lives. Now let’s sit back, relax and enjoy the shows as our performers reveal to you their mastery of an ancient art from, thousands of years in the making! Task 2: Exercise to Relax Wendy: What a day…a walk on the beach, bodysurfing, an hour of pumping iron, followed by a nice long jog. Maybe we can finish off with a little badminton this evening. Howard: Groan. Wendy: So far this week, we’ve played beach volleyball, gone hiking, gone swimming, and ridden mountain bikes. Don’t you feel better in mind and body than when we arrived here? Howard: To tell the truth, I ache all over. My muscles are complaining that they’ re being mistreated. Wendy: Oh, now, admit it: This is the way to get the most out of life. This is how Nature intended us to live. I’ll bet you’d be exercising even if I weren’t here. Howard: Not a chance. Whenever I feel the urge to exercise, I lie and wait for the feeling to pass. I prefer sitting around fishing or resting on a comfortable chair and watching the grass grow or stretching out on the beach while the sun slowly sets. Wendy: You’re a lazy lump. Before long you’ll be fat and weak and short of breath. If you think we had a big workout this week, just wait till next week. We’re going rafting, and after that, I want to go camping and mountain climbing. Howard: Know what you are? You’re fitness freak. You’re hooked on exercise. Wendy: Well, that may be true. But I’ll make a deal with you. If you promise to go camping with me next week, we’ll go to a movie this weekend. Howard: Wonderful. Just what I was waiting to hear. It sounds like a great chance to relax. Maybe someday I can even help you break free from that horrible fitness habit. Wendy: That’ll be the day! Task3: How Americans Use Their Time If you want to know what Americans do when they are not working, well, the average adult spends almost two hours a day on household activities like cooking, cleaning and paying bills. How do we know? The Department of Labor has just released a study of how Americans use their time. The study confirmed something that many people already knew. Women spend more time on child care and housework than men do, even when the women are employed.

Men, however, spend more time at work. Men also spend more time on leisure activities and sports. They average five hours and twenty minutes a day, half an hour more than women. Leisure activities include things like watching television, visiting friends or exercising. Both men and women reported that they spent about half their leisure time watching television. Visiting friends and attending social events was the next most common leisure activity for both sexes. Older Americans spent more of their leisure time watching TV and reading than younger people did. Younger people reported spending more time with friends, using the computer and playing sports. In all, 19 percent of men and 16 percent of women play sports on any given day.. News Report Latest Space Walk from Space Station American astronaut Carl Walz and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Onufrienko took their first space walk outside of an international space station on Monday. Their mission was to move a construction crane and install a radio antenna outside the space station. Walz, Onufrienko, and American astronaut Daniel Bursch first moved into the space station last month. This was their first attempt since then to exit the station. As Bursch monitored from outside, Walz and Onufrienko exited the station 400 km above the Pacific Ocean. Their main task was to move a Russian-built crane from its temporary home on the U.S. side of the space station to a permanent home on the Russian side. Their plan was to use another similar Russian-built crane to help them carry out the job. The goal was for both cranes to eventually be located on the Russian side of the space station, which was launched in September. The job was not an easy one, considering that the crane they were in charge of moving is nearly 15 meters long when fully extended and able to move more than three tons of equipment when in use. The two men worked together to maneuver the two large cranes into the correct positions. The complicated job took several hours to complete, but their hard work resulted in the successful relocation of the crane to the Russian side of the space station. The men were also given the task of installing the first of four radio antennas on the living quarters of the space station. During the space walk, the two men complained of a continual high-pitched beeping sound that distracted them as they floated in space. Russian engineers attempted to find the cause of the noise the men were hearing inside their spacesuits, but could not provide an immediate solution. The three-man crew is the fourth crew to live on the space station and will remain on board there until May.


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