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骨干教师应如使自己成为新课程教学的有效执行者

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" an d "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im porta nt. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity c ons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the "learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

骨干教师如使自己成为新课程教学的有效执行者
金华镇中 肖友贵 新课程改革为中小学课程与教学带来了新的理念, 也给教师专业发展提出了 新的方向。几年来,从教育行政部门到参与改革的专家学者,不断呼吁教师观念 和行为要有切实的转变。 要求教师要从知识的传授者转变为学习的促进者,从学 生的管理者转变为学生的引导者,从教室中的权威变为平等的合作者,从课程的 执行者变为课程的开发者,最终,要从被动的学习者变为主动的研究者。新课程 改革是一个巨大的系统工程, 课程改革的实施受到基础教育内部和外部的各种因 素的影响, 把新课程改革成败与否全部砝码压在教师身上无疑是不公平的,各级 教育行政部门应该统筹考虑改革的要素和条件, 但就目前新课程改革的运行状况 而言, 教师面临的挑战是巨大和持续的,教师专业发展问题构成新课程改革成功 的不可或缺的主要方面。 那么, 教师在新课程改革中要应对哪些挑战?从当前改革的迫切性和未来发 展的持续性分析, 新课程对教师的新挑战主要反映在三个方面:一是教师教学能 力的提升,教师要理解、领会和能够运用新的教学理念和方法,提高新课程的实 施能力;二是教师课程开发能力的发展,这种课程开发能力对大部分教师来说, 是其职业生涯中新要求和新发展方向;三是课程与教学评价能力的发展,尤其是 学生评价和教师自我评价能力和评价方式的更新, 已经越来越构成新课程改革的 实施瓶颈,社会和学校对评价的关注度随着课程改革的推进在不断升温。 我们可以从这三个方面分析新课程对教师专业发展的新要求和新挑战。 一、教学能力的提升:教师教学行为和教学方式的变化 我们应该注意到, 新的改革要求教师在教学过程中,要从重视教师的教到重视学 生的学,从重视知识传授到重视学生发展,从重认知发展到重情感养成,从重学 习结果到重学习过程, 从树立自己的教师权威到习惯和学生进行平等对话,从重 统一规格到重差异教育, 从重知识文化的继承到重视学生的创造精神和创造能力 的培养,……这些都给教师过去习惯的教学思维带来了明显的冲击。新课程在教 学方面对教师提出的新要求,看似可以用简单的话语去诠释,但要真正落实,就 需要一个复杂的转变和适应过程。 (一)教学过程的观念转变 教师首先需要转变的, 是对教学过程的认识和看法。教育学对教学过程的比 较通行的看法是将教学过程视为特殊的认识过程或书本知识向学生认知结构的 转化过程, 教师主要通过传授学生知识, 并在这个过程中发展学生的多方面能力, 养成必要的道德情操。 这在一定程度上反映了教学过程的本质属性。新课程改革 从建构主义理论的角度,把教学看成是以教与学之间的“对话”为基础,教师的 价值引导和学生自主建构相统一的过程。进而为教学过程赋予了一些新的内涵: 教学过程是一种“唤醒”,是学生和教师潜能、智慧和情感的唤醒;教学过程是 一种体验,是师生从感知和经验升华为对价值的叩问;教学过程是一种“视界融
learning e ducation, ne ed thre e kinds of consci ous nes s: one i s to esta blish an integrate d awarene ss. " Learni ng" and "do" what car isTw o-w heel, bird w ings, nee d to go han d in hand, one e nd can be neglecte d. Communi st the oreticia n and man. Only by cl osely combi ning t heory a nd practi ce together i n order to truly reali ze their val ue. "Learni ng" is the Foundation, the F oundation is not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts . 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写 "Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that t he "learni ng" and "doing" back to standard, s o that t he majori ty of party members "learn" lear ning theory of nutrie nts, in t he "doing" practi ce party's purposes. S econd, to esta blis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but t he orga nic unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning e ducation, we need t o explor e integrating "learning " in "do", exhi bit "do" in "Sci ence". To avoid t he "learni ng" into simple room instr ucti on, "do" into a m onotone for doing . Should ex ploration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in t he ha s "learn" of educati on a nd pra ctice of carrier, makes general gras s-roots member s can i n "learn" in t he ha s "do" of achievement s se nse, i n "do" in t he ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain int o heart, put for people servi ce con cept outsi de of Yu sha ped. T hird, t o adhere to l ong -term the aware ness . Style construction on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch the long-term. "Tw o" study a nd e ducation, by no means, assa ult-style wind-sport, but t he recurrent e ducati on within t he part y. I n rece nt years, t he party's mas s line e ducation practi ce a nd "three -three" s pe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast number s of party members a nd cadres withst ood t he baptism of the spirit. "Tw o" greater need to focus on long er hol d long-term, to e stablis h and perfect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusing on t he creati on of l ong -term education, strive to make the vast number of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in f ull swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k seri es ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht patterns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members and

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" and "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party m embers a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and d o soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the "learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "l earn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

合”,是书本、教师和学生视野的交汇融和;教学过程是学生的自我理解过程, 而不光是对教师和书本的理解过程。 (二)理解新的教学关系 对教学过程的新的理解带来了新的教学关系, 教师与学生之间不是一种简单 给予、被动接受的关系,教师也不再是对学生发号施令的权威,任何一方都不是 把对方作为一种对象去操纵、控制和灌输。随着新课程改革的深入,教师和学生 最终应该建立起平等、民主、自由、同情、公正、宽容、鼓励和帮助的交往关系 和“伙伴”关系。新的教学关系的建立受到文化传统和制度的制约。确实,在当 前仍是 50 人左右或以上人数的大班额教学背景之下,教师要与学生建立起新课 程所要求的平等关系,还存在制度性的困难;在建立良好的教学秩序的认识上, 还存在着认识的偏差,学生的课堂中的“活”学,还常常被教师视为对教学秩序 的挑战而被制止或扼杀。 说到底,很难期望在历史上和现实中已经处于权威地位 的教师一方,在课堂空间和人数没有改变的情况下能自觉放弃自己的权威地位, 这种教师的权威地位在我们的文化传统和社会中长期被认可。因为,新课程中新 的教学关系的建立过程, 实际上也是旧的教学传统被改变和新的教学文化的确立 过程。 (三)转变教学行为方式 各种新的教学方式也开始为教师所熟悉和运用,如主体性教学、探究教学、 建构式教学和交往教学等, 这些新教学方式的基本要素在我国新时期的中小学教 学改革中都可以或多或少地发现。有些新教学方式其实并不新,如主体性教学在 我国中小学已经经过了长达 10 年的实验研究,取得了丰硕的经验和成果。因此, 新课程中的教学改革, 不应该总是停留在理念探讨和学习,应该尽快转化为实践 操作。总的来说,新的教学方式具有一些共同的基本特征,这就是在以学生发展 为本的基本理念下, 引导学生积极主动地参与学习,促进师生之间积极有效的互 动,教师更多地把自己视为促进者、指导者、合作者,为学生的主动建构提供时 间、空间、物质条件、心理环境的支持,使学生形成对知识的真正理解,促进学 生的自我反思。应该看到,教师的教学行为转变会是一个长期的过程,教师长期 形成的教学行为的惯性对新的教学行为构成顽固性的阻力, 这需要我们采用校本 培训、校本教研等新的教师专业教育方式去帮助教师突破心理惯性和行为惯性, 使他们逐步获得自觉的教学行为调节意识和调节方式。 二、课程开发能力的发展:校本课程开发和课程资源开发 教师的课程开发能力在新课程中并不是一个可有可无的东西, 开发校本课程 以及围绕国家课程开发相应的课程资源, 是课程改革中教师实实在在的任务和工 作。一些新课程形态如研究性学习课程、任意选修课程、技术课程、社区服务与 社会实践等,课程和资源开发的任务主要落实在学校,落实在教师。 (一)课程开发的教师赋权

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo-w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he "learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce party's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction, "do" int o a monotone for

doing . Should expl oration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in the has "learn" of e ducati on a nd practice of carrie r, makes general gras s-roots members can i n "learn" in the has "do" of achi evements s ens e, in "do" in the ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brai n into heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu s hape d. T hird, to a dhere to long-term the aw arenes s. Style constr ucti on on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch t he long-term. "Two" study and educati on, by no mea ns, as sault -style wind-sport, but the recurrent e ducation withi n the part y. In re cent year s, the party's mass line education pra ctice a nd "three -thre e" spe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members and ca dres withstood the bapti sm of the spirit . "Two" greater need to focus on l onger hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the education, focusing on the creation of long-term educati on, strive to make the vast num ber of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not wor th bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht patterns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members

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2

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" an d "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity c ons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members an d ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the "learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of ed ucation. T his requires that t he Organization

在过去长期的课程集中控制的管理体制下, 教师开发课程的权利和义务都没 有明确的规定,也可以说,是体制剥夺了教师的课程开发能力。新课程的实施要 将课程开发上权力和义务都重新赋予教师,教师不仅是课程的实施者,也是课程 的开发者。校本课程的开发和课程资源的开发,不仅将给学校灌注新的活力,最 重要的是,它将最终导致过去那种基于书本的教学真正走向基于资源的教与学。 (二)学校和教师开发课程的优势 中小学校是新课程实施与管理中最基本、最重要的单位,学校在执行国家课 程和地方课程的同时,应视当地社会、经济发展的具体情况,结合本校的传统和 优势、学生的兴趣和需要,开发或选用适合本校的课程。学校要从自身的条件和 能力出发, 自主开发或合作开发或选用校本课程。那么什么是校本课程开发?就 是学校按照自己的教育理念对学校的部分或全部课程进行不同程度或层次的开 发。 校本课程开发的优势, 表现在它能够与时俱进地反映时代社会变化和学生需 要,比国家课程更贴近实践和具有更强的适应性,更能反映课程多元化的趋势, 并且, 校本课程开发是一个连续的动态过程, 可以是一个师生互动的生成性过程。 在校本课程开发和实施过程中, 教师的个性发展和学生的差异发展能够更好地结 合在一起。 校本课程的开发作为学校,应该有一个比较清晰的校本课程开发的方案或计划, 以便使教师明晰学校开发校本课程的背景和条件, 校本课程设计思想和理论依据 如对各种需求的分析、教育方针的理解、开发和设计学校课程的主流理念、相关 教育课程理论、相关的学习和教学理论、要解决的现实问题等,校本课程开发的 总体目标,校本课程设计的整体方案、体系结构如课程设计的原则和方向、各课 程领域及其组成关系、课时与学分的分配和获取、课程实施和评价体系,等等。 作为教师, 在进行某一领域或某一门校本课程设计时,应该有一个完整的课 程考虑,这种考虑包括他所开发的课程的目标,课程的内容或相关专题,课程所 要使用的学习材料的类型, 课程实施要求的主要学习方式,教师课程与教学的实 施策略,如何进行有效的教学组织,如何选择学生或学业评价的方法和程序,课 程的时间分配和安排,课程实施所需的空间和环境,等等。 (三)教师开发课程资源 课程资源的开发和利用, 也是教师课程开发专业素养和能力发展中的重要任 务,新课程不再只是学科的总和,而是学科、儿童、生活、社会的有机整合。学 生的生活及其个人知识、 直接经验都成为课程开发的基础和依据。课程资源由课 堂延伸到课外, 由学校延伸到社区和所在的地区,学生所处的社会环境和自然环 境都开始成为学习探究的对象,成为学习的“课堂”。 教师本身构成了课程实施中最有价值的课程资源。 教师是学生利用课程资源 的引导者、开发者。教师本身需要具有开发与选择课程资源的能力,能够充分挖 掘各种资源的潜力和深层次价值。 课程资源的开发给教师的工作提出更多更高的 要求,同时也使教师选择的余地加大,选择的机会增多。这对教师自身素质的提 高是一个挑战。
learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写 "Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he "learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce party's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore i ntegrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction, "do" int o a monoton e for doing . Should expl oration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in the has "learn" of e ducati on a nd practice of carrie r, makes general gras s-roots members can i n "learn" in the has "do" of achi evements s ens e, in "do" in the ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brai n into heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu s hape d. T hird, to a dhere to long-term the aw arenes s. Style constr ucti on on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch t he long-term. "Two" study and educati on, by no mea ns, as sault -style wind-sport, but the recurrent e ducation withi n the part y. In re cent year s, the party's mass line education pra ctice a nd " three -thre e" spe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members and ca dres withstood the bapti sm of the spirit . "Two" greater need to focus on l onger hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the education, focusing on the creation of long-term educati on, strive to make the vast num ber of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key m inority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht patterns change dramatical l y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members

and

3

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" and "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity cons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members and ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party m embers a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and d o soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the "learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "l earn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of education. T his requires that t he Organization

教师在课程资源开发中有两项主要任务, 一是对国家课程补充相应的课程资 源,教师参与开发的国家课程的实施资源,应该更加符合学生实际,符合教学的 需求;二是对新课程中规定的由学校负责的课程领域进行相应课程资源的开发, 这种课程空间多以选修课程的方式呈现。 这类课程资源的开发涉及的领域和范围 更广,更需要调动教师开发课程资源的积极性。 三、课程评价能力发展:学生学业评价和发展性评价 国家在这次新课程改革中给予了课程评价前所未有的重视, 提出要改变课程 评价过分强调评价的甄别与选拔的功能,发挥评价促进学生发展、教师提高和改 进教学实践的功能。 建立促进学生全面发展的评价体系。评价不仅要关注学生的 学业成绩,而且要发现和发展学生多方面的潜能,了解学生发展中的需求,帮助 学生认识自我, 建立自信。 发挥评价的教育功能, 促进学生在原有水平上的发展。 (一)评价转变的教师要求 按照新课程的评价要求, 评价和教学处于一个完整的教学过程之中,这就打 破了教师将评价和教学看成不同阶段或不同任务的思维定势, 要求教师将评价视 为构成教学的有机组成部分。 新课程关于评价的理念和方法要真正落实,不仅需 要教师付出比过去高出数倍的大量的时间和精力, 更需要教师的评价观念有一个 根本的转变,需要教师通过学习和培训,掌握评价的新方法。 国家制订了评价改革的总体方向和原则,我们可以把它归结为 5 个主要方 向。1.综合性评价:综合评价学生的发展;2.发展性评价:评价的目的是为了 促进、发展和提高;3.多元化评价:评价内容、标准和方法要多元化;4.过程 性评价:评价要注重发展和变化过程;5.自我评价:重视学生、教师和学校的 自我评价。 评价的发展性又是新课程所倡导的评价改革的最主要的特征,它本身 具有以下特点:1.有具体、明确的发展目标;2.评价目的是为了促进目标的实 现而不是为了检查;3.重视被评价者的起点与发展变化的过程;4.重视发展中 的个体差异;5.对某个领域进行多次评价;6.不断给予评价反馈,不断改进教 与学。 (二)掌握新的评价方法 上述评价方向和原则如果没有新的评价方式和程序支撑, 学校的评价工作仍 然难以发生根本的转变。新课程改革从质的方法、表现性评价、档案袋评价、论 文题评价、动态评价、概念图评价法、纸笔测验改革等多个方面为教师提供了可 选择的新评价方法。 如在表现性评价中,试图通过学生自己给出的问题答案和展 示的作品来判断学生所获得的知识和技能,学生必须自己创造出问题解决方法 (答案)或自己的行为表现学习的过程和结果,而不是选择答案,教师作为评价 者必须观察学生的实际操作或记录学习成果, 能够使学生在实际操作中学习知识 和发展能力。在档案袋评价中,有目的地汇集学生的作业和作品,以展示学生在 一个或几个领域学习的努力、 进步与成就。它必须包括内容选择过程中的学生参 与、选择的指南、评分的标准,以及学生自我反思的证据。

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo-w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he "learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce party's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction, "do" int o a monotone for

doing . Should expl oration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in the has "learn" of e ducati on a nd practice of carrie r, makes general gras s-roots members can i n "learn" in the has "do" of achi evements s ens e, in "do" in the ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brai n into heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu s hape d. T hird, to a dhere to long-term the aw arenes s. Style constr ucti on on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch t he long-term. "Two" study and educati on, by no mea ns, as sault -style wind-sport, but the recurrent e ducation withi n the part y. In re cent year s, the party's mass line education pra ctice a nd "three -thre e" spe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members and ca dres withstood the bapti sm of the spirit . "Two" greater need to focus on l onger hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the education, focusing on the creation of long-term educati on, strive to make the vast num ber of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key minority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not wor th bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht patterns change dramaticall y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members

and

4

Learn G eneral Se cretary on "tw o to learn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ous nes ses" importa nt spe ech ca used a strong rea ction in the countr y. T ime, watching "red treasure", the origin of buil ding t he party ba ck to powe r, how to stre ngthe n servi ces for the mas ses, impr ove party cohe sion, fighting to become t he grass -roots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Gra ss -roots party organi zations "two" is to stre ngthen t he servi ce of party members and ca dres, the pioneer s pirit. Di stribution of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walk s of pe ople, clot hing, shelte r, whi ch belongs to t he ner ve endi ngs of the party organizati on a nd comments re putati on has a dire ct per cepti on of the masses . Strengthen the party a head of the "peda l" spirit; stre ngthe n the party members and ca dres "succe ss does not have t o be me" an d "the first to bear hards hips, the last to" s ervice spirit to s et the party's positive image among the people is im portant. Grass -root s party organi zations "two" is to cleanse al l people not ha ppy not to se e "stereotype s", establis h the honest faithful, diligent faith for the pe ople . No nee d to avoi d mentioning t hat, some members of our party ca n not stand the "money," corrosi on of temptation, t hin, Xu Zhou, such a buse and corrupt bribery, malfeasa nce borers , and rats. Two, is to clean up, t hin, Xu, Z hou's s oluti on to rest ore the party's fresh a nd natural, s olid a nd honest work styl e. Cleansing "take, eat, card," unde sirable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to strengthe n the sense of or dinary party members, parti cipati ng in consci ousnes s, unity c ons cious ness . For reasons k now n, members of grass-r oots party branche s less m obil e, less re sources, and t he constructi on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studies, is t o focus on the gras s-roots party branches "l oos e, soft, loose" probl em, advance the party members an d ca dres, "a gang w orking", "Hong Kong report." Strong cleanup acti ons, styl e and rambli ng, pre sumpt uous "unqualifie d" party members, pay s special attenti on to party members a nd ca dres "joi ning party of thought" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtai ned i n the l ong -term development of our party's histori cal experi ence accumul ated. Two i s our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constr uction of a ne w "rectification movement." Gras s-r oots party organizati ons shoul d always cat ch the hard w ork, res ults-oriente d. Two educational outcome s are long -term orie nted and become a n important impetus for the w ork. "Two" shoul d have thre e kinds of consci ousne ss "two" study and education, ba sic lear ning lie s in the doi ng. Only the Constituti on address t he serie s of party rule s, and do soli d work, be qualified party members ha d a s olid ideol ogical basis . Only the "learni ng" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-l earn-do-do" the virtuous cycle, and ultimately achieve the fundamental obje ctive of ed ucation. T his requires that t he Organization

这些新的评价方法的共同点,是它们都是与教学相结合而非截然分开,强调 教师与学生之间的互动, 所使用的任务都是较复杂的,需要学生运用高级思维才 能完成, 对这些任务的反应也是开放的,给每个学生展现个人的深入思考和个性 提供了很大的空间。 教师要正确使用这些评价方法,一般需要接受专门的评价训 练,并不不断的评价实践中充实和发展自己的评价技巧。 (三)形成适当的评价策略 评价方式和方法的运用需要教师形成适当的评价策略。 教师在实施评价改革 中, 要注意理解评价改革的目的和实质, 认识表现评价方法对于学生发展的意义, 认识不同评价方法的特点,综合运用多种评价方法,发挥各种评价方法的优势。 针对学生的年龄特点、 认知因素与非认知因素的不同特点, 选择恰当的表达形式, 如百分制、等级制、行为描述、判断式评语、象征性评价,如小红花、小星星等。 我们认为, 没有哪一种评价方式是可以一劳永逸的, 在课程与教学的评价活动中, 永远没有最好的而只有最恰当的评价方式。 新课程对教师专业发展带来新挑战,也为教师成长带来了新的机遇。课程改 革促进了教师的专业发展, 使他们获得新的关注; 没有教师的专业发展作为支撑, 就不会有新课程的健康发展。 在新课程改革中,教师要有自我发展和自我超越意 识,要持续不断地进行探究式的学习,要不断获取教学专家技能,学会创造性反 思,构建多元化知识结构,向成为一个学者型的教师方向努力。 2008 年 9 月

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he "learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce party's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore i ntegrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction, "do" int o a monoton e for

doing . Should expl oration "learn" in the has "do", "do" in the has "learn" of e ducati on a nd practice of carrie r, makes general gras s-roots members can i n "learn" in the has "do" of achi evements s ens e, in "do" in the ha s "learn" of get sense, real makes party of theory brai n into heart, put for people servi ce concept outsi de of Yu s hape d. T hird, to a dhere to long-term the aw arenes s. Style constr ucti on on the r oad forever, "two" had to catch t he long-term. "Two" study and educati on, by no mea ns, as sault -style wind-sport, but the recurrent e ducation withi n the part y. In re cent year s, the party's mass line education pra ctice a nd " three -thre e" spe cial educati on i n grass-r oots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members and ca dres withstood the bapti sm of the spirit . "Two" greater need to focus on l onger hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the education, focusing on the creation of long-term educati on, strive to make the vast num ber of party members t o maintain their va nguard Col or, maintai n the party's adva nce d nature a nd purit y. Awarene ss -raising , antennas a nd atmosphere – a di scussi on on how lea ding ca dres of party members "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party cadre s as a "key m inority" is bot h a barometer and impetus. The "two" meani ng enoug h dee p, is to determine t he party ca dres can res olve to study har d first. In the "tw o" in the pr oce ss, s ome ca dres of himse lf, standing l ong, high awar enes s, that Constitution Party rule s is simpl e, its not worth bothering s ome party ca dres thi nk s pea k series ha s not hing to do wit h the grass -roots work , water busine ss lear ning seri es of s peeches s een a s window dressi ng. These "lazy, cas ual, a nd deca dent" idea s learni ng lacks m otivation, a serious impe diment to "two" effect. John Stuart M ill once sa id, only a ba sic el ement of human thoug ht patterns change dramatical l y, human de stiny ca n make great improvement. T he same, only party members

and

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