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Unit1《Cultural relics》知识与要点课件 新人教版必修2[1]_图文

话题 功能 语法

1.Cultural relics protection(文化遗产保护) 2.Famous cultural relics in China and abroad(国内外著名的文化遗 产) 1.Asking for opinions(征求意见) 2.Giving opinions(发表看法) The Restrictive and Non-Restrictive Attributive Clause(限定性定语 从句和非限定性定语从句) valuable,survive,amaze,select,decorate,worth,rare, dynasty,design,fancy,style,jewel,local,reception,remove, doubt,trial,explode,entrance,sink,evidence,debate

重点 单词

重点 短语

belong to,in search of,in return,at war,take apart,think highly of,look into,remove sth. from...to...,less than,rather than

重点 句型

1.Frederick William I,the King of Prussia,could never have imagined that this greatest gift to the Russian people would have such an amazing history. 2.There is no doubt that the boxes were then put on a train for Knigsberg,which was at that time a German city on the Baltic Sea. 3.Nor do I think they should give it to any government. 4.He/she only cares about whether the eyewitness has given the true information, which must be facts rather than opinions.

1 . survive vt. 比 …… 活 得 长 ; 经 历 某 遭 遇 后 幸 存 , 从??中逃生;vi.活下来,幸存;继续生存或存在

归纳拓展
survive sth.在??之后仍然生存,从??中逃生 A survive B (by...)A比B活得时间长(多长时间??) survive on 靠??存活下来 survive from 从??存活下来,流传下来

Those who survived the Yushu earthquake have received timely aid. 那些在玉树地震中幸存下来的人们得到了及时的帮助。 She survived her husband by a few years. 她比她丈夫多活了几年。

Many strange customs have survived from earlier times.
有许多古怪的习俗是从早年流传下来的。

归纳拓展 survivor n. 幸存者 survival n.[U] 幸存,存活;[C]过去时代留存下来的人、 物、风俗、信仰等;遗迹;遗风;旧思想 The Poland presidential plane crashed in an area of

dense jungle.There were no survivors.
波兰总统的专机坠落在一个丛林茂密的地区。无人生还。

【链接训练】 ①The firefighter helped the old man ____ the big fire.

A.survive
C.survive in 【解析】 【答案】

B.surviving
D.survives help sb.do sth. 意 为 “ 帮 某 人 做 ??” , A

survive 在此为及物动词,意为“从??中幸存”。

②The wounded soldier ________ the operation and is recovering his health now. A.did C.succeeded 【解析】 康复之中。 【答案】 B B.survived D.failed 考查动词词义辨析。survive“经历??后依

然活着”。句意为:这名受伤的战士挺过了手术,现在正在

2.select vt.挑选 归纳拓展

adj.挑选出的,精选的,极好的

(1)select sth.挑选出某物 select sb.to do推选某人做…… select wine上乘的酒

(2)selection n.挑选,选择;精选品,选集
make a selection作出选择(=make a choice) (3)selective adj.认真选择的 be selective about...对??认真选择 I selected some postcards and posted them to my close friends.我挑选了一些明信片,然后寄给我亲密的朋友。

Simon has been selected to make a speech at the opening ceremony.西蒙被推选出在开幕式上致辞。 We're very selective about what we let the children watch on TV. 对于让孩子们看哪些电视节目我们是经过认真选择的。

同类辨析 choose,select,pick与pick out (1)choose普通用词,通常指在所提供的对象中,经过考 虑后,凭个人判断力进行选择。 (2)select精心挑选,(经过认真思考)挑选出。

(3)pick相当于choose,但比choose更通俗。
(4)pick out按个人喜好或希望进行挑选,多用于挑选有 形的东西。

【链接训练】 He ________ a pair of socks to match his suit. A.selected C.chose from 【解析】 B.elected D.picked up 句意为:他精心挑选出与他的衣服相配的一

双 袜 子 。 select “ 精 心 挑 选 ” ; elect“ 选 举 ” ; choose
from“从??中进行挑选”;pick up“拾起,偶然学会”等。 【答案】 A

3.design vt.&vi. 设计,构思,谋划;目的是 图案,图纸 归纳拓展 (1)by design 故意地(=on purpose) in design在设计上

n. 图样,

[U]设计,构思;意图;(pl.)不良意图;图谋

(2)design doing/to do sth.打算做某事
design sth.for...指定某物做某种用途 design sb.to do打算让某人从事某职业

(3)be designed for...被打算用来?? be designed to do...被打算用来做??,目的是做?? be designed as为??目的或用途 Whether this happened by design or not we shall never know.我们将永远无法得知这事是不是有意安排的。

The land is designed for a park/to be a park.
这块地打算用来建公园。 This course is designed as an introduction to the subject. 这门课程是作为该科目的入门课而设计的。

His father designed him to be a lawyer. 他父亲打算让他当律师。 They asked me to design a poster for the campaign. 他们请我为这次运动设计一张海报。

【链接训练】 Whether by accident or by ________,he arrived too late to help us. A.purpose C.design B.aim D.chance

【解析】

by accident意为“偶然地”,by design意为

“故意地”。句意为:不管是偶然还是故意,在帮助我们这 件事上,他来得太晚了。 【答案】 C

4.fancy adj.奇特的;异样的 n.想象;爱好 归纳拓展 (1)fancy clothes奇装异服 fancy goods精美小商品

vt.想象;设想;爱好

(2)fancy+n.+(to be) +n.
fancy+n.+(as)+n.认为……是?? fancy (sb.'s ) doing想象(某人)做某事 fancy that以为/认为??

(3)have a fancy for爱好
catch/take sb.’s fancy合某人的心意;吸引某人 take a fancy to sb./sth.喜欢上某人/物;爱上某人/物 Do you fancy going to the cinema this evening? 今晚你想不想去看电影? We fancy Liu Xiang (as/to be) an excellent player. 我们认为刘翔是位优秀的运动员。 She fancied that she heard footsteps behind her.

她觉得好像听到身后有脚步声。
Did anything take your fancy? 你看中了什么吗?

温馨提示 fancy用作动词,有时用于祈使句,表示惊奇、不相信、 震惊等,后加名词、代词作宾语,如Fancy meeting you here! 想不到在这儿遇见你!

【链接训练】 He usually appears to be honest.Who can fancy ________ such a thing? A.his do C.his to do B.his doing D.doing

【解析】
【答案】

fancy sb's doing sth.“想像某人做某事”。
B

5.remove vt.移动;搬开;脱掉(=take off);去掉,消 除(=get rid of);免职 归纳拓展 remove sth.from...to...将某物从……移走/移到?? remove one's coat/hat脱下衣服/摘下帽子 remove sb.from one's position as chairman撤去某人的主 席职务 Will you remove your books from my desk? 把你的书从我书桌上搬走好吗? Please remove your hat before you enter the room. 在你进屋之前先拿下帽子。 He was removed from the post.他被解雇了。

同类辨析 move与remove move,remove都可表示“移动,搬动”之意。当表示 “搬家,搬家具”时,它们意思相当,但表示(其他)“移动” 时二者有区别:

(1)move是一般用语,指由一地移到另一地。强调位置的
改变。 (2)remove特别强调“拿走,除掉”或“撤去”的含义, 去掉的方式不限。 We are moving/removing from Shanghai to Beijing. 我们正从上海迁往北京。

【链接训练】 What do you advise for ________ ink from my clothes? A.moving C.getting 【解析】 to Beijing. 我们正从上海迁往北京。 墨渍?remove“去掉,除掉”,相当于get rid of。 【答案】 B B.removing D.bringing 考查动词remove的用法。句意为:你有什么

办法除去我衣服上的We are moving/removing from Shanghai

6.doubt n.&vt.怀疑;疑惑;不信 归纳拓展 (1)in doubt不肯定的;怀疑;拿不准 no/without doubt无疑的;必定的;当然 beyond doubt 毫无疑问

throw/cast doubt on使人对某事产生怀疑
(2)doubt用作动词,在否定句和疑问句中,doubt后面接 that引导的宾语从句,在肯定句中,doubt后面一般接whether 或if引导的宾语从句。

(3)doubt用作名词,在否定句中,后面接that引导的同位 语从句,在肯定句中,后面接whether引导的同位语从句,注 意不可以用if替换whether。 (4)I don't doubt that...我确信?? I doubt whether/if...我怀疑?? ?thatclause ? ? (5)There is no doubt 毫无疑问?? ?about... ?

There is some doubt whether...有疑问?? No doubt she'll call us when she gets there. 她到达那儿时必定会给我们打电话。 I doubted whether he would arrive here on time. 我怀疑他是否能按时到这里。

I don't doubt that he can finish the task on time.
我相信他能按时完成任务。 There is no doubt that he will win the prize. 毫无疑问,他会获奖。

【链接训练】 ①With your help,there is no doubt ________ our plan is meant for will work out successfully. A.that what B.whether that C.what that D.that whether 【解析】 句意为:毫无疑问,在你的帮助下,我们的 计划一定会成功达到预期的目标。there is no doubt 后需用 that引导同位语从句,故排除B、C两项;在后面的同位语从 句中,“ ________our plan is menat for”作主语从句,而主 语从句中缺少宾语,故用关系代词what引导。综上所述,答 案为A项。 【答案】 A

②We don't doubt ________ he can do a good job of it. A.that C.what 【解析】 B.if D.whether we don't doubt that...“我们确信??”。

doubt作动词用于否定句中时,doubt后面接that引导的宾语从

句。
【答案】 A

1.in search of 寻找,搜寻(在句中作状语或表语) 归纳拓展 (1)in one's search for =in search of寻找;寻求

in search of 中 search 前不加任何限定词,in one's
search for 中 search 前常带有限定词 a,the 或 one's。 make a search of 搜查

类似的短语还有: in memory of 为了纪念 in favor of 支持,赞同 in charge of 负责 in terms of 谈及;就??而言;在??方面

in view of 鉴于,由于

(2)search sth./sb.搜查某物/搜某人的身 search sb./sth.for sb./sth.为找寻某人/某物搜查某人/某物 search for sb./sth.搜寻某人/某物 search sb./sth.out 找出某人/某物 They started off at once in search of the missing boy.

他们立刻出发去寻找那个走丢的男孩子。
The police searched him to see if he had a gun. 警察搜了他的身,看看他是否带着枪。 We searched every room for the missing papers. 我们在每一个房间搜寻丢失的文件。

【链接训练】 ①The couple went through all their pockets ________ their passports. A.in honour of C.in search of B.in search for D.in memory of

【解析】

由句子提供的信息went through all their

pockets“翻遍所有的兜”可知他们在找护照,B项search前应 加物主代词,故选C。 【答案】 C

②Most people are ________ bringing down the price of housing because it's too high for them. A.in favor of C.in search of 【解析】 B.in honour of D.in charge of

句意为:大部分人支持降低房价,因为房价

对他们而言太高了。in favor of“支持”;in honour of“为纪
念 ?? ; 为 庆 贺 ??” ; in search of“ 寻 找 ??” ; in charge of“负责”。根据句意可知答案为A项。 【答案】 A

2.belong to 属于;为……的一员;和??有关联; 是??的一部分 归纳拓展 (1)belong to 无被动语态,不用于进行时和完成时。 (2)belong vi. 应该在某处,通常在某处;适合在某处(不

与 to 连用,后面通常跟副词或其他介词短语)
(3)belongings n. 财产;所有物;相关事物(常用复数) As we all know,Taiwan belongs to China. 众所周知,台湾是中国的一部分。 Do you belong to the tennis club? 你加入这个网球俱乐部了吗?

Where do these plates belong? 这些盘子该放在哪儿? 【链接训练】 To all the people here ________ the honour for the success.

A.belong to
C.belong 【解析】 【答案】

B.belongs to
D.belongs

考查倒装句。to前置,构成belong to短语。 D

句意为:成功的荣誉属于这儿所有的人。

3.at war处于战争/交战状态 归纳拓展 be at...表示“处于……状态/动作”的意思。类似be at war的短语还有: at peace处于和平状态

at church在做礼拜
at school/work/play在上学/上班/玩 at table在吃饭 at rest静止 at one's best在某人最佳时期

at breakfast/lunch/supper在吃早饭/午饭/晚饭 The two countries have been at war for many years.People there are suffering a lot. 两国交战多年,人民苦难深重。 The countries have been at peace for more than a century.

这些国家和平共处已有一个多世纪了。
I think Mr.Harris is at lunch. 我想哈里斯先生正在吃午饭。 This was Henman at his best.这是亨曼的最佳表现。

【链接训练】 用at的适当短语完成句子 ①The two countries used to be ________ ________,but now they are ________ ________ and a large number of people have been killed.

②You'd better not talk ______ ________.It's bad for you
to talk while eating. ③________ ________the insect looks like a dead leaf. 【答案】 ①at peace;at war ②at table ③At rest

4.think highly of 看重,器重;对……评价很高 归纳拓展 (1)think highly/well/much of sb./sth.对某人/某事评价高; 认为某人/某事好 think poorly/little/ill/nothing of sb./sth.对某人/某事评价

不高(印象不好)
speak highly of/sing high praise for...对??评价高;高 度赞扬 speak well/ill of...说??的好话/坏话

(2)think of sth./doing sth.考虑;想起,记起 think of...as/to be把……看作?? think about考虑,关心 think out 彻底地想一想,(通过思维)设计出 think over仔细考虑

The government thinks highly of the result of our
research.政府对我们的研究成果评价很高。 We sang high praise for what he had done for our mother-land.我们对他为祖国所作的贡献给予了高度赞扬。 I didn't think much of your plan. 我认为你的计划不怎么样。

We need several days to think this matter over. 我们需要几天的时间把这件事情仔细考虑一下。 诱导展望 当 think highly/well/much of...用于被动结构时,修饰动 词 的 副 词 应 放 在 动 词 thought 之 前 , 即 be highly/well/much

thought of。
The professor is well thought of by his students. 这位教授很受学生们的赞赏。

【链接训练】 ①Our English teacher loves us very much and he ______. A.thinks well of C.is well thought of B.is thought well D.is well thinking

【解析】
us)”。 【答案】

句意是:我们的英语老师很关爱我们,我们

对他评价很高。原句可理解为“...and he is well thought of (by C

②The story you have just told make me ________ an experience I once had. A.think about C.think over 【解析】 B.think of D.think up

think of意为“想起,记起”。句意为:你刚

才 讲 的 故 事 使 我 想 起 我 曾 经 有 过 的 一 段 经 历 。 think
about“考虑”;think over“仔细考虑”;think up常用于口 语,“想出,设计出”,三者均与题意不符。 【答案】 B

5.Frederick William I, the King of Prussia, could never have imaged that his greatest gift to the Russian People would have such an amazing story. 普鲁士国王腓特烈·威廉一世绝不可能想到他送给俄罗 斯人们的厚礼竟会有这样一段令人惊奇的历史。

情态动词+have done的用法
归纳拓展 (1)could have done本能做某事却未做 couldn't/can't have done对过去的否定推测,表示“不可 能做了某事”

(2)must have done对过去的肯定推测,表示“一定做了 某事” (3)may/might have done 对过去的推测,表示“可能做 了某事” (4)needn't have done 本不必做某事却做了 (5)should have done 本该做却未做 shouldn't have done 本不该做却做了 You could have come 5 minutes earlier. 你本能够早来5分钟的。 It's too late. I think he may have gone to bed. 天太晚了,我想他或许上床睡觉了。 You should have told me this earlier. 你本应该早点告诉我这件事的。

【链接训练】 ①—I came here by taxi and the driver________me 50 yuan. —Really? You________by bus. A.paid;should come

B.cost;should have come
C.charged;ought to have come D.spent;ought to come

【解析】

句意为:——我坐出租车来的,司机收了我50

元。——真的?你本应该坐公共汽车的。pay“付钱”;cost的 主语通常为物;charge“索要”;spend“花费”;ought to /should have done“本该做某事而实际上并没做”;ought to /should do“应该做??”。结合句意应该选C项。

【答案】

C

②My sister met him at the cinema yesterday afternoon, so he________your lecture. A.shouldn't have attended B.needn't have attended C.mustn't have attended D.couldn't have attended 【解析】 句意为:我姐姐昨天下午在电影院里见到他 了,因此他不可能听了你的讲座。shouldn’t have done 意为 “本不该做某事而实际上却做了”; needn’t have done意为 “本不必做某事而实际上却做了” couldn’t have done意为 “不可能做了某事”; must表示“推测”,不能用否定形式。 由句意可知选D项。 【答案】 D

6.He/She only cares about whether the eyewitness has given true information , which must be facts rather than opinions.他/她关心的只是目击者是否提供了真实的信息,它 们必须是事实而不是看法。 rather than

rather than起并列作用,有时起连词的作用,意为“与
其说??不如说??;不是;而非”,连接两个对等成分。 连接两个名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词的数与其前的 名词、代词一致。

I,rather than you,should do the work. 该做这项工作的是我,而不是你。 He was engaged in writing a letter rather than reading the newspapers.他那时是在写信而不是看报纸。 归纳拓展

(1)would rather do...than do=would do...rather than do...
宁愿做……而不愿做?? prefer/like...rather than... 宁 愿 ?? 也 不 愿 ?? ; 与 其??不如??

(2)other than除了…… or rather更确切地说 more than不仅仅,超过,非常 more A than B与其说是B,不如说是A He would rather beg in the streets than get money in such

a dishonest way.
他宁愿去街上乞讨,也不愿以这种不正当的手段换钱。 She preferred to go with us rather than stay at home. =She preferred going with us rather than staying at home. 她宁愿和我们一块去,而不愿待在家里。

【链接训练】 ①We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style ________ in a personal style. A.rather than C.better than B.other than D.more than

【解析】

本题要表示的是“而不是”这个概念,

better than 和 more than 是 比 较 级 , other than 意 为 “ 除 了??”,明显与句意不符,只有rather than可表示此意。 【答案】 A

②I came home very late last night,________,early this morning. A.at the latest C.in a word 【解析】 早晨回的家。 【答案】 D B.on the whole D.or rather

考查短语辨析。or rather“或者不如说,更

确切地说”。句意为:我昨晚回来很晚,更确切地说是今天

限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 根据定语从句与先行词之间关系的紧密程度,我们将定 语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。

一、限制性定语从句 有些定语从句对先行词具有限制作用,使该词的含义更 具体、更明确,这种定语从句叫限制性定语从句。这类从句 不能省略,否则句子的意义就不完整。限制性定语从句与主 句间关系十分密切,不能用逗号隔开,关系代词在从句中作

宾语时可以省略。
Do you remember the teacher who taught us English in middle school?你记得中学教我们英语的那位老师吗? This is the computer (that) I bought for my son yesterday. 这是我昨天为儿子买的电脑。

二、非限制性定语从句 1.定语从句有时跟先行词的关系并不十分密切,只是 对先行词做一些附加说明,不起限制作用,如果去掉,主句 的意思仍然清楚,这种从句叫非限制性定语从句。这类从句 往往用逗号与主句分开,关系词不可省略。

Mr.Smith,who came to see me yesterday,is one of my
old friends. 史密斯先生昨天来看我,他是我的一位老朋友。 He passed the exam,which made his parents very happy. 他通过了考试,这使他父母很高兴。

2.非限制性定语从句可以修饰前面的一个词,但更多 的情况下所修饰的不是一个词,而是代表整个主句所讲的内 容,如上面的第二个例句。这类从句通常用逗号与主句分开, that 不能引导非限制性定语从句。 (1)当先行词是专有名词或有物主代词和指示代词修饰时,

其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的。
My house , which I bought last year , has a lovely garden. 我去年买的那幢房子有个漂亮的花园。

(2)非限制性定语从句可将整个主句作为先行词,这时引 导词可用 as,which 引导。as 可放于句首,也可放于主句后, 意为“正如”;which 放在主句后,意为“这一点”。 She heard a terrible noise,which brought her heart into mouth.

她听到一声巨响,这使她的心提到了嗓子眼上。
As is known to everybody,the moon travels round the earth once every month. 众所周知,月球每月绕地球转一圈。

(3)as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句时,在从句中可作 主语和宾语。但 as 代表前面的整个主句并在句中作主语时, 从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关 系代词只能用 which。 He married her,which/as was natural.

他和她结婚了,这是很自然的事。(作主语)
He is an old kind farmer,which/as anybody can see. 任何人都看得出来,他是一位善良的老农民。(作宾语)

三、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别 1.作用不同 限制性定语从句用来修饰和说明先行词,具有限制作用, 使先行词的含义更具体、更明确。如果限制性定语从句省略 了,就会造成句意不完整或概念不清;而非限制性定语从句 一般跟先行词的关系并不十分密切,只是对先行词的附加、 补充说明,不起限制作用,可以省略,省略后主句的意思仍 很完整。 His brother who lives in London will go to America next week. 他住在伦敦的哥哥下周将去美国。(限制性定语从句,意 思是他可能还有别的哥哥。)

His brother,who lives in London,will go to America next week. 他的哥哥住在伦敦,下周将去美国。(非限制性定语从句, 对先行词his brother起到补充说明的作用,言外之意:他只有 一个哥哥。)

2.形式不同
限制性定语从句主句和从句之间没有逗号隔开;非限制 性定语从句必须用逗号隔开主句和从句。

3.先行词不同 限制性定语从句的先行词只能是一个名词或代词,而非 限制性定语从句的先行词可以是一个词,也可以是一句话。 4.关系词的使用情况有所不同 (1)that, why不 可 用 于 引 导 非 限 制 性 定 语 从 句, 要 用

which代替that, for which代替why。
I have told them the reason,for which I didn't attend the meeting. 我已告诉他们我不能参加会议的原因。

(2)关系代词替代情况不同。 关系代词whom在限制性定语从句中作宾语时可用who代 替whom,但在非限制性定语从句中作宾语时不可用who来代 替。 A young man had a new girlfriend,whom he wanted to

impress.
一个年轻的小伙子新交了一个女朋友,他想给她留下深 刻印象。 注意:在限制性定语从句中,先行词指人时,关系代词 可用who,that或whom,但在非限制性定语从句中先行词指 人时,关系代词只能用who或whom。

Tom has a brother,that is a worker.(误) Tom has a brother,who is a worker.(正) 汤姆有个哥哥,他是个工人。 (3)关系代词省略情况不同。 关系代词在限制性定语从句中作宾语时可省略,而非限

制性定语从句的所有关系词均不可省略。

5.翻译不同 含限制性定语从句的句子先译从句,后译先行词,将从 句放在先行词前。含非限制性定语从句的句子一般先译先行 词,后译从句,形成两个分句。 She has a brother who works in a hospital.

她有一个在医院工作的哥哥。
She has a brother,who works in a hospital. 她有一个哥哥,他在医院工作。

【链接训练】 ①Yassir Arafat,the Palestinian leader and Nobel Prize winner,died in Paris,________ made the situation in the Middle East more uncertain. A.what B.that

C.who
【解析】

D.which
which引导非限制性定语从句代替前面整个

主句,在句中作主语。句意为:亚瑟阿提法牧,巴勒斯坦的 领导人,诺贝尔和平奖的获得者,死在巴黎,这使中东局势 更不稳定。 【答案】 D

②—Do you have anything in mind ________ you'd like to have for dinner? —Well,________ is OK for me. A.that;anything C.what;nothing B.which;everything D.where;something

【解析】
【答案】

不定代词anything在定语从句中作have的宾
A

语,故引导词只能用that;anything意为“随便什么东西”。

③ ________ I explained on the phone,your request will be considered at the next meeting. A.When C.As 【解析】 B.After D.Since 考查定语从句。先行词为后面的一句话,当

定语从句放在句首时必须用as。句意为:正如我在电话中解
释的那样,你的请求将会在下一次会议中被考虑。 【答案】 C

④This is the research center ________ you visited the modern painting show last year. A.where C.that 【解析】 【答案】 B.on which D.when 考查定语从句的引导词。先行词the research A

center在从句中作地点状语,故选A。

⑤________ is known to us all that the old scientist,for ________ life was hard in the past,still works hard in his eighties. A.It;whom C.As;whose B.As;whom D.What;whom

【解析】

句意为:我们都知道,那位老科学家在八十

多岁的时候还在努力工作,对他来说过去的生活是艰苦的。it 是形式主语,that从句是真正的主语;第二空的for whom引 导定语从句修饰the old scientist。 【答案】 A