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高中英语语法专题一: 英语语法框架 句子成分讲解和练习(word版 含答案)

高中英语语法专题一: 英语语法框架 句子成分讲解和练习(word 版 含答案)
Part 1:英语语法框架
一·词法:词法研究的对象是各种词的形式及其用法。
英语词类的形式变化有:名词和代词的数,格和性的形式变化;动词的人称、时态、语态、语气等形式变化;以
及形容词和副词比较等级的形式变化。 种类: 1 名词:是人和事物的名称,如 pen(钢笔);English(英语),life(生活)。 2 代词:是用来代替名词的词,如 we(我们),his(他的),all(全部)。 3 副词: 是修饰动词、形容词和副词的词,如 quickly(快),often(经常),very(很)。 4 数词:是表示“多少”和“第几”的词,如 four(四),eighteen(十八),first(第一) 5 形容词:用来修饰名词,如 great(伟大的),honest(诚实的),difficult(困难的)。 6 动词: 表示动作和状态,如 write(写),walk(行走),think(想)。 7 连词: 是连接词、短语、从句和句子的词,如 and(和),because(因为),if(假如) 8 冠词: 说明名词所指的人或物的词,如 a,an(一个),the(这,那)。 9 介词: 表示名词(或代词)与句子里其它词的关系,如 from(从),in(在…内),between(在…之间)。 10 感叹词: 表示感情,如 oh(噢),aha(啊哈),hush(嘘)。
[注一]属于前六类(名、代、副、数、形、动等词)的词都有实义,叫做实词。 属于后四类(连、冠、介、感等词)的词没有实义,叫做虚词。
[注二]不少词可以属于几个词类,如 work(工作;动词和名词),fast(快,形容词和副词),since(自从;连 词和介词)等。 构词法
定义:构词法是研究怎样造词的学问。掌握构词法有助于记忆单词,扩大词汇量。英语单词看似海量,其实真 正“原生态”的数量有限,而大量的都是通过构词法造出来的。如: Foot (足) + ball (球) ------football 足球 Sea (海) + food ( 食品) -----seafood 海鲜食品
种类:英语最基本的构词法有三种:派生,合成和转化。 1·派生法
派生法是在一个单词(词根)加上前缀或后缀,构成一个新单词的构词法。 加在词根前面的构成部分叫前缀,(它一般不改变原词的词性,只改变词义)。 加在词根后面的构成部分叫后缀,(它一般改变原词的词性,同时也改变词义)。 前缀 1. co-共同 cooperation 合作 coworker 同事
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高中英语语法专题一: 英语语法框架 句子成分讲解和练习(word 版 含答案) 2. dis-否定 discover 发现 disorder 混乱
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高中英语语法专题一: 英语语法框架 句子成分讲解和练习(word 版 含答案) 3. en-使成为 encourage 鼓励 enable 使能够 enrich 使丰富 后缀 1. -er 人 worker 工人 teacher 教师 writer 作家 2.-ful 充满 peaceful 和平的 careful 小心的 handful 一大把 3. -ment 运动;结果 movement 运动 development 发展 judgement 判断 4. -ness 状态;性质 kindness 和善 carefulness 小心 correctness 正确 2·合成法
合成法是把两个或两个以上的单词合成一个新单词的构词法。 有的可以直接写在一起构成一个新单词,还有的在词与词之间用连字符“-”构成一个新单词,这个词通常叫做 复合词。 有复合名词:如: blood-test 验血;;classroom 教室;airport 飞机场;greenhouse 温室 reading-room 阅览室; 复合形容词:如: kind-hearted 心肠好的 high-class 高级的 good-looking 好看的;easy-going 随便的;fine-sounding 动听的 复合动词:如: sleep-walk 梦游 overcome 克服; undergo 经历;overthrow 推翻;understand 明白

复合代词 themselves 他们自己; ourselves 我们自己 everyone; everybody; everything; anyone; any-body 3·转化法
转化法是由一种词类转化为一种或几种词类的构词法。这种构词法词形没有改变,转化后的单词在意义上通常
与原单词意义有密切联系。 名词转化为动词 face 脸— face 面对 hand 手— hand 传递 nurse 护士 — nurse 护理 形容词转化为动词 dirty 脏 — dirty 弄脏 narrow 窄 — narrow 变窄 clean 干净的 —clean 打扫 动词转化为名词 find 发现 — find 发现 divide 划分— divide 分界处 waste 浪费— waste 废物

词组∕短语
定义:具有一定意义但不构成从句或句子的一组词,叫做词组∕短语。短语在句子里可以单独作为一个句子

成分。 种类:

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高中英语语法专题一: 英语语法框架 句子成分讲解和练习(word 版 含答案) 短语的种类很多,有

名词短语 如 a dog,too much work

动词短语 He is going fishing.

Mary has been reading this book.

形容词短语 very good

so sorry

not good enough

副词短语 very well only too too much 介词短语 at the gate since the mid -1980s

分词短语(participial phrase)如: I saw many people walking along the lake.

不定式短语(infinitive phrase)如 He likes to read newspapers after lunch. 动名词短语 (gerundial phrase)如:Staying indoors all day is unhealthy.
二·句法:句法研究的对象是句子各个组成部分及其安排的规律。
句子定义: 内含主语部分和谓语部分,有比较完整的意义的一组词,叫做句子。

种类:
从句子结构本身来看,句子可分为: 1 简单句:只有一个主语部分和一个谓语部分,如:
The People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949.中华人民共和国于一九四九年立。 2 并列句(包括两个或两个以上的简单句,中间常由连词连接,如:
Tom’s father worked from morning till night but he got very little money.汤姆的父亲从早干到晚,但挣得钱很 少。
3 复合句:内含一个或一个以上的从句,如: It’s a long time since I saw you last.好久没有看见你了。
从说话人说话的目的来看,句子可分为:
1 陈述句:用来叙述一件事,如:I saw him yesterday.昨天我看见他了。 2 疑问句:用来提出疑问,如:Did you see him yesterday?你昨天天见到他了吗? 3 祈使句:表示请球、命令等,如: Please come in.请进来。 4 感叹句:表示喜怒等各种情感,如:What a beautiful voice she has!她嗓子多好啊! 句子成分
英语的句子由主语部分与谓语部分组成。具体地讲,主要有下列六种句子成分: 1 主语:它是句子所要说明的人或事物,是一顺的主体。如 I study English 中的 I。 2 谓语动词:它是说明主语的动作或状态的,如 I study English 中的 study。 3 表语:它是放在连系动词之后表示主语的身分或特征的,如 I am a student(我是一个学生)中的 student;
Our classroom is clean(我们的教室很干净)中的 clean。 4 宾语:它是表示及物动词动作的对象的,如 I study English 中的 English。介词后面的名词或代词,叫做介词的
宾语,如 They don’t work on Sundy(他们星期天不工作)中的 Sunday,就是介词 on 的宾语。

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高中英语语法专题一: 英语语法框架 句子成分讲解和练习(word 版 含答案) 5 定语:它是限定或修饰名词或代词用的,如 He likes drink cold milk(他喜欢喝冷牛奶)中的 cold。 6 状语:它是修饰动词、形容词、副词用的,如 He works hard(他努力工作)中的 hard。 [注]虚词在句中一律不能单独作为句子成分。 句子语序 句子成分组成句子时,要有一定得顺序,称之为句子语序。有正常语序和倒装语序两种。 正常语序指主语在前,谓语在后的语序。如:

The interview went very well.

He threw a stone at the dog.

倒装语序指谓语在前,主语在后的语序。倒装有全部倒装和部分倒装两种:整个谓语提前,叫全部倒装;部分

谓语(如助动词或情态动词)提前,叫部分倒装。如:

Away went the boy. (全部倒装)

Never have I met him. (部分倒装)

三·灵魂——谓语结构(动词) 英语一切词法的根基,英语句法中必须要有的词性。

定义

动词是表示动作或状态的词 有人称和数的变化。谓语动词的人称和数一般必须与主语的人称和数保持一致 动 词的种类:动词本身含有的动作方面,有动态和静态。静态包括内心活动,各种感觉和感情等。 动词的 种类比较复杂,根据其词义和在谓语中的作用,分为连系动词,实义动词与助动词,情态动词。 3.英语 动词是词类中最复杂的一种,它的主要语法特征是:

①时态(tense) 特殊的动词词尾和有关的助动词,用以表示动作的时间和方向 ②语态(voice) 特殊的动词形式,用以表示动作的主语和宾语之间的关系,即主语是施事者或是受事者。 ③语气(mood) 特殊的动词形式,用以表示说话人对所说事物的态度。所说的话可能是事实,也可能是命令
或请求,也可能是愿望,假设,怀疑,建议,猜测,纯粹的空想等。

①:及物动词(transitive verb)与不及物动词(intransitive verb)

不及物动词则不要求有直接宾语

如:The car stopped. 车停了

及物动词要求有直接宾语

如:John himself opend the door to me. John 亲自来为我开门 只有及物动

词可用作被动语态

如:The meeting will be hold in the town hall 会议将在市政大厅举行

②:连系动词(link verb)是一个表示谓语关系的动词

它后必须接表语(通常为名词或是形容词)be 是最基本的连系动词 如:It is not late. 时间还不晚

1 . 实义动词(national verb)与助动词 (auxiliary verb),情态动词 (modal verb)。 实义动词意义完全,能独立作谓语 如:The burglar broke the window. 小偷打破了窗户。

2.助动词本身无词汇意义,不能单独作谓语,它们 do,be,have,shall(should),will(would)等。它们在句子中与实义动 词一起构成各种时态,语态和语气以及否定和疑问结构

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高中英语语法专题一: 英语语法框架 句子成分讲解和练习(word 版 含答案) 如:When do we meet again? 什么时候我们再会(用于疑问结构) 2 . 情态动词的意义不完全,在句中不能单独作谓语,只能与实义动词一起构成谓语。

它们有 shall,should,will,can,could,may,need,dare 等。 如:They dare not tell the truth. 他们不敢说真话。 4 谓语动词(finite verb)与非谓语动词。这些动词的形式由它们在句子中的功用决定。谓语动词在句子中起谓语作 用。可与助动词或情态动词连用,亦可不连用。但必须与主语在人称和数上保持一致。 如:Mark smokes a lot. Mark 抽烟很多。 非谓语动词有不定式,动名词和分词三种。它们在句子中不起谓语作用,可担任主语,宾语,补语,状语,如: He wanted to tell her of the incident. 他想把这个事件告诉她。(不定式用作宾语) 5.短语动词(phrasal verb)短语动词是一个固定词组。由动词加介词或副词等构成。其作用相当于一个动词。

如:The plane took off at seven sharp 飞机七点起飞(动词+副词) 6.动词的基本形式 动词的基本形式有五种。动词原形(verb stem)第三人称单数 (third person singular present tense form) 过去式(past tense form)过去分词 (past participle) 和现在分词(present participle) 如: 原形 第三人称单数 过去式 过去分词 现在分词

do

does

did

done doing

Part 2:句子成分分析

1. 主语(subject):句子说明的人或事物。 The sun rises in the east (名词) He likes dancing. (代词)

Twenty years is a short time in history. (数词) Seeing is believing. (动名词)

To see is to believe.(不定式) What he needs is a book.(主语从句)

It is very clear that the elephant is round and tall like a tree. (It 形式主语,主语从句是真正主语)

(一)指出下列句中主语的中心词
① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.

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高中英语语法专题一: 英语语法框架 句子成分讲解和练习(word 版 含答案) 2. 谓语(predicate):是对主语加以陈述,表示主语的行为或状态,常用动词或者动词词组担任, 放在主语的后面。
We study English. He is asleep.

(二). 选出句中谓语的中心词
① I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall ② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. A. get B. longer C. days D. summer ③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C. go D. bus ④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon ⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? A. Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast

3. 表语(predicative):系动词之后的成分,表示主语的性质、状态和特征。 He is a teacher. (名词) Seventy-four! You don’t look it. (代词)
Five and five is ten. (数词) He is asleep. (形容词) His father is in.(副词) The picture is on the wall. (介词短语) My watch is gone / missing / lost. (形容词化的分词)

The question is whether they will come. (表语从句) (常见的系动词有: be, sound(听起来), look(看起来), feel(摸起来,smell(闻起来), taste(尝、 吃起来), remain(保持,仍是), feel(感觉)……

It sounds a good idea. Her voice sounds sweet. The food smells delicious. The door remains open.

The sound sounds strange. Tom looks thin. The food tastes good. Now I feel tired.

(三) 挑出下列句中的表语 ① The old man was feeling very tired. ② Why is he worried about Jim? ③ The leaves have turned yellow. ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject.
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高中英语语法专题一: 英语语法框架 句子成分讲解和练习(word 版 含答案) ⑤ She was the first to learn about it.
4. 宾语:1)动宾表示行为的对象,常由名词或者代词担任。放在及物动词或者介词之后。如: I like China. (名词) He hates you. (代词) How many do you need? We need two. (数词)I enjoy working with you. (动名词) I hope to see you again. (不定式) Did you write down what he said? (宾语从句)
2)介词后的名词、代词和动名词-----介宾 Are you afraid of the snake? Under the snow, there are many rocks.
3)双宾语-----间宾(指人)和直宾(指物) He gave me a book yesterday. Give the poor man some money.
(四) 挑出下列句中的宾语 ① My brother hasn't done his homework. ② People all over the world speak English. ③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. ④ How many new words did you learn last class? ⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you?
5. 宾补:对宾语的补充,全称为宾语补足语。 We elected him monitor. (名词) We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here. (名词) We will make them happy. (形容词) We found nobody in. ( 副词 )
Please make yourself at home. (介词短语) Don’t let him do that. (省 to 不定式) His father advised him to teach the lazy boy a lesson. (带 to 不定式) Don’t keep the lights burning. (现在分词) I’ll have my bike repaired. (过去分词)
(五) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语 ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room.
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高中英语语法专题一: 英语语法框架 句子成分讲解和练习(word 版 含答案) ③ She found it difficult to do the work. ④ They call me Lily sometimes. ⑤ I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus. ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now?
6. 定语:修饰或限制名词或代词的词、词组或句子。 Ai Yanling is a chemistry teacher.(名词) He is our friend. (代词) We belong to the third world.(数词) He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson.(形容词) The man over there is my old friend.(副词) The woman with a baby in her arms is my sister. (介词) The boys playing football are in Class 2. (现在分词) The trees planted last year are growing well now. (过去分词) I have an idea to do it well.(不定式) You should do everything that I do. (定语从句)

(六) 挑出下列句中的定语
① They use Mr., Mrs. with the family name. ② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep.

7. 状语:用来修饰 v., adj., adv., or 句子。表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、程度、条件、方式 和让步。(以下例句按上述顺序排列)

I will go there tomorrow. The meeting will be held in the meeting room.

The meat went bad because of the hot weather. He studies hard to learn English well.

He didn’t study hard so that he failed in the exam. I like some of you very much.

If you study hard, you will pass the exam.

He goes to school by bike.

Though he is young, he can do it well.

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高中英语语法专题一: 英语语法框架 句子成分讲解和练习(word 版 含答案) ① There was a big smile on her face. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off.
(八) 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语 ① Please tell us a story. ② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③ Mr. Li is going to teach us history next term. ④ Here is a pen. Give it to Tom. ⑤ Did he leave any message for me?
参考答案 (一) ① teacher ② man ③ dictionary ④ To do (二) ① B ② A ③ C ④ A ⑤ C (三) ① tired ② worried ③ yellow ④ interested ⑤ first (四) ① his homework ② English ③ your pronunciation ④ new words ⑤ to go swimming (五) ① to read newspapers and books in the reading-room ② to take the boy out of school
③ Lily ④ get on the bus ⑤ playing football on the playground (六) ① family ② given ③ third ④ some ⑤ downstairs (七) ① on the face ② Every night ③ when he was eleven ④ fast ⑤ off (八) ① us, 间接宾语 a story, 直接宾语 ② me, 间接宾语 a new bike, 直接宾语
③ us, 间接宾语 history, 直接宾语 ④ Tom, 间接宾语 it, 直接宾语 ⑤ me, 间接宾语 message, 直接宾语
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高中英语语法专题一: 英语语法框架 句子成分讲解和练习(word 版 含答案) 11 / 11