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英汉语中性别歧视对比性分析


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太 涯 乳裂 笔口 二大 学

硕士学位论 文
英汉语中性别歧视对比性分析
英文并列题 目A C om Parat i ve A n a i ysis of s e劝 sm i n E n gl i sh a n d Ch i ne se

研 究生姓 名 :

王淑 琴
2 0 5Co l 5



号:



业 : 外 国语 言学及应用语 言学
社会 语 言 学
卢绍 刚
副教 授

研 究 方 向:
导 师 姓 名:
职 称:

学位授予单位:木. 原 理. 工 大学
论 文提 交 日期 20 0 8/5 地 址: 山西 ·太原



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二 二

J冤







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名:

一l 鱼雌一一 日 期 :

导师签名 :

辛沁 洲 砂 `。 日 ” :

C 君 ,丁

C o lle g e o f A r t s a T iy u a n U n i v e r sity o f T e e h n o lo g y

A C o m P a ra tiv e A n a ly sis o f s e x ism
in E n g lis h A n d C h in e s e

W a n g S h u q in

A th e sis su b m it t e d to C o lle g e o f A r t s in T Y U T i n Pa t ia l f r u lf i llm e n t o f th e re q u ire m e n t

o r th e d egree o f M aster o f A r f t s

M a y a iy u a T n

2 008 , C h in a



太原理工大学硕士研 究生 学位 论文

A C O M P A R A T IV E A N A L Y S I S O F S E X I S M IN E N G L I S H A N D C H IN E S E

A B ST R A C T

La n gu ag e ere a t e d b y P e oP le th l o u gh P ro d u etio n a n d so eia l P raetiee 15 th e m o st im P o r ta t n to o l f o r hum a n eo m n ica u t io n a n d t h in k in g , a n d it ref l e ets t h e th o u gh t s , th e a t itu d e s , a n d th e

eu lt u re s o f th e P eo P le w h o m a k e it a n d u se it an d se r v es t h e ir P u r p o ses. S o c io lin g u istie s ,
w h ieh h as gro 姗 sin ee th e la t e 19 6 0 5 , e on eem s a b ou t th e st u d y o f th e v a riety o f la n guage

rela t ed to m a n y d if e ren f t k i n d s o f so eial f a eto rs. S ex ism , d er i ved f r o m ra cism , h a s b ee n a n n d hea a t ed toP ie t l h

o ld

oughou t t h e w or i d as a su b 一 b ra n ch o f g en d er v a r iety o f la n g u ag e . S ex ism

15 a k in d o f d iserim in atio n b y o n e sex ag ain st a n ot h er , esP ee ially b y m ales ag a i n st f e m a l es,

h ich h as been a m a w j or toP i ef o r li ngui st sw h o have st u di ed gender a n dl n guage reeen a tl . y
T he t h e sis w ill co m b in e t h e a c h i ev em en t s in la n g u ag e st u d ies th u s f r a E n g lish 一 sP e a i k n g e o u n tries to rev eal sex ism m ad e in C h i na and

ex istin g in la n g u ag e itself a n d b eh in d la n g u ag e .
ew o r k o f th e resea r eh w o rk .T h ere a r e sex , g iv e th e

A com P a r a t iV e a p P ro aeh 15 em P lo y ed a s a g en era l f r a m

i ve eha f p ters to d iseu ss th e issu e . C h a p ter O n e w ill d istin g u ish g en d er f r om d ef i n ition o f sex ism , a n d in t ro d u ee th e stu d ie s o f sex ism

in la n g u ag e a t h om e a n d ab o ard . in E n g lish a n d C h in ese a t th e

C ha p ter T w o w ill m a k e a n ela b o ra t e eo m P a i so n o f sex ism r

lex ie al , s邓 taetic str u et u re a n d f u r t h er d iseo u rse lev el , P a t ie u la l l y r , a t t h e w o rd lev el , n o t on ly
m en a r e ta k en a s n o r m n d w o m en a s t a h e a p P en d a g e , e . g . th e g en erie m a n ca n b e u sed to as

m ale a n d ev en t h e h u m an rae e :m ale w o rd s m o re o f t en h a v e P o sitiv e eo n o ta t io n s , e on v ey in g n o tio n s o f P o w er , P re stig e a n d lea d ersh iP ; in co n t ra st , f e m ale w o rd s m ore o f t en b e a r nega t iv e
e on n o ta t io n s , e o n v ey in g w e ak n e ss , i nf e rio r i ty a n d im m t u rity : W h en m en a a n d w om en a r e

P resen ted to g e th e r , u su ally m a le w o rd s a r e g iv en P re eed e n ee o v e r w o m en . e.g . ` t h er a a f n d

m ot h er (父 母 ) '. H ow ever , i sola t ed w ords are not eonv i n ei n g enough to verif y a f a et.



太原理工大 学硕士研 究生学位论文

T h eref o re it 15 n eee ssa r y f o r u s to giv e a d etailed a n a ly sis. A s f o r th e sy n t ae tie st r u ct U re , m ore w om en u se m o d a l y er b s to eX P re ss a sta t e of u n eer ta i n ty o r ta et u f l P ro P o sa l , a n d m en em P lo y

h e m o d al v er t b s w i th h i g h er a t h orit u y . W o m en ten d to u se ta g q u es t io n s , w h i le m en u se st t em e a n ts or i娜 era t iv e se n te n ces to ex p re ss a self - e o而 d e n ce a n d relia b ilit y . A t t h e
d ise ou r se lev e l , t h e 叭 汀 lter o f th e t h e sis w ill rev ea l id eo lo gy o f sex ism d ise o u r ses in o u r n A da i ly lif e t h eor y o f S y stem F u n ctio n a l G ra m ea p t r u e th e id ea t h a t e x istin g in th e o f D iseo u x se

r a a n d t h e th e or y

a ly sis , th r ough w h i eh w e ea n

th e eo n t en t

o f lin g u istie eo n tro l o n

w o m en 15 P rim a i ly id eo lo g ieal ra r t her t h a n

li n g u istie item s in t h e sen se t h a t b ia sed m e ssag e s

r e t a ra n sm it t ed a b ou t t h e wa y
w ill b e em P lo y e d to illu s r a t t et e h

P eo P le s h o u ld b e . T h e t h e o ry o f ta k e一 u 而 ng a t n d in t em i P t io n
toP ie .A f t er a P re sen t a t io n o f sex ism in la n guage a n d b e h in d r om f th e P ersP e etiv e o f so eiety ,

th e la n g u a g e , ch a p ter t l e e w ill trace t h h e ca u se s o f se x ism h isto r y

n d eu ltu a r e. C ha p te r f o u r w ill d iseu ss th e st ra t eg ie s a n d m et h o d s o f e oP in g 诚 t h

sex ism

r o u g h la h t n g u a ge P la n

in g a n d id eo lo g y e h a n g in g to a eh iev e lin gu istic eq u a l it y

b etw ee n m e n a n d w o

m en . M ea n w h ile t h e th esis P ro P o ses t h e f e a sib ilities o f red u ein g sex ist

l n g a u age a n d rest r iet ions of el i m i na ti ng sex i st la n guage w i th t h e sei en t i l e and ob f j ect i ve t i a u des to a t v oi d exa g gera ti ng sexism su j eeti b vel y. C ha p ter Five w i l l dra w
g en d er d iscrim in a t io n h a s b een eo n seio u sly a n d u c n

a eon c l u si on t h a t
in P e o P le 's

o n sc io u sly ro o te d d eeP

lin g u istie h a b its a n d w e d o n eed to f a ee it a n d o v ereo m e it as so o n as P o ssib le . T he w r iter h o P e s th e t h e sis ea n b ou a t b y se x ism r o u se P eo P le '5 a a w a r en e ss o f n e g a t iv e e f e et b ro u gh t

in la n g u age a n d re d u ee its eo n r o l o v er f t e m ale s b y m ea n s o f la n guage. ere 15 a lo n g w a y to 9 0 to “elim in a t e , , sex ism in la n guage.T h e

La n gu a g e is c o n v en t io n a l. T h

w ri t er a l so P oi nts ou t t ha t the joi t ef n o r f tsf r o m bot h soei ala n dl i ng u i sti e w orkers a r e requi red
A t P resen t , th ere a r e t w o 面 n g s th a t sh ou ld a n d eo u ld b e d o n e . O n e 15 , f r om t h e so eia l a sP e et , to ed u ea te t h e so eia l m em b ers to b e eo n se io u s o f t h e har i n o f se x ism a n d tr y n o t to u se on y n d a

sex 一 b ia s ed la n g u a g es 50 t h a t e aeh d o e s h i s o r h er o w n so eial h ar i n o n y .T h e

b it to b u ild la n gu a ge h a m r

ot h er 15 , f o r li n g u istie w o r k e rs , to f u r t h er t h e st u d ie s a b ou t sex ism a n d to
o rf f o r m u la t in g n eu r t l ize d a a l ter n a t iv es.

P ott s h e ques t io n s 50 a s to P a v e t h e w a y

K E Y W O R D S : sex is t la n g u ag e , m a n if e sta t io n , e a u ses , seie n t if ie a t i U d e s , m eth o d s t

太原理工大学硕士研 究生学位 论文

英汉语 中性别歧视对 比性分析
摘 要
语 言是人类在 生产和社会实践 中产生 的 。 语言是人类交 际和 思维的最重 要的工具 , 它反映 了语言创造者和使用者 的思想 、 态度和文化 。 因此 , 语言反映 了生产者和使用者 的思维模式 , 观念和 文化 , 并为人 们服 务 。 社会语言 学产 生于二十世纪六十 年代 , 它主要 联系社会 因素来研究各种 语言现象.而源于种族 歧视 的性别歧视 作为影响语言 的社会 因
素 , 是指存在 于性 别 间的歧视 , 尤其指男性对 女性的歧视 , 现 已经成 为社会 语言学研 究语 言和性别 问题 的一个 热点话题. 本论文在 结合 国内外 研究成果 的基础上 , 揭露 了英语和 汉语 中语言本 身所 存在 的性 别歧视 和语言 背后所 隐藏 的人 们 的性别 歧视意 识.全 篇论文应 用 了对 比与对 照 的方法 . 论文 分五部分 :第 一部分是 引文 , 区别 了社会性别与 自然性别 , 介绍 了国 内外 的相关研究 成果.第 二部分从词汇 , 句子结构及语 篇的层面再现性 别歧 视现象并进行 了剖析.具体来 讲 , 在词汇层 面体现为 :男性词汇常被作 为标 准而女性词汇作 附庸 ; 从语义看 , 男性用词 多含 褒义 , 用来表 达强力 , 声望 和领导 的积极 的概念 , 反之 , 女性用 词多含 贬义 , 用来 传达 弱 小 , 地位 低下及 不成 熟 ;在次序 上 , 当男性词与 女性词 同时 出现 在一个 句 中时 , 英语和

汉语 中都把 男性词排 在前 面 , 而把 女性列在后 面.然 而 , 独立 的用词 不足 以证实 , 有必要
从句子结构和语 篇层面进行更 深一步 的剖析 .从 句法结构上看 , 女性多用情态动 词来表 达 一种不确 定 的委 婉 的建议 , 而 男性 多用肯定 的带有权威 性 的情 态动 词.女性 多用 附加 疑 问句 , 而 男性多用 陈述 句或祈 使句来表 达一种 自信和 可靠 . 在 语篇层 面 , 本 文通过 使 用 话轮 转换和插 话 的理论 分析 了跨 性对话 中男性 的控制权 ; 并进 一步采 用系统 功 能语
法 中 的及物 性系统和语篇分 析理论 中的语 篇立场理论对媒体 语篇剖析 , 从 中看 出媒体 中 含有对 女性 性别歧视 的意 识.第 三部分 从社会 , 历史 和文化 的角度 阐述 了性 别歧视存 在

的根源 .第 四部分提 出了对 性别 歧视语应 持有科 学 的客观 的态度 , 避 免盲 目扩 大性别 歧

视 意识 ;同时在分析 了改变 语言性 别歧视 的必要 性和可行性 及其社 会局 限性 的前提下 ,
提 出了避 免性别歧 视 的具体措 施.本 文第五 部分得 出结论 :性别歧 视 的观 念有意 识或无 意识地 隐藏在人们 的 日常语 言习惯 中 , 我们确 实需要面对并且要尽 可能克服使用 性别歧
视 语.

希 望通过本 文能唤醒 人们 识别语篇 中的性别歧视思想 , 并避免透过 语言对女性 的歧 视.从 建设和谐 社会 的高度 , 提 高所有社会成 员对语言差异和 语言性别歧视 的认识 , 教



太原理工大学 硕士研 究生学位论文

育社会成 员 自觉地避 免使用歧视 性语言 。其次 , 语 言工 作者应 加强对语言 差异和语言 性
别歧视 的研 究 , 找到 问题所在 , 有计划 、 有针对性地 、 分期分批制定 中立 化 的可选择 性

语言方 案 。

关键 词 : 性别歧视语 言 , 体现 , 成 因 , 态度 , 方法

太原理工大学硕士研 究生学位 论文

C O N TE N T S

A B 5 T R A C T ................ .................. .. ..... ............................................… … i

摘 要 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... … …i
C ha p t e rO n e n t I ro d u c t io n ...................... .. ... .. ..................................… … 1

1 .1 G en d e r a n d S ex ... ... .. ... ... ... .. .... .. ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... .. .... .. ... .. .... .. ... .... .. ... .... ... .. .... .. ... .... .. ... ... .... ..……2 1. 2 S ex i sm . ... .... .. ... .. .... .. ... .. ... .... .. ... .. ... ... ... ... ... .. .... ... .. ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... .. ...……,... ... ... ... ... .. .... ... ...……3

1.3 S t u d i e s o f S ex i sm a t H 0m e a n d A br o ad .. ... ... .. ... .... .. ... .. ... .... .. ... ... ... .... .... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ....…… 4

C ha p terT w o M en if e sta t ion s o f S ex ism in b oth E n g lish a n d C hi n e se …9
2 . 1 S ex ism in L ex is.. ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... .. .... ... ... .. ... .... .. ... ... ... .. ... .. ... .... .. ... ... ... ... .... .. ... ... ..……,... ... ... ...……9

2 .1 .1 G en erlc M ascu lin e ... .. .... .. ... ... ... ... .. ... .... .. ... ... ... ... .. .. .... ... ... ... .. .... ... ... .. ... .... ... .. .... .. ... ... . …… 9
2 .1.2 S e x ism in W o rd O rd e r 二 ,... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... .. ... ... ... .. ... .... ... .. .... ... .. ... ... ... .. .... ... ... .. ..…… 10
2 .1.3 N e g a t i v e C o朋 o t a t io n so f 认I O m e n s , W 61 s d . . ... .. ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... .. ... .... ... .. .... .. ... ... ... ... ... ....… … 1 2

2 .2 S ex i sm i n Syn t a x

. .. ... .. .... ... .. .... .. ... ... ... ... ... .. .... ... .. ... ... ... .. .. ... .... .. ... ... ... ... .... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...…… 1 8

2. 2 .1 S y s t e m a t i c F u nc t i o na l G r a m m a r .. ... .. ... ... .. .... .. ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ..… … , . .. ... ... ... ..… … 1 8

2. 2. 2 T r a n s it iv i t y Sy s t em . .…,.... .. .. ... .... .. .... .. ... .. ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... .. .... ... .. ... ... .... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...…… 19 2. 2 3 M ood a n d M o da l i y S ys t t em . ... ... ... ... .. .... .. ... ... .. .... .. ... .. ... ... ... ... ... .. .... ... ... .. ... .... .. .... .. ... ... .……20
2 .3 S e x l sm in D i sc o u rse s... .. ... ... ... .. .... .. ... ... ... ... ... .. .... .. ... ... ... ... ... .. .. .... ... . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..… … ,.… …2 2
2. 3 .1 D isco u rs e . .. ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. .... .. ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... .. ... .... .. .. ... .... ... ... .. ... .... ... ... ... ... ... .… …2 3 2. 3. 2 D i s cour s e A na l ys i s . ... .. ... .... .. ... .... ... .. ... ... ... .. ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... .... ... .. ... .... .. .... .. ... .... .. …… 2 3

2. 3. 3 C r o s ~s e x D i a l o g u e ... ... ... ... ... .. ... .... ... .. .... ... .. ... ... ... .. ... .. ... .... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... .. .... ... ... ... ... ... ...… … 2 4 2. 3. 4 M o n o l o g i c D i s c o u r s e .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... .. .... ... .. ... .. ... .... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... .… … , .. .. ... .. ... . … …2 5

C h a P te r T h re e

C a u se s o f L in g u istie S e x is m ..... .. ...... ...... ... ...… … 3 3

3 .1 H IS t or i ca l Fa c t o r s .. ... ... ... .. .. ... ... ... ... . .. .. ... ... ... ... .. .... ... . .... ... ... .. .. .... ... ... .. ... .... .. ... ... ... .... ... .. .... ... .. .… … 3 3

3. 2 S o c ia l F ac to rs .. ... .. ... .. .... ... .. ... ... ... ... .. .... ... .. .... .. ... ... ... .. ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... .. .... ... ... ... ... .. ... .... .. .... ... . … …3 4

C ha p ter F o u r S cien tif i e A t it u d es T o w a r d s S ex ism in L a n gua g e … …3 7
4 .1 N e c e s s it y o f Re d u c i n g L i n g u i s i c S t e x i sm ……, 二 ,... ... ... .. ... ... ... .. ... .... ... .. ... .... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .……3 7
4 .1 .1 S o c i a l D ev e l opm en t .... .. ... .... .. ... .... ... .. ... ... ... .. ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ..… … ,... ... ... .... .. ... .... . … …3 7

f

太 原理工大 学硕士研 究生学位论文
4 .1.2 L i ng u l s i cCh t a n g e . ... .. ... .... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... .. .... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... .... .. ... .... .. ...… … ,.... .. ... ... .… … 3 8
4. 2 R e r ic t s i o t n s o f E l i m i n a i n t g i n L g u l s i c Se t x i s m . ... ... ... ... .. .... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ..... .. ... ... ... .... .… … , . .… … 3 9

4. 2 .1 R e s t r ic t io n s 0 f S o c i a l Fa c t o r s .. ... ... .. .... .. .. .... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... .. ... ... ... .... ... ... ... .… … 4 0

4. 2. 2 Re s t i c r i o t n so f
4 .3 S t r a t e g i e sa n d M e t h od s 4. 3 .1 G e n d e r

i n L g u l s i c C ha t n g e
f o

... ... ... ... .. -. . ... ... ...… … , . ... ... ... ... .. .... ... ... ... ... ... .... ... .. .... .… … 4 1

C ha n gi n g Se x i s m . ... .... .. ... ... ... .. ... ... ... .. .... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... ... ... ... ...… … 4 2

Sp e i f ca t i o n . ... ... ... ... .. ... .... .. ... ... .... .. ... ... ... .. .... ... .. .. .... .... .. ... ... ... .... .. ... .... ... ... ... ...… … 4 3

4. 3. 2 G e n d e r N eu tra 11za t1o n .. ... ... ... .. ... .... ... .. ... . .. .. ... ... ... ... .. .... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... .. ... .... ... ... ...… … ,二 44

4. 3 .3 A v o i d i ng G end e r S t e r e。 匀pe i n W Ord O r d e r a n d D i s cou r s e s .. ... .. ... ... .... ... .. .... ... ... ... ... ...… …46

C h aP t e r F i v e

C 0n c l u s i 0n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .……49

B IB L IO G R A P H Y ..... ... ...... ... .....................................................… … 。 53 T H E T E C H N I C A L T E R M S ......... ..... .. .....................................… … 5 5 A C K N O 、V L E D G E M E N T S .................... ..... .... .... ... ....... .. .... ......… … 5 7 P U B L IS H E D P A P E R S ............................................. … … 5 9

太原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文

C h a P te r o n e I n tr o d u e tio n

L ang uag e a n d g e n d e r h a s b e e n a P o P u la r to P ie in t h e f i e ld o f so e io lin g u istie s s i n e e th e e n d o f h e 19 6 0 5 . L o o k in g a t th e eu r e n t te n d e n ey o f d e v e lo P m e n t, so e io li n g u ists h a v e st u d ie d th e issu e f o r m

d if e re n t P e rsP e ctiv es a s a P ri f n e iP le . G e n e ra lly sP e a k in g , th e st U dy o f gend er and l n g u a g e m a in l a y in e lu d e s t w o a sP e c ts . O n e 15 se x ism , t h a t 15 , t h e la n g u ag e d ise rim in a t io n to w o m e n . T h e o th e r 1 5 th e d if e re n ee i f n sP e e e h b et w ee n m a le s a n d f e m a le s . A 刃d b o th th e q u e stio n s a r e ae ce P te d b y m o st

re se a r e h e rs . T h e m a in id e a m a n if e ste d in th e P a P er 1 5 th a t w om en h a v e b e en i n t h e su b o rd in a t e P la c e

in soe i et y

eo m P a r ed w ith m en . In f l uen ced b y th e w ester n

w o m en '5 lib er a tion m o vem en t , m any

e m in ists d e v o ted th e m se l f v e s to th e st u d y o n la n g u ag e a n d sex in E n g lish . B y w ritin g a n d P u b lish in g

m an y

w or k s to e o n f ir m

th e e x iste n e e o f se x ism in E n g lish , t h e y a d o P te d la n g u ag e s a s m e a n s to sh o w
of

a n d c o n so l id a t e th e ir P o siti o n s. L a n g u a g e g e n d e r d is erim in a t io n in re e e n i y ea r s a ro u s ed t h e e o n e em

m a n y re s ea r e h e rs , la n g u a g e , g e n d e r d ise rim in a t io n n o t o n l y eon t r ib u te to re se a reh o n g e n d e r l a n g u ag e ,

so e ia l a n d cu lt u r a l stu d ie s , Ia n gu a g e b u t a lso h e lP s to f o re e a st th e d e v e lo P m e n t tre n d a n d d e v e lo P

P o liey tex t , b ut lan g u age o n gen der d iserim in a t ion L ang uag e 15 no t ju st th e n egati v e social an d
h isto r i eal trad i tion s ref l eetion .A t th e sa m e tim e , lan gu age st r en g t hen s th e u sers ' id eas an d eon eeP ts.
A lth o u g h w e a re a w a r e o f so m e o f i ts u n re a so n a b le a sP e e ts , b u t w e e a n n o t a b a n d o n la n g u a g e a s a sy ste m o f sig n s . f t m u st also e o m P ly w it h th e ru le s an d re g u la t io n s . L a n g u a g e 15 a s o e ia l P h e n o m e n o n .

T he t h in k in g w ith a sP e e if i e e o n te n t o f t h e sy m b o ls a s so e ia t e d w ith t h e a rb it r a卿 n a u t

re o f a sy ste m .

w e ha v e to u se i t an d w e m ust f u ll y re sP e et i t. T h e g r o v戌 h o f e h ild re n w ill a d aP t to so e ia l ru l es a t th e sa m e tim e , a n d th e id e a s W h i e h h is a n e e sto rs h a s g ra d u a ll y a e c u m u la t ed f o r th o u sa n d s o f y e a rs. Id e a ls

and Pre j udi ees a e r

eng ra v ed i nt he m i nds of hi s.T hus L anguages unconseiousl y str eng t hen our sex
to a n a l y z e th e se x ism b o th in E n g lish a n d C h i n e se a t

d ise rim i na t io n in th e m i n d s. T h e th e sis w ill tr y

th e le v e l o f le x ie a l, sy n ta c tie str u et U r e a n d d ise o u rse a e e o r d i n g to so m e re la t iv e so e io lin g u istie s

theo ries. A s I an gu age ref i ects so eiet . y

The t h esis w ill g ive th e reason s of sex ism f r o m a soeial a n d

hi st ori calf a et ors and then t y to ProPose som e sei r en ti i e and ob f j eeti ve suggest i ons 50 as t o ehange a n d
v o id t a h e sex ist in equ ali y i t n lan gu age a n d so ei et y .

断 ,

一一一一一一一一一一一一一一进堰里些嗤题 士 班塞生学位论文
1 .1 G e n d e r a n d S ex

It m a y

he l P to st a r t w i h t

a n eX P la n a t i o n of t h e te r m

s “g e n d er , , a n d “s ex , , . T h e d is t in etio n b e b 刀 e en

“sex ,, a n d “g end er ,, essen t ia l ly lies in b iolo g ieal a n d soeio 一 cu lt r al d if u e r f e nee s. T he w ord “gen der , ,

w as PoPula ri zed b y t he seeond w a v e of f e mi ni sm w hen i t soug h tt o di ti s n gui sh sex or t he Ph y si eal
a划 士 ib u e t s th a t d ef n e d P eo P le a i s m a le s a n d f e m a le s f r om th e s o e io 一 c u lt U ra l m e a n in g s , su e h a s

“m aseu lin it y ,, a n d “f e m i ni n it y ,,. G en der ref e rs to th e soe ial classif i ea t ion o f m ascu line a n d f e m in ine .
T h e d istin etio n t h a t w as m ad e bet w ee n se x a n d g e n d e r w a s e m P o w er i n g w o m e n b e e a u se i t e h a llen g e d
h e n o tio n th a t t “b io lo g y w a s d e sti n y , , , w h ie h 15 t h e re a so n t h a t so e ieta l n o r m s h a d c o n stra in e d th e i r

r e ed o m to d e v e lo P t f h e ir h u m a n

P o te n tia l. W o m e n , 5 lac k o f P 叭 ic iP a t io n in P o litie s , f o r in sta n e e , h ad

less to do w it h t h eir sex t h a n w ith t h e n or m s im P o sed b y so eiet y o n th eir bo d i es.F em in ists w en t on to
r g a u e t h a t t h e P u b lic a n d P riv a t e sP h e res w e re n o t d isc re t e a n d iso la t ed bu t w ere in t ere o n e c t ed , a n d

w om en ,5 la c k o f Po w er in o ne led to t h eir su b o rdin a t ion in t h e ot h er.S oe i et y ha d assig n ed dif e r f en t ial

v alues to t h e w or k (P aid and u nP aid) t h a t w o m en Perf o r m ed a n d t h is had eon seq u en ees f o r th eir

subordi na t e sta u si t n soei et y .f t w as i nvi gora ti ng f o r w om en to dis eover t ha t w ha t had been Previ ousl y

vi ew ed by soei y t e

, asw om en ,5 l c k ofaehi a evem en t s w as i n reali y ama t t erof l aek of oPPor U ni t ti es.
h is in i t tia l P h a se , f e m i n ists to b e t h e b io lo g ie a l,

S e x re f e r s to t h e b io lo g ie a l d if e r f e n ees bet w ee n m a le s a n d f e m a le s .I n te n d e d to m in im iz e d if e ren e e s o f s ex a n d P riv ileg e d g e n d e r. S e f x

15 th o u g h t

P冲 si eal eharac t er i st i es , sueh as geni t al s or ehrom osom es t ha t m ake a Person m al e or f e m al ea t bi t】 r 1.
T h ey k n ow th e y are re f e ri n g to a e o n v e n t io n th a t m a y o v e rla P sex o r m a y h a v e n o th in g to d o w i th it ·

W he n

P sy ch ia r ists u s e t t h e w o rd “g en d e r, , , th e y a ss i gn i t w i h t

a sP e c if i e m e a n in g

th a t ca n m a t c h SeX ,

a lt h ou g h i t d o e s n o t n e ee ssa r ily d o 50 . A s lin g u ists u se t h e ter m
eh a r eteristie o f a w o rd t h a t re q u ire d o th er W o rd s to a g r e e w it h

, g en d e r e a n b e d e f i ned as a
it · T h is 15 a m e ssy s it U a t io n i n

la n g n ag es t h a t

h a v e lo ts o f su b sti U tio n 一 t

o m e as m an y a s ten o r e le v e n , b a s e d o n t h in g s lik e sh a p e,

soci alrank , a n da n i ma t e or i na n i ma t e eondi ti on , as w el las sex , esPeci al y w hen al l lm odi yi f ng w ords ha v e to eha n ge t hei rf or m st o ma t ch t h e w or ds t h ey m odi y. f
T he B ri ti s h s o e io lo g ist A n t h o n y G id d e n s d ef i n e s “se x ' , a s “b io lo g ie a l o r a n a t o m ie a l d if e r en e e s f b et w e en m en and w o m en , , , w h e re a s “g e n d e r e o n e e r n s th e P sy c h o lo g ie a l, so e i al a n d e u lt r u al

d if e r f e n ees b et w een m a l es a n d f e m ale s., , (19 89 :15 8) T he d is ti n etio n b et w een “sex ' , an d “g end er ,,
e ss e n tia ll y re e o g n iz e s b i o lo g ic a l an d so c io 一 eu l r U t co nf u sin g th a n a l d if e f re n e e s. T h e ter m “g en d e r , , te n d s to b e le s s

“ sex ' ' d o e s . T h e w o rd “g en d e r, , 15 b ro a d en o u g h to i n c lu d e th e P sy e h o lo g ica l an d
2

太原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文
b io l o g ie a l d if e r f e nees bet w e e n p er s o n s. “G e n d e r , , 15 t a d itio n a lly d e f r n e d a s a se t o f 柳 0 o r m o re i ea t ego r i e s su c h a s f e m in i n e , m a se u lin e o r n eu t e r.

1. 2 S ex ism

La t e 19 6 0 5 w it i e sse d t r h e rise i n E u ro P e a n d t h e U ni t e d S ta t es i n th e w o m e n ' 5 lib e r t io n a

m ov em en t. I n sP ired by t h e w ord “ raeial d iserim in a ti o n , , (r c i a sm ) , f e m in ists erea t ed t h e w ord “sex

d iscrim i na t io n , , (sex ism ). A eeordin g to t h e N ew O x f o rd D ieti o n ar y o f E n g lish , sex ism ref e rs to

Pre j udi ce or di seri mi na ti on based on sex , esPeei al l y , di seri mi na ti on agai nst w om en. I n a f em i nis t ,s
v iew , th e soe ie y t 15 eon s加 eted w ith a m ale '5 d iserim in a t ion ag ain st f e m ales. T he lan gu age of sex

d iserim i na t io n 15 e m b o d ie d i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f th e a sy l n m etr y . B a se d o n th e “S a p ir一 W o lf H y P o th e sis , , :

La n gu age 15 n ot on ly a P rod u et of so ei et y , it can i n t u m af e ct Peo Ple '5 th in f k in g an d sP iri L t of t he
b u ild in g , m a n y lin g u ists a n d f e m in is ts ta k e g r ea t
la n g u a g e an d g e n d e r.

in t ere st in re se are h in g i n to th e re la t io n sh i P of

A et u a lly , s ex i sm
W o m en . A P P re h en d e d

15 a sy ste m
by

o f b e lie f s a n d P ra etic e s th a t
na u t

af i r m

th e d o m in a n e e o f m en o v e r
P er v a d e s so e ia l r e latio n s a n d

m o st P eo P le a s “o n ly

a l, , , sex ism r

in stit u tion s , af e etin g ev e尔 h i f ng f r o m P eoP le , 5 d om estie ar a ng em ent to th ei r r ea r eer ch o ices. S exism ,

aeeordi ng t ot he N ew O xf o rd D i et i onar y of E ngl i sh , m eans “Pre j udi ee , s ter eot y Pi ng , ordi seri mi nat i on ,
y P ieall t y ag ainst w om en , on th e basis of se宏 ,.A eeord i n g to W eb ster N int h N ew C o lleg ia t e D icti o na叮 ,

sexism 15 “ P re j u diee or discrim ina t ion b ased on sex , e sP .d iscrim in a t ion against w o m en .” O n e of the
b asie Prine i P les of f e m in ism 15 t h a t so eiet y h as b een eon st j cted w i n th a b ias , w h ieh f a v ors m ales.T h is
bi a s e a n b e lo ea t e d in th e la n g u a g e , w h i e h 15 re f e r ed to a s se x ism in la n g u ag e . I n a b ro a d se n s e ,

s ex ism

in la n g u a g e in d ica t e s g en d e r b i as n ot on l y ag a in st w o m e n b u t a lso a g a in st m e n . T h e w o rd

“sexi sm ,' r ef e rsto di scri mi na ti on b y m em bers ofone sex agai nstt he ot her, esPeci all y by m al es agai nst
e m a le s , b a se d o n t f h e th o u g h t th a t o n e se x 15 su P e rio r. S e x ism 15 a m an y 一 h e ad e d , u b iq u ito u s m o n ste r th a t h a s m a n if e ste d its e lf i n d if e re n t w a f y s in d if e re n f t h isto r i cal Per i od s an d i n d if e r f e n t eu l U re s . It 15 t a b e lie f sy ste m b a s e d o n t h e a s su m P tio n th a t th e P h y sie a l d if e ren e e s b e 协 f 刀 e e n m a le s a n d f e m ale s a r e 50 sig n if i cant t h a t th ey sh o u ld d ete r m S e x ism 15 m a n if e st in a ll f o r m i n e v ir U t a ll y a ll s o e ia l a n d e e o n o m ie r o le s o f m e n a n d w o m e n .

s b eha v io r f r o m su b tle g e st u re s a n d e sP e e ia lly la n g u ag e to e x P lo ita t io n

a nd oP Pr e ssion , an d in all h um an institu t ion s f r om the f a m il y to the m u l tina t i o na le or p o ra t ion . (Pau la

一一- 一一一一一一一一一一一一主
ha v e o rig in a t ed t h is f o r m

5 .R o t h e n berg , 19 88 : 2 1) S ex ism 15 g end er Priv ilege o f m ales ov er f e m ales.It is m ales Prim a r il y w h o
o f o P P re ssio n , b e n e f i te d f r o m it, a n d P er p et u a t ed i t, l e g a lly a n d id eo lo g ie a ll y.

生学位论文

(R o sem ar y R a df o rd R u e h er , 19 9 3 :16 5) t

1 .3 s t U d ies o f S ex ism a t H o m e an d A b r o ad

A s th e m o st im P o r ta t n

to o l , la n g u a g e re f l e c ts th e th o u g h t s, a t it U de s, a n d e u lt r e s o f th e P e o P le u

w ho P ro du ee i t or u se it. T h e a n t r oP o l h o g ist an d l in g u ist E dw ard S aP i r (M iller et al, 19 77 : 24 ) eom m en ts: la n gu age 15 a g u ide to so eial realit y .I t P ow erf u ll y eon d i t ion s a ll ou r th ink in g a b ou t so cia l
Prob lem s a n d Pro eesses. T h eref o re , la n g u age h as b eeom e t h e m edium o f exP ression o f the so ei et y .

La n g uag e dev eloP ed w h en m a n

h im self d ev e l o Ped (Sim P son , 19 84 :15 ). L an gu age w as erea t ed by

P eoP le t r o ug h h

Pro du etio n and so eial Praeti e e an d ser v es th eir Pu r p ose. 5 0 , l n g a u ag e 15 su b j eeted to
s , P o litie a l e o n c e P ts a n d

h e r e strietio n s o f P e o P le , 5 liv in g h a t b i ts , t h i k i n ng Pa t em s , b e h a v io r n o r m

eu lt U ra l t r adi t ion s. L a n g u age 15 ref e r ed to a s t h e ex isting f o r m
h i t nki n g . Ju st a s K a rl M a x r Poi t s ou n t : “L a n gu age a n d id e o lo g y

of t h in kin g , as th e iden t i y t

ea r d of

sh a r e a l o n g h is t or y ; l a n g u a g e is a

praetieal and r e alistie id eo lo 豁 ex isting n ot on l y f o r h um a n
19 87 : 9 ). In a w ord , l n gu age m ir a r ors th e hu m a n lan g u age , as a to o lf r o co r m n

b ein gs , b ut also f o r i tself ' (左 少 兴 ,

so ei et y a n d ref l ects hum a n t h ou ghts. N ev er t h eless ,

un iea t ion , 15 l im ited i n sP aee a n d d isa P Pears in a f l ash in tim e .W ritin g(o r

eh a r eters or ser i Pts) , a sy stem o f sy m b o ls , w as er ea e d f t o rr e eor d ing an d eo n vey ing ideas , eon eePts ,
n f i o r m a tio n in t h e f o r n o f v isu a l P e r c eP tio n . A n in g in te r a e t, w l r d t h e er e a t io n o f w ritin g 15 e lo se ly re la t e d to h u m a n tin g a n d la n g uag e i n te r p la y . W ri tin g r ee o rd s n o t o n ly n d g a r a m m a r ,

id e o lo g . y

J u st a s w r iti ng a n d th i k n

la n g u a g e , b u t a ls o th i k in g . E v er n y a n d e v er y w ritin g S y ste m

la n g u a g e c o n s is t s of t h r e e Pa t s: so u n d , v o e a r b u l娜 , so u n d a n d m ea n i ng.B ot h

15 e o m P o se d o f f o r m

la n g u a g e a n d w ri ti ng a r e

Pro d u c t s of so eiet y , o f th i k n

in g a n d of h istor y a s w ell.
e in to b e i ng i n th e 19 6 0 5 , la n g uag e a n d g e n d e r h a s b e e n a P o P u la r issu e

Si n e e so e io lin g u is t ie s c a m

in t h e f i e ld o f li n gu isties. H u m a n

so eiet y i n gen eral 15 m ale dom in a n t, a n d t h e P ersua sive ideo log y

ta k e s m ales as suP erior to f e m ales.M en a n d w om en a r e b io log ieall y d if e ren f t .T h e dif e ren ee in sex f e s
d eter m in e s t h e ir so c ia l ro le s . A lth o u g h d i价 r e nt na t i ons ha v e d if e f ren t la n g uag es a n d di e f re n t

w ritin g s , th e y sh a r e th e g e n e ra l eh a r ae ter o f th i k in g lo g ie . L a n g u a g e b e h a n v i o r ref l e c ts th e so e ia l
d o m in a n e e o f m a n .M a n '5 d o m i n an t , su P e rio r so e ia l s ta u t s a n d w om a n , 5 su b o r d in a t e , in f e rio r s o e ia l

太原理工大学硕士研 究生学位论文

sta U s resu lted i t n lin gu istie sex ism . L in gu istie sexism (also k n ow n as sex ist lan guag e , sex ist la n g u age
u se , a n d P a r ia reh a l la t n g u a g e , g e n d e 卜b ia se d la n g u a g e , m a le 一 b ia se d la n g u ag e , a n d g e n d er ex e lu s iv e

lan g u age)ex ists in n ea r l y al l la n g uag es w e k n ow o f . L in g u istie sex ism co neer n s th e P or r a t y al of m en

as t h e n or m

n d w om en as t a h e a p P end a g e in la n g n a g e(P a n w els , 19 98 :l). It sh ow s th a t m en are
e rea s w o m e n a r e su b o rd in a t e , P a ssiv e , a n d i n f e r i o r. T h e m a le 15 P le , t h e w o rd “m a n , , ea n e f r e rs to

dom i n a n t , P o w e 而 l, a n d su P e rio r , w h

a s so e ia t ed w i th th e u n iv ersa l b u t f e m a le 15 m o re e x e l u d e d . F o r ex a m th e m a le a n d a ll th e h u m a n b e in g s a s w e ll: th e th ir d

P e rs o n sin g U la r P ro n o u n “h e , , 15 o f t en u se d f o r

se x 一 in d e f i n ite o e e a sio n . M a le w o rd s m o re o f t e n h a v e P o sitiv e e o n n o ta t io n s , e o n v ey in g o P in io n o f P o w er , P re stig e a n d le ad er sh iP . I n cont r a st, f e m a le w o rd s m o re o f t en b ea r n eg a t iv e co n n o ta t i o n s,

eonve y i ng w eakl l ess , i nf e ri ori y and i t mma u ri t y .I t n som e B ri ti sh hosPi talnurser y , eaeh new bom ,5 eri b
b e a rs a la b e l an L ou ne i ng i ts se x . T h e la b e l e it h e r re a d s “I , m a b o y , , o r “It , 5 a g irl, , . O b v i o usl y e v e n in

h e m odem soei t et y , the i nf a nts a r e bom w i t h boy s rega r ded as aeti ve sPeaki ng sub j eet , bu t gi rl s ar e
1 0 t.

T h e tr a di tio n a l st u d y o f se x ism 15 sta t ie an d Ia ek s e o n te x t , a n d 15 o f t e n b a se d o n li n g u istic f o r m

s

w ith o u t th e g u id a n c e o f a n y sy ste m ic li n g u istie m o d e l. It P a y s to o m u c h a t en ti o n to sta t ie w o rd s in
sP e e eh . In f a ct , g e n d e r b ias a g a in st w o m en i n la n g u a g e 15 b y n o m e a n s re stri e te d to th o se iso la t ed w o rd s a n d sy n ta x o rn 1s . It 15 m o re a f n id e o lo g ie a l P ro d u e t a n d in d iv id u a l o P in io n t h a n a m er e

li n g uistics P hen om en on an d it ean be exP ressed eon seiou sl y or u neo nscio usl y v ia lan g u ag e. Just as R. A .H u dso n (199 6 :10 3) sa y s th a t lang uag e i tself 15 n ot sex ist, bu t r ef l ects th e sex 一 d iseri m in a t ion o f
la n g u ag e u s ers .

G ilm an ' 5 the M a n 一 M ad e W 6rld (19 11) seriou sly eri ti ci zes the f a et th a t m an has been ae cePted as
h um an i y t , an d w om an b ut a sid e一 issu e. H ow ev er , R ob in L akof f sh ow e d a d i reet lin gu istie im P aet o n

the sy stem a t ie st U dy of la n gu age a n d sex in h is w o r k La n gu age an d W bm an '5 P l aee (19 7 5).H e P oin ts
o u t in th e b o o k : “ 叭范 w ill f ind , 1 t h in k , th a t w o m e n e x P erie n ee li n g u istic d ise r而 i na t io n in t w o w a y s:

i n th e w a y they are tau gh t to u se lang uag e a n d in the g en eral w a y

u se t e a r t s them .”(197 5:4). T h e

assum Pti on t ha t m en ,5 l anguage const i U tes t t he nor m

w hi l e w om en are Pr j udi e ced agai nst i n E ngl ish

h as a r o u se d t h e in ter e st o f m a n y o th er li n g u ists in t h e st o dy o f g e n d e r issu e s su c h a s D . B o lin g er 's T h e

L o aded W 七 aP on (19 80 ) , a n d M .Seh u lz ,5 T h e S em antie D erog a t ion (19 75). T h ey bo th ho l d the sam e
id e a 一 L a n g u a g e 15 sex ism . E sP e e ia lly sin e e t h e f e m in ist m o v e m en t i n t h e 19 6 O s w h 主 eh or i gi n at e d in A m e ri ea and t h en

sP r ea d a ll o v e r th e w o rld , t h e re h a v e b ee n eh a n g e s o f a t it u d e s to w ard s th e la n gu age and gen der . M a n y

一一一一一一一一一一一一一一止丝理廷上题 学位论文 em i f ni st st hi k l n n guage 1 a 5 a Pow e而 1 i ns tr u m ent of Pa r i t r e勿. D al a e SPender sPoke of Engl i sh as
be i ng m a n 一 m ad e a n d a s b e in g an im P o r ta t n eon r t ib u t o r to w o m en ,5 o P P re s sio n . W h e n th e issu e s 9 0 a l, it 15 a ls o e o n r t o lle d b y o u r id e o l og y .

u r f h er t , so m e P o st m o d e m ism h o ld s t h a t la n g u a g e 15 n o t n eu r t e W ou s r e lv e s a r e c rea t ed a n d s U r t et u re d a s

so e ia l b e in g s b y le脚 i n g a la n g u a g e . T h a t 15 , la n gu age

sh ow s m en a n d w om a n

dif e r f e n t ly. T h is m a y
C a m

su ggest t h a t i t 15 n ecessar y

o r w om en to erea f t e new

w a y s to u s e la n g u a g e . D e b o ra h h e w t h

e ro n P o i n ts o u t se x ism a ssu m P tio n s a n d P ra c tiee s a n d q ue s t io n s th e li n g u is t ie P ra c t ie e s a r e i m P lie a t e d in a s a so c ia l m o v e m e n t st r i v in g f o r th e

o le se h o la r ly b a s is o f lin g u istie s a n d sh o w s h o w n d o P P re s sio n . M o r a e o ver , f e m in ism

P a tria r c h a l id e o lo g y

lib era t ion of w om en a n d eq u a li y oft t h e sexes h a s i tself b een a rieh so u rce o f d a taf o r lin g U istic st u d y.
N o t o n ly h a s t h e s o e ia l m o v em e n t g iv en rise to n e w eX P re s sio n s w h ieh h a v e a n o f vo ea b u la r y , b ut i t a lso en g a g e d i n a P ro g r am im P a e t o n th e str u et U re th e

o n la n g u a g e P la n ni n g in o rd er to e li m in a e t

g e n d e r一 b ia s f o u nd i n t h e str u et U re s a n d u se s o f m a n y la n g u a g e s. A n

ne P a u w e l ,5 m o n o g r a p h W 6 m en

C ha n g in g L ang uag e(19 9 8) sP eeiall y m ention ed the v iew s an d aetion s on lang uag e P la i n in g i r n
d if e re n t la f n g U age s a n d d if e r f e n t so e ie tie s , f r o m w h ie h th e w riter o f th e t h e sis g o t th e i n sP ira t io n f o r

th e eu r

en t eo m P a r a t ive st U d ies of sex ism a n d it s r e f o r m

in E n glish an d C hin ese.
t en a t io n

U n d er t h e in f l uen ee o f t h e w e ste m

se h o la r s , so m e C h i n e se seh o la r s ha v e sta t ed t r o Pa y

to C h inese la n g u a g e a n d gen der diserim i na t io n .P eoP le b ega n to b e a c ad em ieall y a w a r e of sex ism i n
th e C h i n e se lan g u a g e d u rin g t h e N ew C u l u r t e M o v em e n t in t h e e a rl y t w en t ie th e e n tu r y .F o r e x a m P le ,

h e C h inese eh a t c r

ter 她 f o r sh e w as t h en inv en t e d b y L iu B a n n on g in 19 18. It w as t h e f i rst ti m e i n la n g uag e (熊 文 华 , 19 97 ). B et w een the la t e 197 05

w om en w ere g an t ed as an ind ep en d en t id en t i y t

n d t a h e ea r ly 1 9 8 0 5 , so m e seh o la rs in C h in a n o t ie e d t h e in f l u e n ee o f th e w este m w o m e n '5 m o v e m e n t o n la n g u ag e , a n d t h ey b ega n to i r t n o d u e e th is P h e n o m en o n . T h ey w e re th e se h o la r s w ho i n i t ia t ed t h e

st U ' 即 of t h ei nf l ue n ee of W bm en ,5 M ovem ent on l n g a u a g e , esPeci al y on t l h e E ngl is h l n guage.T hen a
i n t h e 19 8 0 5 , so m e li ng u itists d e a lt w it h h e f t o r m n d d if a e r en e e o f g e n d er la n g f n a g e lik e D a i

e i W dong(戴伟栋 , 1983) , 、乞 ng Y o ngl i n( 杨 永林 , 1987) a n d Zhao W e i qu n (张维群 1989). si nee t he 19905 , i n addi ti on t of ur t her i nq u 岭 i tot n he f or m n d eha a r ac t eri st i es of gender l n g a u age , resea r ehers
h e P ersP e e tiv e o f t

ha v e sta t e d to ex P lo re t r h e r e la t io n sh iP b e t w een gend er a n d la n g u age f r om

so e i o lin g u istie s , P sy c h o li n g u istie s , P ra g m a t ie s , se m a n tic s a n d ero ss一 eu l U ra l c o m m u n i t ea t io n . In o n e

sen se , the st u d y o f la n gua ge a n d gen der 15 f U itf r u l, b u t eom Pared w it h tha t in o t h er eo un r ies , i t t 15 still
a t a P rim a r y sta g e . B u t se rio u s an d sy st e m a t ie st u d ie s in se x ism in C h in e se w e r e on l y f o u n d in t h e Past

w ent t y y ea r s. T h eir st u d ies f o eused on sex ism i n C hi n ese eh arac t ers an d v o ea b u lar y cou P l ed w i th a
6

太原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文

bri ef expl ana ti on as t o w hy sexi sm shoul d ha v e oeeur r ed. C hang Ji ng y u(常 敬 宇 ) a n d

h ng

D ef e ng(杨德 峰) a n al yzed sex i sm l i ngui sti e prac ti ees f r om t he perspecti ve of l exi eol o舒 pa n Ji n (潘 a
健 ) eon du cted som e eo m p ara t i v e st u dies i n sex ism in C h inese a n d E n glish .B u t t h eir st o dies ha v e n ot
to u eh e d u P o n s ex ism f r o m th e P ersP e e ti v e o f d isc o u rse a n al y s is in w h ie h th e id ea l o f se x ism 15 h id d e n ,

n d they ha a v en ' t sei ent i i eal f y a l n d ob j eet i vel y ProPosed how to reduee or el 而i na te t h e sexi sm i n
la n g U ag已

T her e f o re , la n g u a g e sh o u ld b e t r ea t ed a s a sP e e i ie a f r en a o f str u g g le a g a in st s e x ism . T h is th e sis 1 5 a ten ta tiv e e n d e a v o r to a n a ly z e t h e m erit a n d m ake uP f o r th e d e f iei e n e ies i n t h e a c h iev e m e n ts i n e m in ism a f n d la n g u a g e st u d ie s 50 f r a m a d e in C h i n a a n d E n g lish 一 sP e a k in g e o u n t rie s , w i th i ts f o eu s on

se x i s m in C h in e se a n d E n g lish , b y u s i n g a co m P a ra tiv e a n al y sis a P P ro a e h f o r th e re se a reh . C u r e n t st U d ie s a b o u t t h is to P ie h a v e d ev e lo P ed f r om l in g u istic v ar i a b le s to e o n tex t 一 s P e e if i c eo n n e e te d s P eeeh . , in

B u t St u d ie s o n th e se x ism in la n g u a g e a re n o t sy stem a tic . w 已la ek o f a la r g e n u m b e r o f sta t istie d a t 50 t h e eur ent w o k r in te n d s to d o so m e e m p irie a l r e sear e h .T h er e f o r e ,t h er e 15 still a Io n g w a y t o 9 0

th e st u dy o f g en de: i n sen t en ee a n d d iscourse(z hao R on ghu i 赵 蓉 晖 , 17 8) .

太原理工大学硕士研 究生学位 论文

太 原理工 大学硕士研 究生学位论文

C h a P te r T w o

M a n if e sta tio n s o f S e x ism in b o th E n g lish a n d
C h in e se

t 15 a f n

obv iou s f a et t h a t i n th e h um a n

eo m m un it y ,

abo ut h alf of its m em b ers a r ef e m ale , b ut a n

m a se u li n e la n g u a g e 15 u sed f o r b o th se x e s. T h

t 1 a 5, I an g u a g e 15 e en te red a b o u t th e m a le . T h is u sa g e

le a d s to a lin g u istie s e x ism . I n t h is e h a p ter t h e P ro b lem w i ll b e d ise u sse d f r om t h ef o llo w i n g a sP e e t s :

2 . 1 S ex ism

in L ex is

2 .1 .1 G en er ic M a scu lin e

In lin gu istie realit y ,

the g en erie P ron oun s a e r

of t en reP resen t ed by m aseu line P ron ou ns sueh as

“ m an , he , hi s, , i n E ngl i sh and “他 , 他 的 , 他们 , 他们的 ”i n C hi nese.T hese w or d sr ef e rt o both m a一 es
an d f e m ale s , e v en su ch g en e ra l te r m s a s “h u m a n b e in g s , ' o r “m a n k in d ” , w i th th e o v e r t im p lie a t io n th a t

m ales are t h e stand a r da n d n or m s o f a llh um a n it y .T h is Ph eno m en on ean be ob ser v ed in ord inar y u ses ,
P ro v e rb s , d ieta a n d rid d le s . T a k e t h e f o llo w i n g as an ex m a P le .

(l) T here 15 a h isto r y in all ,n en '5 liv es. (2) M an , bein g a m a m m al, breastf e eds h i s y o un g .(a sP eei ie f f e m ale)

(3 ) 母亲不但孕育 、生养 自己的孩子 , 而且 还要把 他教育成人 , 让他能够为祖 国为人 民有所贡献 。
(杨沫 《 (青春之 歌) 》 ( ) 从笔迹上 看不 出他是男 的还是女 的. ( 《现代 汉语 词典 》 1996 , 第 12 巧页) 4
B e sid e s , m a n 一 lin k e d w o rd s a n d P h ra se s a r e u s ed to d e n o te in d iv i u a ls o f b o th m a le s an d f d e m a le s su eh a s “f r e sh m a n , , , m a n 一 m a d e , , , “m a n k in d , , a n d “t h e w o rld o f th e m an , ,. H o w e v e 几 th e g e n erie m a se u lin e
u sa g e 15 b e lie v e d to h a v e f a u lts o n th e r e a sP e e ts . F irst , th e re 15 n o P a r a lle lism b et w e e n th e m a le a n d

o m a le te r f m s. “T h e w o rld o f m a n , , eo ncer n s b o th m a le a n d h um a n

b e in g s : “th e w o rld o f w o m a n , , e a n

on ly enco m P asses f e m al e m ea n in g. S eeon d , th ere 15 a m b igu i y in deter t m in i n g w het h er “m an ,, 15 m ea n t
to i n e lu d e o r e x c lu d e f e m a le . T h ird , th e re 15 a n in e lu si v eness w hen t h e g e n e ric m a s e u lin e e le a r l y
in e lu d e s a f e m a le in ter p re ta t io n su e h a s in “m a n n e e d s w a t er ,f o od an d ai r to li v e ., , It 15 50 su r p risin g th a t th e w rite r b e g in th e P re se n t d ise u ssio n w i th se x ism
9

i n g e n e rie w o rd s . It 1 5 a e o m m o n P ra etie e in

— 叁遵理工木学硕士研究生学 位论文 bot h E ngl ish a n d C hi n ese t ha t the m ascul i ne ter m sa r e used generi eal y t l o eover t he eases of the
e m a le . f

n E n glish a I n d C h inese , w h en ref eri n g to P eoP le takin g eer a in job s , w it t h eer t ai n ea r eers or o f
e er t ai n sta u t s, m a n n d m a a n 一 lin k e d w o rd s a r e a d o P te d to e o v e r P e o P le o f b o th g en d er s口 W 七e a n g iv e a

lo n g list o f w o rd s o f t h is k i n d :eha l n 刀a n , eon g r e ssm a n , sa le sm a n , P o lie e m a n , w o r拓 m a n ,f i sh e r m an , c t e.

n d w e ealla Person ofB ri a ti sh na ti onal y a t i n Engl i shm a n .A n dt h es u den t t i nt h ef r s i tyea r of eol lege 1 5 eal l ed f r eshm a n .M a叮 w ords a r e used as m aseul n e ter i m s generi eal l y i n bot h Engl i sh a n d C hi nese(朱 文俊 ,2 000).T he basi e m ea n i ng of f t her 15 t a h e m al e paren t , bu t i t al so has som e ex t ended m ea n i n gs. For e x am P l e ,f a t h er i nt he heri t age of our f at he几m eans an a n eest ort ha t m盯i nel ude t hef e m al e. 父辈
in C h in e se m e a n s e ld er g e n e ra t io n in g e n e ra l th a t m a y in v o lv e b o th se x e s. B r o t h e r so m e tim e s r e f e rs to

af ri end or a co呷 ani on · For i nsta n ce , br o t h erhood i n E ngl i sh a n d 兄弟 (bro h er) i t n 四海之 内皆兄 弟 (A l lm en w i t hi n the f o ur seas a r e brot h ers) i n C hi nese , both m ean t he rel ti a onshi p bet w een peopl e
in g e n e r a l, n o t n e e e ss a r ily e x e lu siv e to m e n .

t 15 a c o m m o n P ra f c tie e i n bo t h E n g lish a n d C h in e se th a t t h e m a se u lin e te r m s are u se d g e n e rie a lly to c o v e r t h e c a se s o f t h e f e m a le , w h n e h ei t r eo un t er p a t s “m o t r h er , sis t er ' , sh o u ld b e sP e e if i e d . T h is

Pr a etice lea ds to t h e inv isib ilit y of w om en in li ng u is i c rePrese t t a n t ion .

2 .1 .2 S ex ism in 、 V o rd o r d er

T h e as y m m e tr y

in th e re P re se n t a t io n o f w o m e n a n d m en i n b ot h

E n g lish a n d C h i n e s e 15 re f l e ete d in

h e w ord ord er w h en m en a t n d w om en are P resent e d to get h er. M en a r e gi v en Priori y w h ile W o m en t
o ll f o w b eh i n d . F o r ex a m P le , i n E n g lish th e f o llo w in g a r e f X e d e x P re ssio n s : h u sb a i n d a n d w i e , so n a f n d
da u g h ter , b ro t h e r an d s is t er , h o st a n d h os t ess, k i n g an d q u e e n . T h e 1 sth e e n t U r y r am m ar ex g P er ts

o r f m u la t ed th e r u les , t h a t 15 , th e la n g u age o f m en 15 su Per i or to w om en (B aron , 19 8 6) , 50 t h e w o rd
re f e r in g to m e n sh o u ld b e P la c e d in f r on t of w om en , o t h er w ise i t 15 a v io la t i on oft h e nat U ra l o rd er .

si m il r e却r a e ssi ons can be 允und i n e hi nese: 夫妇 、 夫妻 、 男女 、 父母 、 公婆 、 叔婶 、 兄嫂 、 弟妹 、

夫贵妻 荣 、 夫唱妇 随 、 男耕女织 、 善男信女 、 痴 男怨女 、 男婚女嫁 、 男盗女娟 、 男尊女卑 、 男
女有别 、 男婚女聘 、 男欢女爱 、 男媒 女约~~ 二(常敬宇 , 1 9 9 5 : 19 )
t I se em s th a t m a le s a e r 50 i m P or ta t n , 50 d o m in an t , 50 w ise a n d 50 P o w e rf u l, t h a t th e y sh o u ld

al w 叮5 oceuPy t h ei ni ti alPl aees i n Ph x ases.T ha t 15w h y you m 叮 f i nd 50 m any m al e一 i ni ti alPh r ases i n
l0

太原理工大学硕士研 究生学位 论文

bot h E ngl i sh sueh as:f t her a a n d m ot h er(父母) , husba n d and w i e (夫妻), son a f n d daug h t er(儿 女) , M r .
n d M a r s . (先 生 、 太 太 ).
S om e lin g u ists e la im h a t t m an 一 w o m an w o rd o rd e r 15 a r n g ed a n i a w a y th a t o llo w s a f

“g o o d 一 to 一 b a d , , s eq u en e e , W h h I

ie h i m P lie s t h a t m e n a re su P e ri ora n d w o m en in f e rio r ·

E n g lish a n d C h i n e se , m a le s ' w o r d s a r e re g a r ded as n or m s o f la n g u ag e a n d f e m al es'a r e m ad e P le , m a le 一 介m a le , m a n 一

b y a d d in g v a r io u s k in d s o f P re f i x e s a n d su f i x e s to a m a le ,5 w o rd . F o r ex m a w om a n , h o st一 h o ste s s , h e i扮 h e 廿e ss , h ero - 1 1e ro i n e , u sh e ~

u sh e re t e . I n f l e e tio n s a r e m o re im P o r ta n t

i n E ngl i sh. I n

a hi h l g y i nf l eeted l anguage , the reader w oul d f i nd i t Prof i ta b l e t o ma k e use of
Engl ish su e h c u e s a r e ver y u se f u l. o le g r a m m a r d e P e n d s o n th e w o rd P o sitio n a n d th e w o r d 15 a n u n m a rk ed e a t ego r y but w om a n 15 th e m a k r m e an in g s . A s to

in f l ec t io n a l e u e s .h i

B u t in C h in e se , th e w h

g e n d e r issu e , t h e n o ti on ofm a n

e d ea teg o 仃 i n E n g lish .

h i T s 15 ref l eet ed i n Pai rs of w ords t ha t a r e di st i ngui shed 妙 ge n der.W l len a w o r d ref e ri ng t o a Pe r son
15 d is t in g u ish e d b y g e n d e r , t h e f e m in in e f o r m 15 o f t e n m a rk e d w i t h a su f i x su e h a s “一 e ss , , to sh o w

e m al f e '5 soci al st t a U ' s a n d i denti y or f t e m al e '5 prof e ssi on. For exa m ple , w ai r ess(女服 务 员 ) , t

eount ess(女伯 爵) , a c t r ess(女演 员 ) , m i st r ess(女教 师 ) , di ea ta t ress(女 独 裁 者) , goddess(女神 ) ,
deaconess(女 执 事) , duehess (女公 爵) , em press (女皇 ) , hei ress(女继 承人 ) , host ess(女 主人 ) , mi l z i onai ress(女百万 富翁 ) , neg ess(女黑人 ) , pa t roness(女庇护人 ) , peer e ss(女贵族) , pr i neess(公

主) , ei ti zeness (女公 民):songstr ess(女歌唱家) , poc t ess(女诗人) , ac t ress (女演员 ) , ai rhos tess(空
姐 ) , edi tr e ss(女编 辑 ) , govem ess(家 庭 女 教 师) , m anageress(女经 理) , propri etr e ss(女业 主) ,
av iatress( 女 飞 行 员 ) , stew ard ess( 女 乘 务 员 ) , w aitress( 女 侍 者 ) , eon ductr e ss (女 指 导 ) , p h iloso p heress(女哲 学家 ).
In co m m on ea ses , th e m aseu li n e ter m
un m a r k ed . T h e un m ar k ed f o r m

15 f o r m ally u nm ar k ed a n d a lso nor m ally sem antieall y

ean ref e r to m en o r w ho le h um an b eing s i n gen era l (as in 俪 ) y er;

w orker: seh oo l m a s t er ) . W llen a sP eaker w ish es to ref e r to a Prof e ssor reg ard less o f sex , ` 乡ro e ssor , , f

t ends to be used;w hi l e ref e ri ng t of e m al e, ` 舜m al e P尹 e ssor , , t f o ends t o be used.I t 1 5t h e sam e w i h t
te r m s re f e r in g to “a m a y o r, , , “m 卿 o r , , te n d s to b e u se d a s b o th a m a le a n d a s ex 一 n eu t ra l te r m ;w h ile

ref e ri ng t of e m al e, ` 户m al e ,na y or ” or “w o胡 an m 卿or , ' t endsto be used.
If te r m s su eh a s m 句夕 or; d o ct o r : s ch o o l m a s te r m a k e u s t h in k o n ly o f m a l e s , th e n te r m s w ith 一 m an

are even m o re li k ely to d o 50.A g r eat m an y w o r d s are eon st r u eted 妙 t h e ad dition of t h e w ord “ m a n ,,. H ow m an y w o m en are lik ely to aP P l y f o r job s w hen the adv er t isem ents sa y tha t th e em P l oy er 15

l ooki ng f o r a sal e s ,, ,翻 , 血 ` ] ,,a t n ,户 en7 an or s P ort s nZ an? I t seem s tha t t here 1 5a s ystem a ti c basi sf or
lI

一一一一一一一一一一一一一一进逗笙望登 硕全班塞 生堂位论文
lin gu isti c di serim in ation again st w om en in E n glish . T h e st U r
an d g r al n m a r sh o w d iser i m in a tio n a g a in st w o m en . T h e w or d s, w r o

ct u res of la n gu ag e itself一 i ts vo ea b u lar y
d f o r m s a n d m e a n in g s e a u se d t h is

di scri mi na ti on agai ns t w om en , a n d m ade w om en sem a t i n eal y i l nvi si bl e or sem a n t i eal l y deg r aded.T h i s
15 n o w o rse t h a n w om en ha v i n g to liv e w i h t h e f t e e li n g th a t t h ey a r e P er m a n e n t ex e e P tio n s to a m a le

(suP Po sed h um an bein g ) 几加 . T o retum t o ou r f o eu s o n m a n

and t h er e l atio nshiP b e扣 叭 ℃ en lex is and

o ur PercePtion or tho u gh丸w e w ill n ow ex a m in e m a n a n d ot h er 50一 ea lled generi e一 m aseu li n e w o rd s in

eontex t s.St u di es ha v e been under ta k en , m ostl yb y soei alPsyehol ogi s ts , t o tes tt h e ex t en t tha t usage of h e 50一 t eal l ed gener ie m a n eauses m al e bi as i n t h oug h t .T h er e sea c h i r n Psyehol og y h oug t h t 1 5 af e et f ed by l n guage , t a ha t m ental i m ager y does show t ha t

1 5 di e rent a f c eordi ng to w het h er 、 a n

su f i X / P erso n o r su f i x / n o w o rd s a re u se d a n d a lso t h e n ega t i ve ef e ets o f 一 m a n c o m P o u n d s u P o n v isu a l

judg m ent s.U si ng “ ma n ,, t o m ean bot ht he m ale hum an and al lhum an 1 5 eonf u si ng.T he l exi eon of t he
E n g lish la n g u ag e m a k e s it d if i eu lt to e x P res s w o m e n , 5 e x P e rie n e e s . C h i f n e se lo g o g r a P h ic w ritin g , o n th e o th e r h a n d , w i h t i ts e o m b in a t io n o f d e t e肋 in a t i v e an d P ho n e t ie , d o e s n o t in v o l ve t h is P ro b le m . 玩

C hi n ese t h ere 15 a eh arac t er “人 ”(p erson ) ref eri n g to t h eW h o le h um a n b ein g , b oth m ale a n d f e m ale ,

50 t h e Probl em s seem to be a v oi ded.从 币i l et he Pr obl em s w i h t t h e job t i l es i t n C hi nese a r e si mi la r to h ose i t denti i ed i f n E ngl i sh.It seem s tha t job ti t l es a r e onl y a P Pl i ed t o m en ex c eP t af e w jobs sueh as
nu s r e , sec r e ta 矛 ) a n d el e m ent a 理 t e a c h e r. Y o u e a n n o t a d d a su f i x to e x P re ss t h e g e n d er . If a w o m a n 15

doi ng ajob , “女 ” (w om a n )1 5 usual y added t l o the nor m alti tl e , e. g. “靓女记者 , 女律 师 , 女 司机 , 女市长 , 女部长 , 政治局常委(女).”

2 .1.3 N eg a ti V e C o n n o ta tio n s o f w o m en '5 W o rd s

B esi de t hei neq u al i y m en t ti oned a b ove , the aPPa r en il y exaet eounter pa t si r n l ang u age ea n bri ng
d ra stic a lly e o n r a stiv e c o n o ta t t io n s . I n P o si t iv e m e a n in g s a n d w o m a n bo t h E n g lish a n d C h i n e se , th ere a r e te r m s f o r m e n w it h

w it h n ega t iv e m e a n i n g . E sP e e ia lly , som e Pai r e d w o rd s re f e r i n g to m e n 15 f a ra w y a r o m d e ro g a f t or y rem a rk s ,

a n d w o m en h a v e q u ite d if e re n f t a s so c ia t i o n s. T h e m a sc u li n e ter m

con n o tin g st r en g th a n d Po w er , W h ile th e f e m in ine f o r m

u n dergo es derog a t ion , earry in g sex u al

eon n ot a ion s , e . g . lo rd / la即 , b aron e灯 da m e , gov em o r / gov em ess , m ister / m ist r ess , w id ow er / w idow ,
Pa r on t / m a t r o n , sir / m ad a m d ev e lo P e d q u i t e d if e f , w iz a rd / w i t eh , b a c h e lo r / sP i n ster . F o r ex a m P l e , “m a s te r a n d m ist r ess,, h a v e w h o 15 th e h e a d o f w i th a m a n , , h as a

re n t ra n g e s o f u se a n d m e a n i n g .W h i le “m a ste r, , m e a n s “a m a n

a h o u se o r f a m il y , , , “m ist r e s s , , m e an s n o t o n ly “a f e m a le m a ste r ' , bu t a lso “a w o m a n
l2

太原理工大学硕士研 究生学位 论文
so e ia ll y u n a e c eP te d Se x u a l re la t io n sh iP . W h il e Joa n b e d e se rib ed a s J o a n , 5 m a ste r. Y o u e a n S a ll y ,5 w i d o w e r, , . “B a eh e lo r , , r e f e rs to a n u nm a r ie d f e m a le , b u t b a e h e lo r g irl. S im ila r to “m a ster a n d m istre ss , , 15 th e u se o f “w id o w a n d w id o w er ' , . T h e o retic a ll y sP ea k in g , a b er ea v e d h u sb a n d a n d a b e rea v ed w if e a r e eq u i v a le n t: th ey h a v e bo t h u n d erg o n e th e 10 5 5 o f a m a t e. ea n b e d e serib e d as F r e d , 5 m ist r e ss , F re d c a n n o t n o t sa y “F re d 15

sa y “S a lly 15 F re d ' 5 w id o w , , , b u t y o u ea n un m r a i e d o r sin g le m a le , b u t

“sP in ster , , n o t o n l y m ea n s an a币 ed g i rl 15 e a lle d a

al s o h a s th e e o r n o ta i t io n o f in su lt. B e sid e s , an u n m

B u t in f a c t , lin guistically a t any ra t e,t h is 15 n ot t u e , as evid enee 场 t r h ef o llow i ng:
(l) M a尽 15 Joh n ,5 w i d ow · (2) Joh n is M 娜 '5 w i d ow er ·

玩 t h e ex am P les , (l) 15 by all m ean s aceeP ta b le , (2) 15 g en er a l ly co n sidered abn or m a l. W id ow
eo m m on l y o e e u rs w ith th e n a m e o f th e w o m e n '5 h u sb a n d im P ly i n g th a t a w if e b e lo n g s to t h e h u sb a n d ,
ev e n if h e 15 d e a d . W h ile a h u sb a n d 15 a lw a y s in d e P en d en t in an y si tu a tio n , a n d th e re f o r e , w id o w e r

d o e s n o t re q u i re t h e na m

e oft h e w if e to P ree e d e i t. L o o k a t a n o th er P a i r o f ex a m

P le :

(l) H e 15 a Pro f e ssion al.
(2) S h e 15 a P ro f e ssion al.

T h e sam e ter m
n or m

h as q u i te dif e rent, o f f t en d ero ga t or y e onn ota t ion s f o r w om en . F o r sen ten ce (l) , th e

a l e o n e lu sio n w o u l d be t h a t h e 15 a d o e to r o r a la 认 叹er o r a m e m b e r o f s o m e o t h er r e sP e e ta b le

P ro f e ssio n s , bu t i t 15 less likely that on e w ou ld dra w

a sim ila r eon elusion in sen t en ee (2). In stead , t h e

i r st re a etio n o f th e n a f t i v e sP e a k e rs w o u ld b e th a t sh e 15 a P ro s ti U e . T h ere a re n u m e ro u s su ch t
ex a m P le :

(l) H e 15 a se cretar y . (H e w or k sf o r an org aniza t ion . )
(2) S h e 15 a seeretar y .(S h e 15 a Prosti u te . t )
T h e w o rd “la d y , , , w h ie h o rig i n a lly r e f e r e d to w o m e n o f P re stig e in th e a g e o f e h iv a lr y , h a s eo m e

to su gg est a sen se o f h elPless , i m P ly ing th a t sh e ean n ot d o th ing s f o r h ersel式or eont r ol f o r h er ow n
d e stin y . T h e re f o re , it c o m e s d o w n r om f f la t er y to d er o ga t io n . S im ila r to th e w o rd “la d y , , , “g i rl, , 叭 a1 e h d n s a ,

w or d itself , ha s a lo ng h ist o r y o f sP ecialization . O rigi n ally , it m eant a eh ild o f e it h er sex , t h en
sP e e i i c to m e a n a f f e m a le e h ild . L a t er, i t aequ i r e d th e m e a n in g s o f a se r v in g g i r l o r m a id se r v a n t, o f a Pr o stit l t t e o r a m ist e ss . T o d a r y h e te r t m h a s im P r o ved , and r e f e r e d to a y o u n g w o m a n . B u t w h en

a d u lt w o m e n re f e r to e a eh o t h e r a s g irls , th e y m a y im P ly in g t h a t th e y a r e yo un ger, or m or e im m a tu r e

b e e lim in a t in g th e ir ro l e s a s w o m e n . T h e y a re aet u a ll y ar e . S o m e tim e s o ld er w o m e n w ill

th a n th e y
l3

一一一一一一一一一一一一一一一竺堰里卫进 硕全研塞生学位论 文
u se t h e ter m in a n ef o r f t to f e el y oun g er , w h ieh 15 in con sisten t w ith realit y . T he e om P li m en t ar y
P o te n i ia l o f t h e w o rd 15 o f s et by t h e e o n o ta t io n t h a t t h e P e rso n 15 n o t re sP o n sib le o r se rio u s . T o o

r eq f u en t ly w o m en a r e ref e r in g to each ot h er a s ladies o r as girls , b u t m en a r e ref e r ed to as “m en , ', no t
“g en t le m en , , o r “b o y s , ,.

T here 15 even a s ym m etri eal use i n sueh Pai rs as “boy一 gi rl,, , “gentl em en一 l a勿 , ,, “m a n 一 w om a n , ,,
“h usb a n d一 w if e , ,, w it h t h e con n ot t io ns of tr a i v ialit y , sex ua li y a t n d im m at u rit y Presen t an d ob v iou s in

t he f e m a! e w ords.h i the a m r

y,t h e trooPs a r e usual y ref l e r ed t o as “ our boys , ,, w hi l eaf e m al e sol di er
n d a

15 e a lle d “g irl, , . “B o y , , 15 a g o o d a n d en e o u r a g in g k i n d o f w o rd , w h ere a s “g i rl, , 15 d ero g a t or y d em ea n i n g . T h e w o rd “b o y ,, ea n b e u se d to re f e rt o

a ll e h ild re n w i t h P o si tiv e c o r n o ta i t io n s a s in th e “g irl” c a r ie s th e n e g a t i ve

P h ra se “b o y w o n d er , , a n d i n th e P ro v e r b

“B o y s w ill b e b o y s., , B u t t h e w or d

e on n ota t ion of “illiei t f e m ale l ov er of a m a r ied m a n ,,.T h e w ord “la勿 , , 15 u sed in m a n y m ore eo n t eX t s

tha n i t s m al e equi val en t “gentl em a n , ,, i nevi tabl y wi t h nega ti ve eon n ot ti a on.T he w or d “ w om a n ,,, l i ke
h e w or t d s “g irl, , a n d “la d y , , e a n 't a v o id th e f t e o f e a r 夕i a n g n e g a tiv e m e a n in g . T h e w o r d “w if e ,, ea n

ref e r to illi t era te f e m ales , b ut i t s eou n t er p a t r
m a le s .

“h u sba n d , , b ea r s no resP on sib ilit y to ref e r to illi t era te

A nother Praet i ee t ha t t rea t s w om en di e ren f tt y f o m m en eoneer r n s eour t esy t i t l es.T he E ngli sh
la n g u a g e d is t i n g u ish e s w o m en , 5 e o u r t e sy ti t le s o n th e b a sis o f m a r i ta l s ta u t s, bu t n o t th o se o f m e n .

T h is d iserim ina t or y P raetiee 15 said to m ark the a v ailab i li y t
e i r nf o rees the v ie w

o f w om en in ter m s o f m ar r iage an d

th a t a w om en 15 th e P ro P e勿 o f a m an 一 ei h er h er f t at h er o r h er hu sb a n d.A

o m e n '5 n a w m e m ust be eseor e d by a m ale之 t 5 na m e , reg a rdleSS w h et h er h e in h is o w n
a m o u s a s th e w o m a n . F o r ex a f m

rig h t 15 a s

P le , C h a r lo t B ro n te w a s id e n tif i e d a s M rs . A r h u r B . N ieh o lls . T h is t

prac t iee has b een in t rod ueed i t o C h in a sinee the t n u r n of t h et w en t iet h een u 卿: 先 生 (M r) 15 u sed to t

address m en w i thout di e r f e nti ti a ng hi s m ari talsta t us , w hi l e 夫人 or 太太(M r s) and 小姐( M i ss) a re
sp eeif i ed ba sed on the i r ma r ital s ta u s. O eeasio nall t y 先 生 is u sed to add r ess f e m ale , b ut reser v ed

onl y f o rf e w hi h l g y esteem ed f e m al es sueh as 宋 庆龄 先生.
A s w e se e to d a y , it 15 m e n w h o d e sc ri b e an d d ise u ss w o m e n in sex u a l ter m sa n d in su lt th e m w it h

sex ua l slu r s , an d t h e w ealt h of de o r

ga t o叮 ter m sf o r w om en rev eals som eth i n g of t h ei r h o stilit y .A bo ut

i n su ltin g 一 e m a le n o u n s , in v e stig a f t i o n s o f th e v o e a b u la r y o f se x in la n g u a g e re v e a l th a t w o rd s , P h r a se s
n d m e ta P h o rs d e sig a n a t i n g w o m en en gag i ng in se u x a l a e ti v iti es f a r o u tm i m b e r th o se f o r m en .

S chu lz(19 75 ) lo ea t ed ab ou t l ,00 0 ter m s and Ph r ases deseribin g w om en i n sexu ally d ero ga t or y w ay s. S ta n le y (19 7 7b ) reeo rds 220 ter m s tha t d esig n a t e a sex ually Pro m iseu o us w o m a n as oPP o sed to 2 0 f o r
14

太原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文

m en (Pa u w el s , 1998: 53).In som e m etaPhors , f e m al es a r e desi n a g t ed , notabl y , m etaPhors i v ol n vi ng ref e reneest o免 m al e persons , e. g.Sl ut (放荡 女子) , gossi p(饶舌者) , w hore(妓女) , hoyden(粗野的女孩), sl t em (邀遏 的女人 ), spi a n st er(老处女), ter m agant(泼妇) , m ol l (罪犯 的妍妇) ,pai nted l d y(浓妆艳抹 a 的女子), eal lgi rl ( 应 召女郎):t h er e a r e al so m et 叩hors eo哪 a ri g n pros ti u tes to ani t m al s, e · 9 .bedbug ,

bi rd , bi teh , bun n y , ea t , ehi cken , cow , erone , hen , Pi geon;a n d m et aphors i v ol n vi ng r ef e renee to ob j eet s,
e .9 . cr u m P e t, d ish , to m a t o , d o ll. I n th e sy ste m o f C h in e s e w ritin g , i ts g r ea t a d v a n ta g e is th a t it is e a s ier to lo o k f o r th i n g s e o m p a re d w it h E n g lish . C h i n e se id eo g r a P h ie a l e h ara e te rs g i v e u s st r o n g er v isu a l

st i m ul us than t he al phabet E ngl i sh upon ou r t houghts; som e w ords w i h 女 ( t w om a n ) as eha r aet er com ponentsuch as “妇 , 妻 , 妾 , 妃 ”and “好 ”m ore cl ea rl ya n d ex P l i ei tl y gi ve uspi ct ur es ofw om en 's
lo w sta t u s in f a m il y and so ciet y ;t h ere are m ore vo eati v es to ad dress w om en in an eien t C h in 气 su eh as

“贱 内 , 贱人 , 糟糠 , 内人 , 内助 , 内主 , 奴家 , 贱 妾 , 卑 妾 , 老婆 , 婆娘 , 家 里的 , 屋里 的 ,

做饭 的 , 烧火 的 , 孩子他娘 , , and s 。 。 n.A eeordi ng t。the di cti ona卿 C i H a i (辞海) , t here are 100
C h in ese w o rds w ith 女 eon eer n ed w i th 4 7 p o si tive m ea n i n gs an d 3 5 w i th neg a ti v e m eanin g s du e to

e m al f et r ea t ed as an aPPreci t ed ob a j ect by t h e m al e.W hi l ei n E ngl ish t here 1 5 onl y one w ord f o rt he
legal u nio n of a m an a n d w om an as h usband and w i e .T h e C h i f n ese eh araeter “女 ” in a inscription on
b on es, i n th e sh a P e lo o k s li k e a w o m a n w h o 15 如 e e lin g f a e in g to th e rig h t. C h in e se e h a ra et e rs

eom posed of the w ord “女 ,' nex t t o t he w ord , sueh as “娇 , 妩 , 娟 ”, 1 5 deseri bed as w om a n 's
aPP ea r a n c e , P o stu r e , d em ea n o r. T h e se w o rd s f u ll y ref l e e t th e lo w sta t u s o f w o m e n , sh o w in g a w o m a n

ju st to P lease m en , f o r m en '5 P la y in g a n d en ter t ai n m en t.T hese eh araeters ar e com m on ly used w ords ,
b ut t h ey f u ll y ref l e e t th e C h in e se w o m e n i n th e P ast w e re o P P re sse d . A m a n in te n d s to in su l t a n o th e r m a n b y s ay in g “y o u th in k lik e a w o m a n , , e a n ever y su e ee e d . B e e a n se

m an th in k s it 15 a n in su l tin g P ra etie e to e m P lo y th e w o rd “w o m a n ” to re f e r to a m an . In eo n trast , , , . T o sa y th a t a i ne

i t 15 m u e h m o re d if i eu l f t to in te n d to in su lt a w o m a n b y sa y in g “y o u th in k li ke a m a n w o m a n 15 “m a n ly , , , h o w e v e r , th e m ea n in g 15 a m b ig u o u s: th e e o n t ex t

of t h e u t era n ce w ill d e te r m

h eth er or no t th e at w r i t b ution 15 f a v o rab le or Pe j o ra t iv e. “T he m an l y w om an ,, w ith t h e m ean in gs o f
“ th e w o m a n w l lo a ets lik e a m a n , , 15 f a m ilia r ae ti o n d e sig n e d to e n su r e th at th e ir w o r k T h e “iro n m a id e n , , se e m s to ea r n in ev e r y da y sP e e c h . S u e h sP ee e h 15 u sed to e a le u la t e

15 e v a lu a t e d a c e o rd i n g to t h e sa m e sta n d a rd s a s a m a n '5 w o r k . h er a t i加 d e a n d d e m e a n o r: sh e w o rk s li ke a m a n .

h e r n a rn e f r om

si m il arl y , bei ng sai d “女里女气 ”, “婆婆妈妈 “or “女人腔 ” 1 5the m osti nsul tto a C h i nese m a n ·
G en d er d ise rim i n a tio n n o t o n l y in ter m s o f P e rf o r m an e e se m an ti e e h an g e s , i t a lso r ef l e ete d in th e e le etio n 15 v e r y i m Po r t a n t, it 15 b e e a n se t h e

c h o ic e o f w o rd s a n d in w ith . C o m m u n ic a t io n a e e u ra t e te r m
l5

太原理工 大学硕士研究生学位论文

sam e th ing s or con cePts i n a so eie y t

so m etim es h ave d if e ren t t f w o or m o re w ord s f o m d if r e r f e nt

angles t o ean y these sem a t i n es. Synon y m s bet w een t h e ob j ect V es m a i y mi nor di e renees on t f he sem a t i n e m ea n i g ,i n t ea n al so be a soei al si n i g i ea f n ee , em oti onalsi n i g i ea f n ce , a n d 50 on.T hese w or ds r om the sa f m e st ud y r eveal ed t ha t o n e asPect of w om en i n soei y ,5 i t e m age.T a k et he E ngl i sh w ord一
talk f o r exam P le , t h e w o rd talk h as th e f o llow ing sy no ny m s: eh a t , g ossiP , n ag , gabb le , P ra t le , ba b b le ,
eha t e r. A e e o rd i n g to C o lli n s E n g lish D ie tio n a y r C ha t : to ta lk in a n eas y f a lllllia r w a y , h ere a r e th e i r e o r e sP o n d e n t m e a n in g s ·

gossi P: to t al k cas ual y ,i l dl ya n d m al i ei ousl y a b outother PeoPl e
n ag : to seo ld or a n
g a b b le : P ra t le :

o y eo n stantl y

to u t er w o rd s ra p id ly a n d i n d isti n e tly to ta lk i n af o o lish o r e h ild ish w a y

ba b b le : to tal k f o o lish l y , in ce ssantl y or 诉elev a n tl y ch at t er: to sP ea k (a b o ut un i m Po r ta t n
D ic tio n a r y

m a t ers) raP i d ly a n d in c essan t ly
d s eX P re s sio n s i n th e st o d ie s o f th e e o m P re h e n sio n o f

e o m P ile rs , b ia s a g a in st w o m e n f n i

sen t ene es w ith t h e sy no n y m s o f eh a t qu o t ed in I n tem et (ht tP二 w

. m od lin gu istics. eom /

E n glish

l exi eol og / ). y T he below exa m Ples of t he s 卯 onym s a r e Pr esen e d i t n C ham bers U ni versal L ea m ers ,
D ietio n a r y .
C ha t :

e. 9 . (l) T hey cha lted ab ou t the w eath e r . (2 ) w e h ad a cha t ov er eo f e e y esterd 盯 · (3) H e sa y s w o m en , 5 cha t b ores h im .
G o ssiP :

e. 9 . (l) 1 n ev er P a y a t en t ion to g o ssi P . (2) S h e dr o p p ed in f o r a eu p o f co f e ea n d a 罗 ssi P · (3 ) Sh e 15 a drea d f u l罗 ssi P ·
(4 ) 1 do n ,t lik e p eop le W h o g ossi P · (5) S he sP end s th e w h o le d a y g o ssi P i ng w i h her nelgh bo rs. t
N ag :

e· g· (l) Sh e n ag s (a t ) her h u sb a n da b ou t th eir lack o f m on ey .
G a b b le :

e. 9 .(1) S h e w as 50 u P set , sh e w asju st g a b bling ·
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太原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文

e.9 .(2 ) T h e lady w as ob v iou sly u P se t as sh e g a bb l e d ou t h er stor y to th e
P ra t le :

P o li eem an

e. 9 .(l) S h e P ra ftled on abo ut no th ing .
B a b b le :

e.9 .(l) T h e sP e a k er w as ba bb li g n

in a la n g u age 1 eo uldn 't un dersta n d.

(2 )认 币a t are y o u ba bb lnZg a b o ut no w ?
C h at t e r:

e. 9

(l) T h e eh ildr e n eha t e red w h en the tea c her lef t t h e room .
Ta b le l

w o rd s E x a m P le s
C ha t G o ssiP P
N ag

C h a m b er s U n iv ers a l L e 抑 ers ' D ic t io n a r y M a se u lin e
0 O
O

F em in in e
1 3
l

N eut r al
2 2
0

3 5
l

G a b b le e P ra r t le e
B a b b le e C hat er

2 l
2 l

0 0
0 O

2 l
0 0

0 0
2 1

O b v io u sly , th e e h 叭 sh o w s th a t f i v e o f sev e n “e h a t , , v e rb s a re u se d to ref e r to a f e m a le , a n d th e re 15
n on e f o r a m a le . T h is c le arly ex P o s ed th at in th e e o m P iler s ' v ie w s w o m e n a r e st u P id , e h ild ish a n d

n ast y .
W h ile E n g lish r e f e rs sP e c if i c a ll y to m en to e h a t w it h th e t w o P h ra se s : “ sh o o t th e b re e z e , , a n d

“e h e w th e f t a
th a t

, , . “ S h o o t th e b r e ez e , , m e a n s “a eh a t, , , “to m e e t a n d e h a t .” T h is 15 W o rld W a r 11 ter m

s. A t

ti m e , “e h a t , , to b e e o m e so l d ie rs b o a r d ed th e v e s se l a f t er t h e e v e n ts o f th e P a st o r re strie tio n s

rem a in i n th e b a se f a v o rite P a stim e , e sP e c ia lly sa d to th in k th a t e x ag g e ra t e d o r d e se ri b in g th e e v e n ts o f th e P a st. ” C h e w th e f t a , , m e a n s “a eh a t, , a n d “e o n tro v e rs i a l., , F ro m th e s em a n tie an a l y sis o f th e

eom P osi tio n , w h e th e r i t 15 “sh o o t t h e b re e z e , , , o r “e h ew

th e f t , , , th ey sh a a r e a c o m m o n se m a n tie

elem en ts: 【 + m ale , + P ow er , + P oten ey , + activ it y ]. O bv iousl y eom Pa r ed w i th the w om en '5 w o rds , t w o
m en '5 W ord S ref e r to th e ex Pression w ith out any [+ na stiness , + eh i ld ish ness] or 「 + bad ] the
i m P lie a t io n .

l7

一一一一一一一一一一一一一一止些碑廷左题 土所塞生学 位论文
Al t hough the ph r ase “女强人 ” 1 5 used to pr ai se a sueeessf u l w om an , i ti m pl i es t ha t suceess
alw 盯5 belo ng s to m a n n d w eak a n ess 15 w om a n '5 n a u re . S o m eti t m es to eall a w om an “女 强 人 ” 15

m eant t ha t s he l aeks t het a di r ti onalvi t ue of the C hi r nese w om a n , bei ng eol d a n d l ess w om anl y .A n d you W i llneverhave t he oppor U ni t y to hea t r t h e sayi ng “男强人 ,'.
S o m e w om a n 一 re la e t d w o rd s th a t b e g an w it h n eu r t al o r P osi tiv e e o u n ot a io n s o v e r t而 e a e q u i r ed

n eg ative i m p liea t ion s b ot h in E ng lish a n d C h in ese. F o r ex a m p le , E n g lish ` gi r l' a n d C h in ese “小 姐 ”

w ent t r oug h h a si mi l r Process of devel a oPm ent .In Engl i sh , ori gi nal l y a gi rl denoted a ehi l d of ei t her
se x . B y th e 1 5 3 0 5 , t h e w ord ` gi rl ' d en o t o d a f e m a le c h ild . H o w e v e r , th e c o n o ta t io n s o f se x u a l ir n o eenee a i n d in e x P er i en ce i n e h ild h o o d w e re d e f o l n e d in th e u se o f g irl f o r 夕r o sti ru te in t h e C 1 8th . A “g irl a b ou t th e to w n , , o r “g i r l o f ea s e , , a ll re f e r to a P ro stit u te . “T o g i r l, , w a s a c o llo q u i a lism m e a n in g a w o m an . G i r l, in so m e se n se s , m a y ha v e lo st i t s ea r lier n e g a t iv e h e sP e e ia l a t t it U de b eh i nd C h in e se ,

to h a v e se x u al i t ere o u r se w it n h c o n o ta t io n s in C o n te m P o ra r y re f e r i n g to a w o m a n

E n g lish b u t i t rem a in s im P o ssib le to d e n y

a s “g irl, ' b e c a u se o f its st r e ss o n y o u t h , im m a U t

re a n d i n ex P er i e n ee . I n

“小姐 ,, orig inall y ref e r ed to a d aug h t er of a rieh f a m ily . G radu a l ly , the ter m

gain ed som e n egativ e

connot t ions. “千金 小姐 ”, “小姐脾气 , ,, “娇 小姐 ”, “小姐作风 ” al a l denote a w om an w i h a poor t
tem per , d eli ea t e or sp oiled . “小 姐 ” h as ga i n ed h er b ed repu ta t ion “ p rosti u e” i t n th e 199 05 si n ce

C hi na ,5 ref or m i n ga n d openi ng up. “找小姐 ”m ea n sto have sex rel ti a onshi p wi h a prosti t tu t e.I n som e regi ons of C hi na , i t15ta b oo t o eal la y oung w om an “小姐 , ' .B ut “先生 ”has never gott he sa m ef t e as a
th e “小 姐 ”. T h e ter m “sp i n ster ” ref e rs to a n u nm a r ied w om a n w h o 15 eon sid ered bein g b ey on d t h e
o d d and

age o f m a r iage . i.e. an o l d m aid o r sPin st e r一 u su ally b es t o w ing so m e d ig n it y , sueh a s
n e u ro t ie .

2 .2 S e对sm in S y n ta x

2 .2 .1 S y ste m a tie F u n etio n a l G ra m m a r

T h e F u n e tio n a l G r a m m a r b y H a llid a y

su P P o r ts t h e v ie w

th a t

la n g u a g e 15 a rea liz a t io n o f so e ia l

sem iotie a n d 15 a sy stem f o r m a k in g m ea n in g . (H allida y ,

2 0 00 : 2 15). A ccord ing to H allid a y ,
o n e , th e f o r m o f th e g r a m m a r

h e t

re la t io n b e朴 刀 e e n th e m e a n i n g a n d w o rd i n g 15 n o t a n a rb i t ra r y

re la t e s

na U rall t y to th e m ea n in g th a t a e r

eo d ed . “ T he f u n ctio n alg ram m ar 15 d esig n ed to b ring th is rel t ion ou a t ,

i t 15 a st u dy that in t er p rets th e w ordin g by ref e ren ce to w hat it m ea n s.”(H allidy , 199 4 :X 丫11).
l8

太 原理 工大学硕士研究生学位论文
S y ste m a t i e F un c t io n a l G r m a m a r 15 e le a rl y in h a m r o ny w i h t sy n ta x n al a y sis a n d i t u n if i e s a ll th e

m o d u la r v ie w w i th sy n ta x , sem a n tic s a n d P ra g m

t ie s to m a k e th e sa m e d e se riP tio n o f la a n gu ag e.

2 .2 .2 T r a n sitiv it y S y stem

r a T n si tivit y sy stem view s lang u ag e as Proeesses an d believ es th a t r e alit y 15 m ad e u P o f P roeess.

A eeo rdin g to H allida y ,

a P roeess eon sists of t r ee com Po n en ts: t h h e Proeess i tself , Pa t ieiP ants i r n t he
h e ke t y f a ct or s w h en t a n sit r ivi y sy st t e m 15 used as an a n aly t ie

Pr o eess a n d t h e eir c u m st a n ee. T h e y a e r

to o l i n th e a n a ly sis o f la n gu age .P ar t ic u la r ly , if m a t e ria l P ro e e ss 15 ab o u t d o i n g , th e m e n ta l P ro e es s 1 5

b o ut sen sin g , the rela a t ion alP roeess eo uld b e sai d to b e ab ou t bein g .T r a n si ti v it y sy stem 15 of g r ea t use in sy n ta x an aly sis. T r a n siti v it y sy stem he l P s u s to aeeoun t f o r the id eal tion al asP eets o f oP i n ion s by

sh o w in g h o w o u r e x P e rien e e s o f ev e n ts a n d ae tiv itie s are co d e d in g r am m a t ie a l e o n f i g u ra t io n s o f th e e la u s e s. f t h a s b e e n e m P lo y ed to d ise o v er h o w e e r t a in m e a n i ngs a r e f o reg r o u n d e d w h ile o th e rs a r e

su P Pr e ssed .I n t h is w a y ,
a P ar t ieu la r w orl d一 v ie w ,

th e tran sitiv i y sh ow s ho w th e l t in gu istic stru eture of a teX t ef e etively en eo des f
a n d h o w a re a d e r '5 o r liste n er '5 P e re eP tio n o f th e m e an in g o f a tex t is P u sh e d

in a P a t i r eu la r di e ction . H a lli r da y

eone l u d ed t h a t t h e analy sis of transitiv i y rela t t ion s can b e a f u i r tf u l

aP P ro aeh to the st u dy o f Po w er rela t ion sh iP a n d oth er asP ects o f th e eon st r uetion of so cial realit . y

T her ef o re , th r ough t he a n al ysi s of t ransi t i vi y t
Pa t ri r ehal ord er of th e so eie a y t gen der一 b iased ideo log y
h T

sys tem , PeoPl e ean ha v e som e i deas about how the
som e

15 ref l ected an d eon st u eted thr r o ugh lan gu a g e , an d h ow

con t r ols t h e realit y and P eoP le v ia lan g ua g e.
e th em e : P a ren t s k ill th e ir e h ild ren . A e lo s e

e f o llo w in g are t w o P ie e e s o f re P or tsw i th t h e sa m

exam in a t ion of th e ha n dli n g of t h e head lines w ill ill u stra t e ho w

so m e n ew s m ed ia f o reg r o un d

w o m en ,5 bru t ali t ies o n th eir eh ildren a n d a t

th e sa m e ti m e eov er m en ,5. A r t iele o ne (f r om

认 邢 切 W. H o u sto neh r o n ie. eo m ) read s:P olice :H ou ston M o th er K ills 5 C h ild ren A n ot h er (f o m w r .
O b v io u sl y ,

N y daily n ew s. com ):F A 五 l L Y O F SI f X D EA D I N 州刀R D E R 一 SU I CI D E.

th e ti tle in A r t ie le O n e 15 a e o m P lete se n te n c e w i th a ra th e r m a t e ria l P ro ee s s an d a eto r o f th e P ro c e ss o f m u rd e rin g . T h e a g e n t m o th e r is P u t i n to t h e

sh o w s t h a t t h e m o th er 15 in d e e d a n

su b j eet Plaee an d i m P oses aetio n d i r eetly o n th e f i ve eh ildren .B u t w h en a f t h er k ills h is f a o ur ehil dr en,
th e h e a d li ne, w hi e h 15 a lso m a d e b y t h e sam e P re ss , m e a n in g f u lly u se s a re la t io n a l P r o e e ss to e o v e r th e

m urd er: f a m ily o f si x (a r e) d ead i n m urd er - su i cid e. T h e su b j eet 15 f a m ily o f six , an d the m a t erial
P ro e e ss k ill 15 re P l a e e d b y a re la t io n a l 'P ro e e ss d ea d , w h ie h re P o r t s a sta t e i n ste a d o f k illi n g . T h e a u th o r

l9

一一一一一一一一一一一一一二垫碑
m itiga t es the killer f t her ' a 5 resP on sib ili y t

论文
of k illin g h is f o ur chil r en an d w if d e to a g r ea t eX t en t by

obseu r i ng t he di r eet rel ti a onshi P bet w een t h em .T he w r i t erPurPosef u l y hi l des t h e er而 e com m

i t ed by

he f t a th er . M ot h e r 15 t h e P rim ar y ea use i n t h e sP ea k i n g stan ce o 式 50 t h e m ed ia d ea l w it h th e sa m e
m u rd e r d if e ren f t ly in th e h e a d l in e s . T h er e 15 a e o m m o n a t i u d e to f t e m a le , t h a t 15 , m o th e rs sh o u ld b e

kin d an d n iee to eh ild r e n , 50 w h en t h ey k ill t h ei r ch ild r en f o rw h be Presen t ed by th e m ed ia int e n tio nally th r o ug h som e

t ever t a h e reason , th ei r br t u w ri t in g

ali ties w ill n d a

teel m iq u es eo n seiou sl y

u n eon seiou sly . W h ile k iller f a t h ers a r e of t en P roteeted b y th e m ed ia eo n seiou sly a n d u n con seio u sl y.

2. 2. 3 M ood an d M od al y Sy stem t i

M ood a n d m odal y syst t i em t k es on l a n guage as exc a h a n ge betw een the sPea k er a n dt he l i stener. A eeordi ng t o H al l i da y , m ood s y st em i nel udes t w o Pa t s: t r he sub j ec t and t he f i ni t e oPera t or , t he f i ni te
M o dalit y elosely re la t ed to m oo d 15 eon eem ed w ith th e sPea k er 's ob lig ation and i n eli n ation . M oo d and m od alit y sy stem 15 o f t en

O P era t or e x P resse s ten se or m o da li . y t eX P r e ssion o f deg ree o f P ro bab ilit y ,

em Pl oyed i n di seou r se a n al y si s a n d ea n be used a s a usef ult o ol t o i denti y s f Pea k er ' 5 a t i u de , t
judg m ent , m oti va ti on and 50 on i n a di scou r se.
A eeo rdin g to L a k of ( 19 7 5) , sPeeeh d if f e ren ces b et f w een w om en a n d m en a r ef o un d i n th e eh o ice
and f r e q u e n ey o f le x ie a l i t e m s: in sit u a t io n s i n w h ie h e e r t a in sy n t a c tie ru l e s a re P e r o f in to n a t io n a n d o t h e r su P e r se g n le n ta l P a t er n s. L ak o f n o te s th a t t h e re 15 a t
w om a n w ill u s e m o re in e o n v e rsa t io n a l sit u a t io n s th a n

m e d ; in r a
a

le a st o n e ru le th a t
t io n th a a t

a m a n .I t 15 a ta g 一 q u e sti on f o r m

w om a n

of t en u se s . “A ta g 一 q u e stio n 15 m id w a y

b et w een a n

o ut r ig h t s t a t em e n t a n d a y es一 n o q u e stio n : it th e la t er . A tag q u e stio n , b e in g in t er m e d ia t e

15 le ss a ss er ti v e th a n

h e f t o r m er , bu t m o re eo n f i d en t th a n

b et w een t h e s e , 15 u se d w h

e n th e sP e a k er 1 5 sta t in g a e la im , b u t la c ks f u ll e o n f i den ee i n th e tru th o f

th a t

elaim .,,(L a k of f ,

19 7 5 : 54 ) L ako f i n f e rs that w om en a r e le ss eon f i de n t

n d P olite i a n

a

c o n v e rsa t io n a l sit u a t i o n .L a k o f su m

m a r iz es th e sP e ee h d if e re n ce b et f w e en th e t w o g e n d e rs :

(l) W 6m en ten d to u se q ue stion in to nation w h ere w e m igh t ex P ect d eela ra t i v es.F or ex a m P le , ta g
q u e stio n a n d ris i n g in t o na t i on i n st t em en a t e o n te t x s.

(2) W 6m en ,5 sP eeeh seem s in g en eral to eo ntain m ore in sta n ce of h edg es o f v a r iou s k ind s su eh as
“a s w e ll, ' , “y o u k n ow , , t h a t e o n v e y th e se n s e th a t th e sP e a k er 15 u n e er t ai n abo u t w ha t h e o r sh e

15 sa y in g , o r e a n

o t b e lie v e in t h e a c e u ra e y o f t h e S ta t e m e n t, o r f o r th e sa k e o f P o li t e n e ss .

20

太 原理工大学硕 士研 究生学位 论文

(3 ) W Om en u se hy P er c or r ect g ram m ar . (4) 认勺 m en ten d t o u se q ualif i ers o f t h e
“1 th in k , I 'd sa y , 1 g u e ss .”

n reali I y w om en a t r e not P r o v ided w ith an equ al o PPo U t r ' n it y f o r di scussion du e to t h e dif e rent f eom m u niea t i o n st y les ex isti n g bet w een the t w o sex es e o n sid e r e d w eake r , m o re f r i v o lo u s o r so m e w h

in ot h er w or d s , if w om en u se la n gu age th a t 15
w ill c o n tin u e to b e

a t Ie ss P o w er九 1 t h an m e n , t h e y

relega t ed to seeon d a叮 sta u t

s by m en : a n d t h a t if m en u se a m o re ag g r essiv e , eo m p etitive , d o m in a t in g

st y le , th ey 初 11 eo n i im i e to rem a i n in P o w er. F em ale a n d m ale a e r

di e ren f t i n m ak ing statem en t .

F em ales te n d to u se m od a]it y w ord s to ex Press t h eir m o o ds a n d a t i u d es.F o t r ex am P le :

(1) 1 suP P o se 1 m i g ht b e able to d o th a t. (2)I w as w on d erin g i f y o u eou ld P o ssib l y do m e a f a vor , if yo u w o uld n 't m in d .
B u t m a le s o f t e n em P lo y at i u d e s. t
A sP . F ish m a n e la i m s th a t a sta t e m e n t d isP la y s an a s su m P tio n P a t r o f th e sP e a k e r th a t a t e m P ts to

th e w o r d s “w ill, sh a ll a n d e a n ” to sh o w t h e P o sitiv e a n d o rd erin g m o o d an d

b e su ee e ss f u l as i t 15 . In t h e re se a e r

h, w e f i nd t h a t bo t h

w om a n

a n d m a n m a k e a sta t e m e n t in a n

in teracti o n . H ow ev er , the m an Prod u ees t w ice m o re sta t em ents t h an w om an do es. H e alw a y s g ets a
re sP o n se , w h ie h 15 n o t t U r e f o r w om an .W hen g i v in g o P in io n s o n th e sa m e to P ic , m e n ten d to P ro d u e e let u s l o ok a t th e

a f o r m al an d s t ro n g sta t e m en t w h

ile w o m e n o f t en u se i nf o r m a l la n g uag e. N ow

o llo w in g e o n v er sa f t io n a b o u t a trav e l:

e. g二 M : 是. 我要去旅游 ,我 要离开 目前 的生活空间. w : 噢 ,要 出去走 一走 , 大家都支持 . 为什 么不和家里 说一说呢?
n I th e e o n v e rsa t io n , b o th ta lk e d a b o u t t ra v e l, b u t th e y b e h a v e di e f re n t l y .T h e m an a p P ea r s to b e m o re

a u th o ri ta t i v e a n d se l乒e o n f i d ent i n P re se n ti n g h is o P in io n , w h ile th e w o m a n sh o w s h e r a t i u d e in a t n in f o r m al w a y n d in a w e a a k m ood. th a t h e P ro e e ss o f a e o n v e rsa t t i on 15 o f t en c o n tro lle d by m a le

It 15 e o m m o n ly

a s su m e d

(R o m aine , 199 4). T h a t

15 , a m ale 15 in a eo nv ersation al do m in an ce w hile in a eon versa t i o nal

m ainten a n ce .F rom the P rev iou s st o d y ,
m o re lik e ly to f o llo w th e t U r n .T h

m ales ten d to star t easily the t o r n o f sPeak i n g w h ile f e m ales are

e d e sire o f t u r n 一 ta k i n g g iv e s rise to d if e re n t f f o r m s in a n in ter a e tio n .

L e t u s a n a ly ze t h e f o llo w in g d ia lo g u e to sh o w t h e id e a .

Sk i PPer 1 5 a w ebsi t e erea t or . M i randa 1 5 hi s gi rl i end he just has got t r f o k n ow . Ski PPer 1 5
in te reste d in M ira n d a . B u t sh e n e v e r a n s w ere d h is e a ll a f t e r th e ir f i rst d a t e. e .9 . 5 : H ey .
2l

太 原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文
M : H i, S k iP P e r.
S : 5 0 , w h y w o n 't y o u an sw er m y c a ll?

M :I 'm 50叮 . It ` 5been real y a busy w eek. l
S : 1 th o u g h t w e h a d a e o n ee tio n . M :1 don ,t 如 ow . S :Y o n I u g e t th a t w a y w i h t ev e r y g u y?

h e c o n v e rsa t t io n , S k iP P e r e x P re sse d h is stro n g a n d in d ig n a n t a t i u d e to w a t r ds M 诉 a n da

th l o ug h a r h eto rie a l q u e stio n a n d a d ef i n ite q u e stio n i n ste ad o f a g en e ra l q u e stio n . S k iP P e r e x P re sse d h is id e a s o n t h e to P ie in a d ire e t a n d u n e h a ll en gea b le m a n e r sh o w in g h is u n sh a k a b le d o m in a n ee o ver h e Pa t t ie iP a r n t. F ro m th e a b o ve , w e ea n i n d th a f t w o m en a r e u n ab le to sP e a k P re e ise ly , f o r c ef u lly , a n d to ta k e P a t r

in serio us d iseu ssion , w h ieh 15 a l so regarded as a w o m en ,5 st y le by m ales , the stereo t y P ed w o m en ,s st y le 甸 t o a v o id stron g s ta t em en t s an d en co urag e eX P re ssion s th a t su gg est triv iali y of m a t t ers a n d

un eer t ai nt y .T h e e onc l u si o n 15 ju st t h e sa m e as B o lin ger(19 80) n o ted t h a t t h e la n g u ag e a b o ut W o m en
n d o f w o m e n 15 a f a o r m o f e n sla v e m en t … w o m e n a re re q u i r e d to , b y t h e con ven t io n o f th e la n g u ag e

t oi den ti y t f hem sel ves as:Pol t e , unobt i r usi ve and eor r ect.

2 .3 S eX ISm

11 1 D ISCO U rseS

T he above一 m enti oned t r adi t i onal st ud y of sexi sm i n Engl i sh a n d C hi nese l n guage does Pl a y an a
im P o r t an t ro le i n sex ism in t h e so ciet . y t d ra f w s Peo Ple '5 a t en t io n to sex ism in la n gu ag e and sh 抑 en s

w om en ,5 a w a r en ess o f f ig h tin g again s t the eon r ol f t r o m soe ial eu l u ral P ersPeetiv e. H ow e t v er su eh

ki nd of st U ' d y 1 5s ta ti c and l aeks conteX t ,a n d m ore a t ent i on 1 5 di rect ed t o st ti a c w or ds i n a eont eX t一 r ee f
s it u a t io n . n I a et s ex ism f ag a in st w o m en 15 b y n o m e a n s re st r iete d to th o se iso la t e d w o rd s a n d sy n ta x

o r f m

s. I n f a e t w o rd s e a n

be u sed as i n st U r

m e n ts to e X P r e ss o n e '5 m i n d , b u t w o rd s t h e m se lv e s sh o u ld

n o t b e m a rk e d a s e v il. B ia se d o P in io n ag a in st w o m e n ex ists in i ndi v id u a l '5 m in d a n d 15 o f t en r e f l e e te d

in the i r li n gu istie ha b i t s. T h ew r i ter of t h e thesis w ill P rov ide a 即n am ie d iseo urse a n aly sis o f ac u al t
n d w a r e t i n te t X s w hi eh a r e stru e t U re d b y id e o lo g ie s w it h th e h e lP o f S y ste m ie F u n e tio n a l G ra m m a r by

H a llid a y

in o rd e r to ill u st ra t e m o re su b tle w ay s t h a t d o m in an t

g e n d e r一 b ia se d id e o lo g ie s a r e ref l ec t ed i n

b o th E n g lish a n d C h in e se .

22

太 原理 工大学硕 士研 究生学位 论文
2 .3 .1 D isco u rse

W 己w ill s t ar t w i h t

th e c la rif i ea t i o n o f th e te r m

d isc o u rse . A b o u t t h e ter m

“d ise o u rse , , , d i e r f e n t

l i ngui s ts ha v e di e ren f t vi ew s.Fai c l r oug h (1992) Poi nt s ou t som e w a y s of di seourse: sPoken di al ogue
n d w a r it t e n teX t s , s it u a t io n a l c o n te x t o f la n g u a g e u se , in ter a ctio n b e t w e e n re a d e r/w ri ter a n d te x t .H a r e

and Stea m s (199 5) th in k th a t d iseo urse ref e rs to t h e tota l it y o f sig n st h a t can y m ean in gs a n d th e m i nd

1 5 seen as t h e pr o duet of t h e si n s eneount g ers i nel udi n g non一 ver b al51, 5. 、乞 n Di j k(1990)al so thi nks
th a t d ise o u rse 15 a sP e e if ie f o r m o f Ia n g u a g e u se a n d so c ia l i i e ra etio n , in ter n p r ete d a s a e o m P l t e e

e o m m u n ic a t iv e e v e n t in a so e ia l si tu a t io n . H e r e ga r d s d isc o u rse a s a k in d o f ae ti o n . G en e ra ll y

sP eakin g , d iscou rse requ i res th e co 一 P resenee of sP ea k er a n d listen er( f c e一 a to一 a ee in teraeti f o n).
A e e o rd i n g to t h e ab o v e , d isc o u rse 15 a so c ia l in te ra eti o n P ro e e s s , w h ie h i n e lu d e s th e P ro ee ss o f

Produeti on and t h e Proeess of i nter p reta ti on. H ence , the broad eonceP t of diseours e 1 5t he st ud y of
w h o le sy ste m o f e o m m u n ica tio n a n d 15 a e o m P le x o f la n g u age , i nf o r m a tio n a s w e ll a s b e lie f s an d

at t itud es , i t 15 bou n d to be af e c f t ed by eu l u ral va l t u es and ideo lo盯 (于 万 锁 2 0 07 :111). D iscou rse 15
in se P a ra b l e f r o m o th e r f o r m s o f so e ia l P r a e tie e .

2. 3. 2 D iseourse A n al y si s
n dY a a le (20 00 :l) , “disco urse an al y sis 15 the an al y sis o f la n gu ag e use , it ean

A eeord i n g to B ro w n

n o t b e re strie te d to t h e d e s cr i P tio n o f li n g u istie f o r m s in d e P e n d e n t o f P u r p o se s o r f u n etio n s w h ic h
th o se f o r m s a r e d e s ig n ed to se r v e in h u m a n a f a irs . T h e d isco u rs e a n al y st 15 e o m m it t e d to a n

in v e stig a t io n o f w h a t t h a t

la n g u a g e 15 u s e d f o r , , . O b v io u sly d ise o u rse a n al y s is 15 a m o re re a listic a g e sy stem 15 sh a r p e n e d b y th e f u n etio n s th a t it

a ltem a t i v e to V 门 10 币 a n ism , a d v oea t i n g th a t th e l n g a u

ser v ed .T h ou gh so m e ling uists argu e th a t a th eor y ab ou t la n gu age 15 n ot satisf y i ngl y d ev eloP ed , som e
th in k th a t r a g m d e a lin g w i h t d ise o u rse a n a ly sis u n d e r t h e g n id an e e o f th e o r y o f sy stem ie f u n e tio n a l

m ar a n d th eo r y

o f d isc o u rse r o le i n P ra g m

t ie d i a m e n s io n w i ll b rin g th e in v isib le se x ist id e o lo g y

i n di seourse i nt os har p er f o cus.In f a ct, t he ob j eetof conducti ng di seourse anal ysi s1 5 nott h el n guage a
e o d e ,b u t th e w a y in w h i c h th e la n g u a g e 15 u se d in d isc o u rse a n a ly sis . It sh o u ld b e n o te d t h at t h e
in th e se n s e th a t it 15 of

d ise o u rse a n a ly sis P ro P o se d h e re 15 e l o se ly re la t e d to lin g u istic e ri tie ism d e sig n a te d to d e f a m iliar i z e se e m in g l y n e u tra l lin g u istie f o r m

s i n o rd er to d ig o u t th e id e o l og y

g end er bias f r o m la n g uag e. C aero n (as q uo a t ed in S im P so n , 199 3) on ce sa i d “O u r lin gu istie h abits
23

一一一一一一一一一一一一一一止丝哩 工鑫堂硕士研究生学位论文
of t en re f l e cted a n d P er p e tu a t e d id e a s a b o u t th in g s w h ic h a r e no l o n g e r e m b o d ied in la w bu t w h ie h c o n tin u e d to h a v e e o n c er t sig n if i ea n e e in th e e u l u re . O u r w a t y s o f ta lk in g a b o ut t h i n g s re v e a l a t it u de s

n d assum Pt a i ons w e m i ght eons eiousl y di sow n
T h ere f o re , id e o lo g y

,t h us test i yi f ng t o the deeP一 r ootedness of sexi sm .,,
e n its w o r k in g 15 le a st v isib le . It 15 o f g r ea t

in d ise o u r s e 15 m o st e f e e tiv e w h

neee ssit y to u nd er ta k e er i tieal d iscou rse an al y sis i n or d er to m a k e in v isib l e gen der b ias i n l n g a u age
v isib le to P e o P le a n d t o re d u ee i ts i nf l u en c e o v er P e o P le .

2 .3 .3 C ro ss一 sex D ia lo gu e

2. 3. 3 .1 C on tr o l o f T o P ic in a D ia lo g u e
T h e to P ic 15 la rg e ly e o n n e et e d w ith so eia l P o si tio n .I n t h e e ro ss 一 g en d er ta l k , m a le s te n d to in t er r uP t e m a le s m o re o f f t en , a n d se iz e th e to P ie b ein g d ise u sse d . F e m a l es o f t e n listen t o t h e to P ic e h o se n b y

m ales.E v en if f e m ales t y r
e. 9 . 1:

to i nt r od uce a toP ic , t h ey of t en get m in i m al resPo n se f r om m a l es.

af e m a le : 1 h e a r d of t h a t th er e h a d b e e n m o re te e n a g e rs ' su ie id e re ee n t ly .
a m a le : D o n 't sP e ak o f i t . It w i1l in f l u enee o u r m in d .

. g.2 e :

男生 : 我们说说学校 的事 吧.
女生: 好 吧.

2. 3 .3 . 2 In ter ru P tin g in a D ia lo g u e
In ter m P tio n re f e rs to a n in t r u sio n i n to th e e u r e n t sP ea k e rs , ta lk P rio r to th e last w o rd th a t W o u ld

def i n e a P o s sib le ter m

in a l b o u n d a r y . Pa t ic iP a r t n

s in a d ise o u rse o f t e n sw ite h th e ir d iseo u r se ro le s

c o n se io u s l y o r u n co n sc io u sly to a ch ie v e t h ei r Pu r p o s e s. T h e re f o r e , la n g u a g e sP e a k e rs ' re a l i n te n t io n s

ea n

b e d eteeted by ex am i n in g t h eir in t em i P t ion in a d iseo urse. I n ter r uP tio n i n a di alo gu e m ea n s

agg r e ss io n s u P o n o n e ' 5 r i g ht a n d v io la t io n s o f t h er u l e s o f ta k i n g一 u r t n .

C ro ss一 gen d er tal k s ea n
eon t r o l.
e. 9 .1

b est sho w th e ineq u alit y bet w een t h e t w o sex es in ter m s o f P o w er a n d

“H e ,5 b een i n h is roo m a ll da y ,

,, t h e la n dlad y

said d ow n 一 stai rs. “ 1 g uess h e d oesn ,t f e el w ell

W h o said to him : ` M r. A n dreso n , y ou o ug h t to 90 o ut a n d ta k e a w alk o n a n ice f a ll day li ke t h is , '
B l t h e d id n , t f e e l lik e it. “H e d o e sn , t w a n t to 9 0 o u t., ,
24

太原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文
“I , m 50 叮 h e d o e sn ,t f e e l w e ll.” T h e w o m a n sa id . “ H e '5 a n a w f u ll y n ic e m a n . H e w a s in th e

rin g , y o u k n o w ., , “I 灿 o w it., ,

“ o u ,d neverk Y n ow i texeePtf r om t he w ay hi sf a ce 1 5 , ,, the w om a n sai d.T h ey st ood tal ki ng just i nsi de t he st r eetdoor. “H e ' 5 jus t as gentl e., ,
“W E L L , G o o d 一 n ig h t , M rS. H i rse h , , , N ic k sa i d.

“I ,m not M rS. i rseh , ” t H h e w om an sai d. “She ow n st h e Pl ace.I just l ook af e ri t tf o r he r ' I ,m
M rS. B e ll., ,

e. . 2 (家 中一 次普通 的谈话 ,妻 子讲述上班前发 生的事情 . g ) 妻: 总之 这个委员会什么也没决定刀 应该 … …

夫 :(没等妻子把话说完)我 昨天见着米佳 了/ / 妻 : 我还没说完 呢刀 得成立个新 的委 员会 了/ /
It 15 o b v io u s th a t
e m a le w o u ld lik e t f o

g e n d e r in f l u e n e e s th e ta k in g 一 tu m s in u t e ra n ee . In b o th o f th e d ia lo g u e s , th e
eo nt i n u e th e t a lk , b u t t h e m a le a l w a y S m an a g e s to in te m i Pt t h e eo n ve r sa tio n .

T h e re f o r e , th e m a le o f t en tak e s a d v a n ta g e s o v e r th e d ia lo g u e b y i n te r u P tin g w i th o u t c o n e e m in g a b o u t

the f e m ale. C o a t s(19 8 6) , a Psy eh olog ist an d so cialist, b eli ev es th a t in t em i P ting a talk sho w s P ri v ilege an d the sP eak er '5 eo n t o l ov er th e listener. T h e T ab l r e below m ad e by Z i m m erm an and w 七 st(19 75)
gives u s en ou g h evid enees to sh ow ineq ua li y t existi n g in ero ss一 gen d er d ialog ues w ith m al e 's

suP eriori y t

an d f e m ale ,5 inf e riorit y.
a b le 2 T T im e s o f i t e r u P tio n in u t e ran c e s n
C ro ss一 g en d er e o n v e rsa t io n g ro u P m a le 一 sP e a k e r 46

N on 一 er o ss 一 g end e r eo nv e rsatio n g r ouP sP e ak e r - 1 l2

sP e a k e r -2
to ta l

lO
22

e m a le 一 f sP e a k er r
to ta l

2
48

O b v io u s l y ,

in a e ro ss一 sex d ia lo g u e , m a le s in t er m of th e se i ndi f n gs 15 th a t m a le s

Pt w om en f a r m o re o f t e n th an f e m a le s. O n e u se in t e r u P ti ons in o rd er to a s se r t th e ir

in te r p re ta t io n

d om in anee.(Z im m er m an and W est 197 5 , q u oted i n S oeio ling u istics 2 000 :142 )

2. 3 · 4 M on o lo g ie D ise o u r se

C ro ss一 sex d ialo gu e 15 ju st a P a t r

o f a d iseo urse . M a ss m ed ia 15 ano th er P oP ular f o r m
25

of

太 原理工大学硕士研 究生学位论文
d ise o u r se w h e re sex ism o e e u rs . T e x t s i n m a ss m e d ia c a n b e tre a t e d a s m o n o lo g ie d isc o u rse a n d as

i nt e ract i onsbet w een sPea k ers a n d addressees.Fai cl r oug h ,5 eom m en t bes t sui tsthese eases:
In visibili y 15 aehieved w hen ideo l t ogies a r e b roug h tto diseou r se n ot as eX P l iei t elem en t s of the text , bu t as
h e b a ek g t r ou n d assu m P tion w h ich on t h e one h a n d lea d s t h e teX t P ro d u c er to tex t u al iz e th e w o rl d i n a

Pa t ieu la r r w a y ,

n d on t a h e ot h er h a n d le ad s t h e i t er n p re ter to i n ter p ret t h e teX t i n a Pa t ieu l r r w a a y .T e X t s d o n ot

tyPlea il y sProu t i deolog . y

h ey 50 Posi T ti on t h ei i er n p ret t i a on th r oug h thei r eu es t ha t she bri n gs i deologies to

the i t er n p reta t ion of teX t sa n d Prod u ee t h em i n t h e Proeess!(1989:85)
50 , t h e m o n o lo g u e tex t s ca n em b od y t h e se x ism i d e o lo g y n d m a a y a ll a f e et P e o P le i n a ra t her

inex P liei tw a y .M ass m ed ia as a k in d o f eom m eree a n d af o r m

o f eu 而 r e sho w ex istin g stereo t y P es of

g en der i n th e societ y a n d re i nf o ree su ch i m Pression s uP on th e P ub lie. S om e researeh ers h av e ev en
a rg u e d t h a t t a m a s s m e d ia n e v e r ta k e a n eq u al a t it U d e to w a r d s m a le a n d f e m a le , a n d t h ey Pa y s w h m o re

en tio n to m a le '5 P o li t ie a l rig h t

a n d so e ia l sta U t

ile s r e ss in g f t e m a le '5 e x t em al aP Pea r a n ee a n d

ot h er b io lo g iea l a sP e e ts . D u e to t h is , a w a r e n e ss o f d iserim in a t io n a g a in st w o m e n in m e d i a d ise o u r se sh o u l d be enh a n ee d
to s h o w t h a t g e n d er 15 e o n st r u et e d in m e d i a d isc o u rse . H e re a r e so m e e x a m P le s u sed :

o n June 26 , 2003 m ostm edi at r oughou h t t he eoun t 卿 covered repor tsa b outL uo Fayu ,s (罗发玉 )
ease. H e 15 t h e f o r m er eh ie f o f G u iz h o u P ro v in e ia l B u r ea u in h i s te r m of L oeal T a ' x , a n d h e w a s e h a rg e d w i th n d e o n v ie te d in th e en d . It w a s sa id t a h a t

a e ce P tin g b ri b e s o f m o re t h a n h e sP en t m o st o f th e m o n e y

w o m illio n R 州[ t B

o n h is m ist r e ss . A s re g a r d s to th e e a se , re P o r t s in m a ss m e d ia d iv e r sif ied

eor r esPondi ng to t h e joum ali st s 'i deol og . y

T he f ol l ow i ng a r e som e t y Pi eal t i t l es i n new sPaPers a n d

w ebsi t es: (C hi ef of B ur e au of L a n d TaX ' D ragged b y Hi sY o unger Si st er i nt o A byss 一L uo F a y u ,s r aged T y )( r om Procura f t ori al D ai l y Ji m e 26 ,2 003); D r agged by H i sM i st ress i i o A byss , L uo Fayu , n
F or m er C h ief o f B t r ea i n ofL a n d Ta x h as a T r agie L if e (C N C N ew V i sion ).
n I th e a b o v e ti tle s , t h e y o u n g e r s ist e r a n d m ist r ess a r e t h e a g en ts w h o m a d e L u o F a y u , 5 lif e w h o d ra g g ed h im in t o th e d e e P a b y ss . B o th ti t le s b e a r so m e th in g i n eo m a

r ag e d y a t n d it w a s t h e y

m on

in th a t w o m en a r e th e e a u se s o f t h e of i e ia l, 5 a e e e P tin g b rib e s . 5 0 i t 15 w o m e n w h o sh o u l d b e b la m

ed

in stea d o f the o f i eial. O b v iou sl y P eo Ple th i ll k eon vention ally t h a t w om en are t h e sou rce o f t r ou ble ,
w h ie h 15 a lo n g 一 e sta b lish e d v ie w o f d ise ri m in a t io n a g a i n st w o m e n . I n th e C h in e se h isto r y , 、 乞n g

u hua Y n and Su D a j iw ere bot h regarded as t he sour ee of t r oubl e.I n m oder n soei et y , w om en are st il l
b la m ed o r gov er f n m en t o f i e ia ls ' a c c e P tin g b rib e s. I n C h in a , th e re a r e m a n y id io m s d isc o u rse

re f l e cti n g th a t w o m en a r e t r o u b le s an d th e in e a r n a t io n o f e v i l. E .g .:
26

太原理工 大学硕 士研 究生学位 论文
V月 listlin g g i rls an d e ro w i n g h e n s a lw a y s e o m e to so m e b a d en d .

吹 口哨 的女孩和拥挤 的母鸡 总是来一些不好的下场 。
M a n , w om a n ,a n d d e v il a r et h e th r ee deg L r e e s o f e o m P a riso n .

男人 , 女人 , 和魔鬼 是三度 的 比较 。
It 15 a s ad h o u s e w h ere t h e h e n c ro w s lo u d e r th a n th e c o e k .

这家很悲哀 , 女人 当家 。
r T h e h o u se h o ld w h o se h e n c ro w s a t d a 、vn 1 5 d es t in ed f o r m isf o rtl ln e .

家里 的母鸡会 鸣叫注定为不幸 。 唯 女子与小人难养 . (W o m en and pet y m en are t t h e onl y ones t o be hard t o dealW i th · ) 女人是祸水. ( o me w n ar e ”c u r s “· )
女人 当 家 ,房 屋 倒 塌 . (A f a m ily 几115 即 叭 w h o se m aster is the w om an · ) “好 男不 跟 女斗 ” im p lies t h a t w om en a r e inf e rior to m en : O n e sho uld n ot f i g ht again st a p erson

h o1 w 5 appa e nt r l y w eaker. “嫁鸡 随鸡 , 嫁狗 随狗 ”, “嫁 出去的女 , 泼出去的水 ”, eom par e w om en t o
n im als or ob a j eets , sh ow in g that w o m en are not ta k en seriou sl y . W o m en are o f t en rega r d ed as t h e

eause of di sas ters (红颜祸水).B esi des , t he px aei ng of w om en i n seeond ra n ki n con j oi ned p址ases of
y pi t eale hi nese eol 一 oea ti ons sueh as 男婚女嫁 , 夫唱妇随 , 夫贵妻荣 , 男女有别 , 男才 女貌 …ref l eet s the t r“ i ti onali deol o舒 t hatw om en ar e i nf e ri orto m en (男尊 女卑).
D ise o u rse a s a so e ia l P ra ctie e Iea d s to th e d ise u s sio n o f P o w e r a s th e m o st i m Po r t an t to P ic s in

d iseou rse a n aly sis. T h ere a r et w o ma j or asP eets ab out the rel t ion sh i a P b et w een lang uage a n d P o w er ,
w h ieh in e lu d e s P o w e r in d isc o u rse a n d P o w er b e h in d d ise o u r se . T h e P o w e r in d ise o u rse 15 a b o u t a

d ise o u rse a s a P la e e w h e re re la t io n s o f P o w e r are ae t U a ll y e x e 代is ed an d e n a c te d . T h e P o w e r b e h i nd d isc o u rse 15 to d o w ith h o w o rd e r o f d ise o u rse 15 o r g a n iz e d , a s d im e n sio n s o f th e so e ia l o rd e rs o f so e i al in sti U ti t o n s o r so e ietie s , 15 itse lf sh a P ed a n d e o n sti u te d b y re la t t io n s o f P o w e r . I n b o th e a s es , P o w e r 15

w on or lost t r o ug h h
T h e P o w e r re l t io n a

d isco urse . J n realit y ,
b et w een e m a le f

so cial eon st r uctio ns of g en d er a n d P ow er a r e n ot n eutra l.
m a le 15 a sy m m e t r ie a l 50 th a t w o m en '5 i n te r e sts a r e

and

subor d in a t e d to m e n '5. T o

h e r t e la ti o n s be扣 内 ℃ en m a l es an d f e m al e s, t h e u n iv e r s a l o P in io n 15 th a t m a le s

a re m o re P o w e rf u l th a n f e m a le s. H o w e v er , th e P o w e r re la t io n s a r e d ire etly o r d ire etl y su sta i n ed by

id eo l og . y

It 15 id eolo g y

th a t eo nt r ibu t es to th e eon vention al eom m u n iea t ion or a tex t i n a soeiet y w ith

a sy m m e trie a l P o w er r e la t io n s . T h e i m P licit id e o lo g ie s a b o u t g e n d e r d isg u ise th e e x istin g P o w e r

re l t i a o n s bet w e en f e m a le a n d m a le . A n d th e y are in th e se r v ie e o f P o w e r. H e n e e th e e h o i ees of

d iseo urse t y P es ean ideo log iea ll y m an if e st th e strug gles b et w een f e m ale and m ale .
27

太 原理工大学硕士研 究生学位 论文

W hen w e m a k e an a n al y si s of a di scou r se , w e ,d bet t er em Pl oy a new t heor y of i t er n t ext tl al
n al a y isis. f t sh ow s h ow tex t s selective l y d ra w u Po n ord ers o f diseo u r se , th a t 15 , the P a t ieu la r r

eonf i gura ti ons of eonven ti onal i zed Praet iees , w hi eh cl osel y r e la te t ot ex t Producers a n di t er n p ret e rs i n
eer t ai n soeial ei r eum sta n ee. I n ter t eX f u al a n aly sis g ives a c eo un t s o f in d i v idu al g en r es a n d t y P es of
s a t e n tio n s to h o w gen e r te X t s m a y tra n sf o r m h e so c ia l a t n d h isto rie a l i n f o r m t io n , a n d a

d isc o u rse . I t d r a w h ow

te x ts m a y d e sig n

s. 玩 a w o

d , in te r r e X t u t

a l a n a ly sis e r u e ia lly e o n sid er t h e e o n e e tio n a b rid g e b e b 刀 e e n te x t itse lf a n d eo n t ex t .

b et w e en la n g u age a n d so e ia l c o n tex t , a n d h e lP to se t u P N ow let u s lo o k a t sex ism

i n a d v er t is e m e n t . T h e ex t rem e m o d e o f u n eq u a l P o w e r re la t io n s of t e n b e se e n e v er y w h e re in a d v e r t ise m en ts . I t 15 w o r h t n o ti ng t h a t

b et w e e n m a le s a n d f e m a le s e a n

i rs f t of al lt he m odel 1 5 to see and be seen. T he ad v er t is em en t

“H u叮i m ei aene(华依美粉 刺) , a

Vi gorous net ,, t ell s us:T he haPpi ness of a w om a n 1 5t o gai nt h e aPPreei t ion f a r om a m a n .I n the ri h t g
sid e o f th e adv er t isem en t , th e m an 15 deeen tl y d ressed lik e a su eeessf u l Perso n , w ith a m ag n if y ing

gl ass , earef u l y exa l m i ne a r ound t he w om en w ho f a ee hi m

l i vi ng i n t he l ef t si de of t he sereen
t, i t 15 b e a u t if u l to

a dver t is in g . T h is a d te lls u s: F o r w o m e n , i t 15 h a p P y to g e t m a n ,5 a p P re e ia t io n . I n f c a

be l ook e da t by t he m en a n d to be i den ti i ed by t f h e m en.M en 1 5i n t he aPPreei ti a on a n d the judge.The rol e of a w om an 1 5t o Pl ease t he PeoPl e w ho onl y wa t ch a n d 15bei ng assessed.
h e li T n g u istie P o r t ra y a l o f w o m e n in th e m a ss m e d i a ha s b e ea u se o f th e a lle g e d im P o r t a n ee of t e h m a ss m e d ia P l y sa a n a lso b e e n a cru cia l P o in t o f f o eus

m a ss m e d i a in s h a P i n g o r in f l u en ci n g P e o P le '5 a t i u des.T h e t , n e w sP a p e rs , T V , f il m ,

im P o r t an t ro l e i n th e se x ism in la n g u a g e . A s w e all k n o w

ad v er t ise m e n t s a re a ll t h e ef e c tiv e e h a n

e ls o f t ra n sm i t in g t h e id e a o f g e n d e r ro le . A c e o rd in g to th e

an aly sis , a m

on g 2 00 eom m ereial ad ver t isem en t s on T V , m ost o f m ale m o dels act li ke a n t h o rit y an d

sP e c ia list o f th e P ro d u e ts w h ile m o st o f t h e f e m a le m o d e ls a ct lik e t h e u se rs o f t h e P ro d u ets . S o m e b ra n d s o f P ro d u c t s to b e u se d i n ki te h e n o r h o u se w o r k e a n re f l ect t h e o b v io u s se x ism , su e h a s : “h a p Py

wi e ” f ( 太 太乐) “l ove your w i e ” f (爱妻) a n d “vi u ous w i t r e ” f (好太太) w hi eh i m pl y t ha t w om en a re
re sP o n sib le f o r t h e h o u se w o rk . R e se a reh e o n d u eted i n ne w sP a p e rs a n d so m e e u r e n t af a irs a n d

gen eral i n terest m ag a z i n es f o cusi ng on a t ieles , f r e a u r t e s a n d job ad v er t isem en i s ind iea t es th a t
li ng u istic sex ism eo n cer n s ref er e ntial g en d ers , g en d er stereot y P in g a n d the i v n isib ilit y o f w om en .

W om en a r e large l y in v isi b le b eeau se t h e y a r e n ot rega r d ed as “n ew sw or th y ,, i tem s. If t h ey a r e ev er
“v isib le , , , w o m e n o f t en a p P e a r in h o m e re la t e d e o lu n m s a n d in a d v e r t ise m e n t s, def i n e d a s sP o u se a n d

a sh ion m o de ls , w h ile m en a f r e P ietu r ed as P o li tieia n s , enter tai n ers , a n d in a variet y o f o th er roles

(P ea r so n , 19 8 5).
28

太 原理工大学硕士研 究生学位 论文

It1 5 col nnlon t hat f e m al es are al wa y s eonsi der e d as a n ob j ectby m al es w h en t h ey si m ul t aneousl y
p P ea a r in t h e sam e a d v e r t ise m e n t. T h e f a ct t h a t w om en a r e g en era lly reP re se n t ed in th e a d V er t ise m e n t

o r bo dy 一 f en ha n ein g go od s i n elud i n g cosm eties an d e l ot h es testi i es t f h a t t h e so ciet y eneo urages w o m en

to Pa y a t enti on t o thei r aPPea ra n ee.I n such a n adver ti sem ent , t he f e m al e1 5 al wa y s tr ea t ed as an ob j eet

p Preci a t ed by m al a e.W l i t ,5 m ore , i a t1 5r e al l y a ri di eul ous i dea t ha t f e m al es Pursue beaut y justt o 甸 to
P lea s e m ales an d t h eir eo nf i d en ee 15 based on m ales ' a P Pr o val.I n this v er y t y P ieal to see an d b e seen

behi nd the rel ti a onshi P1 5 a sub j ect/ ob j eet , dom i na ti on / dom i na t ed rel ti a ons.Letus l ook a t t h em a n

i n the absol tei u ni ti ti a ve , a n d t o see t he w om an (seener y )1 5 a Passi ve ob j eet.T he vast m a j ori y of t
O m en Su PP lies (eosm et W i es , jew e 妙 , sli m m in g Pr o d uets , ete. ) h av e su eh a Pr o mi n ent v iew i n t h e m ale
o r im P lic i ti n th e m a n .

Fem i ni st P edago舒 (女权 主义 教 学论) not es t ha t t h e sehool s to aehi eve gender equal i y i t n
ed u e a t io n 15 a g lo b a l P ro b le m ed u ea t io n 15 e s se n tia lly a f o r m . E d u e a tio n h a s n o t b e en im P a r t ia l, n eu t a r la n d to im P a r t th e k n o w le d g e ,

o f so e ia l e o n tro l a n d so e ia l v a l u e s一 o rie n te d . T h e se h o o ls a r e th e P la e e s

o f th e so cialan d eu l u ralrePro du etion .I t t w ill f ai thf u ll y reProd uee t h e b asic soeial a n d eu lt u ral f ea t ure s.
If the so eiet y 15 sti ll in t h e eo nteX t of Pa r ia t r eh al eult u re , an d edu ea t ion w ill su rely ref l e et th e
h又

eh a r a cteristie s o f t h e b ae k 脚 u n d , th a t ` 15 , th r ou gh edu ca L t io n to d isse m in a t e th e cu l u re o f p a t t ria c r

h e m ai t n te n an e e o f “P atria re h a l, , g e n d e r r u le . T h ere f o re , th e se le etio n o f te x tb o o k s in P rim a r y sc h o o ls ,

w ill i n evitab ly b e f i lled w ith a nu m ber o f t r ad ition al Pre j ud iees 一 i m ages of “m en 一 stron g an d
w om en一 w e a k , , . E v e n if it 15 s e l e c te d u n c o n se io u sly , o r 15 v er y goo d f r om th e sta r t o f th e d e sire . I n

Pa t ria r eh al eu l u r t a l sy stem , PeoP Ie u sed to “ a g oo d w if e and lov ing m o th er ,, a s ju dged “a go od
w om a n ,, of the eo m m un it y sta n d ard s. If w om en d o n ot m eet this stand ard , ev en in the ea u se o f the

r ea g t aeh ievem en ts of anot h er , an d she 15 not stillreg a r d ed as a g oo d w om an . O n th e eo n i rary , ju dged on th e su eeess of m en 15 ju dg ed on ly f r o m th e lev el o f aehiev em ents in the eau se. D ou ble sta n dar d s
are giv en to ev alua t e m en a n d w om en o f the eom m u n i . y t Its eau se 15 th at m en a r e alw a y s loeated in

Pa t ria r eh al so eiet y ,
r a f . F or ex a m

an d w om en a r e ha b i u ally tar t g eted at f a m ilies.T h is eone eP t h as b een st r eteh ing 50
in te r v ie w w i th t h e P re ss o r P re se n t e rs

P le , o n th e f a ce o f a su e ee s sf u l e a re er w o m a n , a n

w ill be im m ed ia t ely ask ed reP ea t ed l y : “D o y ou f e el gu ilt y o f yo ur hu sb a n d an d eh il d? ,,

C hin ese and f o reig n

e m in ist f P ed ago g y

eo nd ueted a sy st e m atie r e view

of t e x tboo ks , f o m r

ki n d erg a r t e n to f o u n d sm a ll, see o n d a r y

e d u ca t i o n , d ise rim in a t io n d e n ig rate w o m e n , g e n d e r sP rea d ,

“stereot y Pes ,, an d th ere a r e a lot of eases , th ere a r e sev eral sP eei i e areas: F irstly , 15 teaeh i f ng
C h a ra ete rs in th e n u m b e r o f m e n m u e h m o re th a n w o m e n . If th e e u r en t d o m e stie u sa g e o f th e h ig h e st
29

太 原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文

“ e n R ji ao B an(人教版) ” (peopl e' 5 Eduea ti on p ubl i shi ng H ouse , 1994 t o 一 998 , a to t al of xZ) pr i m a叮 l n guage t a eaehi ng m a t eri als , w hi eh el ec t ed t ot h e deseri P ti on oreon t ai nf i gures , t h e ProPosed t ex t f o ra
to t a l o f 14 9 , P e o P le in v ol v e d 2 3 6 P e o P le , o f w h ie h t h ere w er e 5 5 f e m a le P a s se n g e rs , a e e o u n i i ng f o r 23. 3 P e re e n t , to 1 7 7 th e n u m b er o f m en , a c e o u n ti n g f o r a b ou t P ref e re n e e f o r m a le s. T h e se s而 P le sta t istie s sh o w h a t t 7 5 P e re en t , th e n u m b e r o f c le a r P r而 a r y s e h o o l te x t s a e r

C hi n a , 5 e u r en t

s e lee te d i n th e m e n , 5 a t en t io n to P e rf o r m a n ee an d m al e s ta k e t h e a b so lu t e a dv a n ta g e o v er f e m a le s .

S eeondl y , w om en i nt h e teaehi ng of “gam e ,, l r gel a y eonf i ned t ot h e scenes of t he f am i l y.Tw o w om en
in th e teX t s ar e regarde d to end u re all k ind s o f h a r d sh i P s , be ind ust r iou s a n d th r if y t
h o u s eh o ld a n d th e o t h e r 15 f u ll o f w a rno th , a f e

in m a n agin g a
al a n a ly sis is

ctio n , lo v e e h ild ,5 m o t h e r o r w if e ,i n t h ef n i

onl y a w om a n :hi s m ot her or w i e .O n the contr f ar y , teaehi ng i n Pri m ar y sehool si nt he bi g m en w ho
r e th e e a u s e o f t a h e k n o w le d g e , m a n ag e m e n t of t h e a e ti v itie s o f th e so c ia l se e n e 15 , t h e oeeuP a t io n . an o r f a n n ers , b u t a lso h a v e th e

E v en m en w h o a r e n o t re v o lu t io n a r ie s , se ie n tists , o n ly a s 而 P le f i sh er m

m bi a ti on , asser ti ve , i ndePenden t Personal y t i

of the m ai n eom m uni y . The w om en ,5 si t ua t ti on 1 5

d if e r f e n t , e v en b r a v ed u n t o ld d a n g ers o f rev o lu t i o na r ie s , t h e se ien tist r en o w n e d f o r th e ir a c h iev e m en ts
i n t h e te X t b o o k a lso h a v e to b e t h e m o th er o r w if e in th e im ag e , w h ie h in e f e e t o n ly in P rim a r y n d a

se e o n d a r y

se h o o l st u d en t s in t h e h ea t s 50 帅 th e se e d s o f P a r t ria rch a l id e a s , a n d g u id e T h e y a e e e P te d

y b

the P a r ia t r ch a l def i nition of “go od w o m an ,, eo neePt 一 F o r w om en th e m o st im P o r t ant 15 not h ow
er i n th e f a m ily P la y e d a n in e o m P ete n t m o t h e r o r w if e ,

m u e h th e y w e re th e e a u se o f su e e e ss , b u t w he h t

if tl i e m issin g a f t er t h e on e h an d , i t 15 n o t “G o o d w o m an , ,. T e a c h in g in th e m o t h er o r t h e im a g e o f h is

wi e of f t en ha v e m ore nega ti ve , al wa y st ha n f t hers , h a u sbands juni or.A s i n t h ef i rst si x “M y f ami l y
u a H n q ue sPan ,, in t h e tex t , sho r t一 sig h ted m oth er , t h e onl y h oP e Z an x i a m o ney to bu y lau n dr y w ash i ng

m ach i n e s to re d u e e t h e e x er t io n , a n d alth o u g h h is f t h e r 15 a lso t a h e f a n n e rs h a v e P a id a t e n ti o n to th e

st ud y ,t he i dea of i nvest m ent i n t eeh n ol og y .h i Parag ra p h 10 “g r oundnut ,, T hi st ex t , t he l evel of
eo n r ast beb刀 t een P a r en t s 15 c l ea r :几th er k n ow ledg eab le , d eeP t h i n k ing , W eiy a t ai n y i , 15 th e au th orit y of

h e ehi t l dr e n of l i e t f U or , a n dt h e m ot h er eul u re of l t ow , non even t , al t houg h t he hea t G an W i r l l i ng t o
ta k e e a re o f t h e ir e h ild re n , a n d e o n sid e ra t e h u sb a n d , b u t th e in ev ita b le P o P o m a m a t h e se t. h i h e t

m a r ital rela t ion sh iP , also sho w ed m o st o f F u eha n gf u sui , ev e尔 hi n g f r o m m ale P a r ents Y ieh uid in g y in ,
n d 50 o n . O f P rim a r a y 一 l n gu age m a a t e ria ls o n w o m e n i n th e P o s i tio n a n d P e 而 r m a n e e , a s d id t h e
F ren e h f e m in ists B o F u w a P o i t n ed out, w o m en a r e s e e o n d a ry to m e n , l o w e r th a n m e n , s “S e e o n d S eX ' ,.

T h e re 15 n o d o u b t t h a t th e se a r e def e n se o n th e d e eP 而 P rin t

o f th e P a t r i a re h y , a n d th e s erio u s P r o b le m

15 th e k ids to lea m

abo ut t h ese tex t h o ok s , w as su ch a y ou ng ag e to in still gen der in eq u ali y , Patria t r eh al
30

太原理工大学硕士研 究生 学位论文
con cePt un kn ow i ngl y i t o t n h e h ea t s o f th e y o u n g , T h e ir g r r ow t h w il l P ro d u c e w h
m isle a d i n g a t a ll.

t w e ca a n

im a g in e 15

M o d em

e d u ca t io n , a s t h e P rim a r y

m ea n s o f d e v e lo P m e n t , 15 le a d i n g to t h e Pr o m o tio n o f h u m a n

eq u ali y an d h ~ t

on y · To r e all y Pe而 r m

w ell th is m ean s , t h e role of w om en in ed uea t io n an d teaeh in g

of t he er i ti ei sm 1 5 a ver y Pr u den t and neeessar y and ti m el y , w hi eh ref l ec tsa ma j or i deol ogi cal a n d
cu l tl ra l v a lu e .

F ro m

h e abo v e , w e ea t n

se e id e o lo g y

h a s a n im P a e t o n th e ex P res sio n o f d ise o u rse sta n e e . In

m ass m edi a , the jour n al i st s al wa y s ean n ot a v oi d rePresent i ng thei ri deol ogi ealm al e一 hi gher Posi t i on.
W 七 ea n d ra w a eo n elu sion t ha t t y Pe s of sex ism ag ain st w om en ide olog ical com m o nsen se ean b e

id en ti i ed in m ed ia d iscou rse. T h e com m o n sen se 15 (1) W 6m en ar f e

Presented as a m ot h er

w ho leh ear t ed l y d ev oted to t h ef a m ily an d th eir eh ild r en . (2 ) W 6m en a r e P resen t ed a s a w if e ab so l e ly t u
ob ed i e n t to t h ei r h u sb a n d .A n d n o m at er w h et h er th e w if e h a s h e r ea r e e r o r n o t , sh e sh o u l d ta k e u P a ll

th e h o u sew o r k , le n d in g a h a n d to h e r h u s b a n d to su ce e s s. A n d a su e c e ssf u l w o m a n in m e d ia 15 o n e
su e e ee d in g b o th i n h er ca r ee r a n d b e in g a q u a li i e d h o u se w if f e . In o th er w o rd s , w i th o u t t h e su e e e ssf u l

ro le a s a h o u sew if e , even w h

e n sh e h a s a g lo rio u s e a re er , sh e still e a n , t b e re g a rd e d a s a su c e e ssf u l

w o m an .(3) W bm en are taken as too ls f o r giv ing b ir t h .(4) W 6m en are th e eauses of t r o ub le .T h is is a

l ong一 est abl i shed vi ew of di seri mi na t ion agai nst w om en. (5) W bm en ar et he ob j ects of aPPreei ti a on ·
T h ese ar e w ha t m a s s m e d ia u su a lly f o e u s o n w h e n th ey re P o r t .T he f a e t th a t w om en a r e g en era l ly

reP resented in th e ad ver t isem ent f o r b o即 一 enh ane i n g g oo d s inelud in g oo sm eties an d eloth es testif i es
th a t t h e soe i et y
P e re e iv e th a t

eneo urages w om en to P a y

m ore at t en tion to th eir aP Pearan ee. T h eref o re , w e ean
se x ism th ro u g h so m e sP e e e h o r w riti n g te e h n iq u e s

m ed i a of t e n in te n tio n a lly sh o w

e o n se io u s l y a n d u n c o n se io u sly .

3 l

太原理 工大学硕 士研 究生学位论文

太原理工大学硕士研究生学位 论文

C h a P ter T h re e

C a u ses of L in g u istic S exism

M an y li n gu is t st a eed th e reason s of sexism f r r om t h e P ersPeetiv es of histor y a n d soeiet y .I n b rief ,
sex ism i n lang uag e 15 eau sed by d eeP 一 roo ted historical a n d so eial f a eto rs. T h eref o re , to g et a f u ll an d
n a ly sis in th e f a o llo w i n g p ar t.

g o o d a n sw er , w e w ill m a k e a n

3 .1 H isto riCa l F a e to rs

In w e ster n

c o u n trie s , t h e o rig in s o f se x ism o u g h t to b e tra c e d b a e k to B i b le , i n w h ie h w o m e n a r e

la rg e ly in v isib le a n d th e a n e e sto rs o f w o m e n a r e n o t m en tio n e d . H e r e w e w ill lo o k a t a P a ssa g e tak e n r om t f h e G e n e sis a b ou th ow m a n a n d w o m e n a re e re a t ed b y G o d .

A n d th e L ord G o d said , i t 15 n o t go od t h a t t h e m an sh o u ld b e alo n e ; 1 w ill m ak e h im a h e l P m e et f o r h im .

n A

d out of t h e g ro u n d t h e L ord G o d f o r m ed e v er y un t o A d am to see w h a t

b ea st o f th e f i e ld , an d e v er y

o w l of t f h e ai r ; an d e alled e v er y li vi n g

bro u g h t th e m

h e w ou ld ea ll th e m : a n d w ha t so ev e r A d am

ereat u re , t h a t w a s th e n am e o f t h e re o f

n A

d A da m

gave na m

es to all ea t le , a n d to th e f o w l o f th e ai r , an d to ev e r y b e ast o f th e f l e ld ; b u t

o r f

A dam t h ere w a s n o t f o u n d a h el P f o r h im .
n A d th e L o rd G o d e a n se d a d e eP sleeP to f a ll u P o n A d a m , an d h e sleP t:a n d he t o o k o n e o f h is ri b s, a n d

e lo sed u P th e f l e sh i n stea d th ereo f
A n d th e rib , w h ieh t h e L ord G od h ad tak en f r om n A d A dam m an , m a d e h e a w o m an , a n d b rou g h t h er u n to th e m an .

sa i d , t h is 15 n o w b on e o f m y b on es , a n d f l e sh o f m y f l e sh e s: sh e sh all b e c alled W o m a n ,

b ec au se Sh e w a s ta k en o l t of M a n .

(H ol y Bi ble ,1 978.E xodus , 2:18. 24)
Af t er read i n g the P assag e , it 15 n o t h ard f o r u s to P er c eiv e th er e a r e the su Per i orit y o f m en an d

inf e r i orit y of w om en i n B ib]e .It w a s m en w b o cam e to t h e w orld 份 st and w om en w ere erea t ed ju st as
a h e lP m e e t f o r m e n . A n d w o m en w e re e re ate d o n ly if a ll o th e r an im a ls e o u ld n o t m e et th e sa t isf a etio n o f th e m a n . W o m a n
T h e N e w T e sta m en t

w a s m ad e f r om a ri b o f th e m a n a n d sh e w a s d o o m ed to b e t h e aPP enda ge o f m a n 二
o f th e H o l y B ib le o v e r t ly P r e se n te d w o m a n '5 d e P en d e n c e o n m a n :
h u sb an d s , as u n to th e L o rd . F o r t h e h u sb an d 1 5 th e h ea d o f t h e

W i v e s , su b m i t yot r selv es u n to y o u i r

33

一 一 一 一 一 一 一 一 一 一一 一 2 退 些 达
w if e , even a s Ch l ist 15 t h e head of the C hu r ch … t h eref o re as t h e ehu r ch 15 su j eetu b n to C h r ist , so l etthe
w ives b e to t h ei r ow n u sba h n dsi n eve小 hing .

(E Phesia n s s: 22一 24)
n I B ib le , a l m o st a ll in f l u en i i al f ig u r e s a r e m en , w h i le w o m en w e re i n v is i b le e x e eP t M a r y , t h e n d a

m o th er o f J e su s C h r ist a n d E liz a b e th , t h e m o th er o f J o h n , w h o w e re re sP o n s i b le f o r h o u se w o r k

g ivi n g bi t h to eh ild r r en .T h eref o r e w e e an sa y
in t h e w e st. n I

h a t t the B ible 15 act u all y a b ook o f m en .T h is 15 t h e ease

C h in a , t h e e o n str u ctio n o f g e n d e r 15 g e n e ra lly a t rib u t e d to C o n f u e ia n w ith Y i n一 Y a n g in w h ie h Y in r e f e rs to th e f e m a le a n d Y a n g t h e m a le . I n h is w o rk s , w o m e n w e re b o m w i th

e o sm o lo g y

i nf e ri ori y a t n d t h ey m ust be t augh t t h e noti ons of w om en obeyi ng m en. B an G u (班 固)i n hi sA G eneral T rea ti se f o m t r h e W hi t e Ti ger 《白虎通义 》 el ai m ed t ha t w ha t wa s val ued 1 5t ha t m en 1 5
str e ng t h a n d b ea u t y in w om en w a s w ea灿 ess.It 15 f o m A G en er r a l T rea t ise f r om th e W llite T iger th a t

th e co n cep t o f T h e e O b ed i r en ees a n d F our V ir t u es of W o m en (三 从 四 德 ) eam e. T h ree O bed ienees
re f e rt o t h a t a w om a n w a s re q u i r e d to o b e y h e r f a th e r b e f o r e m a r ia g e , h e r h u sb a n d du r in g m a r i e d lif e :

and her sons i n w idow hood.T he Four V i t ues w ere f r i deli y , ProPri t et y i n s Peeeh , P勿 si eal eha n i r
ef i ciency in h ou sew o r f k . In t h e M i ng a n d Q in g D y n asties , laek of li tera y r
w om e n .T h e s e n e g a t iv e id eo lo g ie s h a v e b e e n d o m in a t n o r a lo n g ti f m e.

n d a

ta l en t w as a vir U e f t o r

3 .2 S o cia l F a eto r s

In aneien t so eiet y , P eoP le li v ed on h u n t in g an d f i eldw or k .T h e lab o r一 dem a n din g f a r m

w or k m ad e

m en t h e lead i ng f o r c e of the societ y g r adu ally .M en soon su r p assed w om en in im P or a n ee an d b ecam e t the d om in a n tf i gu re in f a nlil y as w ell as i n soe iet y .A Pa t riarch al soeiet y h as b een est a b lish ed sin ce then .T h is P a t riareh al so eiet y 15 b ased o n th e b elief t h a t th e m ale is t h e su Perior se x w hil ef e m ale is th e
in f e rio r se x a n d m an y o f t h e s o e ia l i n sti u tio n s a n d m u e h s o c ia l P ra etic e a t r e th e n o rg a n iz e d in
la n g u a g e to r e f i ec t th e b e lief . B o th E n g lish a n d C h in e se h a v e tra e es o f d isc rim in a t io n a g a i n st w o m e n ·

M any lin gu ists agree th a t l a bor o f div isio n a n d so eializa t ion resulted in the i n eq u alit y b et w een w om en a n d m en .I n b oth t h e w ester n a n d eastem so eieties , th ere h as b een a lon g 一 stereo t y P ed o P i n ion

o f th e job d on e by w om en an d m en .M en a r e st r on g en ou g h b io lo gically to h u n t the w ild an i m als f o ra
liv in g w h il e it 15 n e e e ss a r y f o r w o m en to lo o k af t e r c h ild r e n . 5 0 m en w e re q u a lif i ed w it h d a ri n g an d

34

太 原理工大 学硕士研 究生学位论文
e o m P eti ti v e e h a ra c te r is t i e s . S o e ia l th e o rists t h in k h a t t m a le a c t i v iti e s sh o u l d b e re w a rd e d b e e a u se th ey

w e re P u b lie . D u e to w o m e n '5 re la t iv e P h y sie a l w e a 肋 e ss a n d lo w e r e d u e a t io n a l b a e k g r o u n d , th ey d o

Pri ma ri l y t he l ow 一 st u s job w hi t a l e m en a e r
h o u se w o r k .

def i ned 勿 eeonom i e or oecu P a ti onal Posi t i on f r ee f o m r

W i t ht he devel oPm entof soei al i za ti on , ehi l dren l ear n tt he Pre j udi ce agai nst gi rl sa n dt h e sexi sm
a g a in st w o m a n f r o m te x t b o o k s , g a m e s , T V , n ew sP a P e rs a n d o th e r m e d ia . T h ey d e v e lo P a e e o rd in g to

gen der ster e ot y Pe .E sP eciall y m ass m edia ha v ea g r ea t i nf l u enee on eh ild ren ,5 id ea s ab ou t g en d er.
T ha t m en a r e th e P rim a r y e re a t o rs o f th e la n g u a g e o rig in a t es f r om t h e P rim a r y ro le th e y h a v e

r aditiona ll t y p la y ed in soe i et y . M ales ' eontro l of so cie y t
a ss u m P ti o n s an d b i ases a r e re f l ee ted , P e印 et U a t e d a n d n a tu a r

d irectl y lead s to sex ist la n gu age . Sex ist
l iz e d in la n g u a g e u se . M e n h a v e b e en

tr adi t i onal l y regar ded as suPeri or to w om en both i n P妙si que and i ntel l i genee.F asol d bel i eves:N or
d o e s it se e m to b e g en e ra ll y tru e t h at l in g u istie tren d 一 se t e rs te n d to b e m o r e P o w e rf u l P e o P le ; o n th e

con t r ar y , in f c a

t, m o st in n o v a t io n s s e em to b e la u n e h e d in lo w e r e la sse s , b y th e y o u n g a n d b y f e m a le s ,

al lofw hom t end to be rel ti a vel y Pow erl ess( F asold 1992 :2 18).T he subor d i nate Posi ti on of w om en i n
soeiet y , t h e n ar r ow l y def i ned f e m ale r o le , th e at t itu des of m en tow a r d s w om en , a n d the low esteem
w h ieh w om en h o l d th em selv es a r e all d eeP ly ro oted in th e P ast , and all th ese lead to th e li n gu isti e
se x ism a g a in st f e m a le s.

L ang uage d ev eloP s a s h um a n th e hu m an so eie y t

bein gs dev eloP an d eh an ges as soc iet y eh ang es.L ang uage m ir r o rs thin k i n g ab ou t social Pro blem s

n d ref a l eets hu m an th ou ghts.N oneth eless , hum a n

n d Proeesses Pow erf a ul l y eondi t i on t he use of l anguage , si nee l n guage does notexi a sti n the ob j eeti ve
w orld alon e , r t her it 15 v er a y m ue h a t th e m ercy o f P eoP le ' 5 thin k i n g . W ritin g reeo rd s n ot on l y
lan gu ag e , bu t also think in g . O b v io usl y , la n gu age , thou ght a n d realit y a r e elo sel y inter r ela t ed . O ur
w a y s o f ta lk in g a b o u t th in g s re v e a l a t it u d es a n d a ssu m P tio n s w e m ig h t e o n sc io u sly d iso w n , t h us

testif y ing to th e d eeP 一 ro oted n ess of sex ism (C a m ero n , 199 0 , S i m P son , 2 00 0 :16 0). I n a w ord , m ale
d om in an t and f e m ale o bed ient so eiet y
li n g u istie s ex ism ·

an d sex discrim in a t ion ag ainst w om en have r e sulted i n

pow e r 15 a el ea r

an d im p o r t ant f a eto r f o r t h e basi c orga n i zation o f societ y in ter m s o f soe i al

c la sse s , w ith th e P o w e rf u l m a le s a t th e to P a n d th e P o w e rl ess f e m a le s at th e b o t o m . 5 0 so e i a l e la ss 15 a n im P o r a n t in f t l u en ee o n Ia n g u a g e in m o st so c ietie s. T h e r ef o re it 15 s o e ia l c la ss t h at 1 5 re S P o n sib le f o r

the in equa li y bet t w een m ales an d f e m ales.T h u s , som e I in gu istic f o r m s hav e o ver t sexism b ecau se o f

the h ig her soeial sta U s of the m ale sP eak ers in the soeial一 t class h iera r eh y . F ur t her m o re , th e sex ism
35

太原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文
la n g uag es hav e g r adu ally eo m e f r om th ei r associa t io n w ith p rof e ssion s t h a t h av e o f i e ial p o w er li ke

doet ors , m a n agers a n d judges and 50 on. h e Pre T j udice devel oPed i n st er e o一 y Ped soci t et y soei al i zed and f o ssil i zed f a et of sexi sm i n
l n guage · a La k of ( 1973) a f rg u ed t ha t “ ma r gi n al i y a t n d Pow erl essness ofw om en 1 5 ref l ec t ed i n both the
w a y s m en a n d w o m en a r e eX Pec t e d to sP e a k a n d t h ew a y s in w h ie h w o m e n are sP o k e n to ., ,

太原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文

C h a P te r F o u r S c ie n tif i e A ttitu d e s T o w a r d s S e x ism in L a n g u a g e

4 .1 N e eessit y o f R ed u ein g L in g u istie s ex ism

4 .1 .1 S o cia l D ev e lo P m en t

La n gu a g e 15 t h e Pr o d u ct o f P r e v io u s d ev e lo P m e n t an d a t th e sa m

e tim e th e sta t i r n g一 Poi n t of

su b sequ ent d eveloP m ent.A n d lang uag e , a s a so cial Ph eno m en on , tend s to ref l eet soeial realit y .W i h t
th e c h a n g e o f P o litie s , e e o n o m y , e d u e a t io n , se ien c e an d te ch n o lo g y , a n d P e o P le '5 id e o lo g y , th e

ma j ori y of Posi t ti ons ori gi nal l y exel usi ve t o m en , sueh as sci enee一 and一 teehnol og y 一 rel t ed Posi a ti ons ,
m ed ieine一 re l t ed P o sitio ns , edu ea a t i o n P osition s , are ju st as likely to b e h eld by w om en as by m en or
v ic e v e rsa . A s 15 k n o w n to a l l , w o m en h a v e b e e n Io n g in a su b o rd in a t e P o sitio n . T h is b ro u g h t a b o u t

th e P h en om eno n o f sex in equ ali y an d w as ref t l eeted in l n gu age. T h is lin gu istic f a ea u t
reg a rd e d w it h a m a t e r一 of -f a ct a t it u d e . T h e re a so n w a s t h a t a t t h a t tim e th o s e w h

re w as alw a y s

o st U d ie d la n g u ag e

w ere a l m o st a l l m en w h o h a v e tak en an adv a n tage of th ei r P o si tion , not earing f o r eh ang es , W h

il e

W om en had m uch leSS aeeess to ed u ea ti o n an d so eialp o w er.E ven if som e of t h em f e lt the i n equ alit y ,
th ey w e re n o t a b le to m a k e an y eh a n g e a s t h ey w a n te d to . 5 0 lin g u isti e eh a n g e m ig h t b e e x P e eted to

o llo w . A d d itio n a lly , so m e le g is la f t i v e m e a su re s h a v e co n trib u t e d to th e ere a t i on a n d a d o P ti on of

n on 一 d iserim ina t o 叮 ter m in olo g y . F or in stan ee , law s d eali n g w it h equ ali y t

bet w een sexes a n d eq ual

em P loy m en t o PP or t un i y af t e et th e u se of jo b ti f tles and occuP a t ion al ter m ino log y . In B ri tain , the
U n ited S ta t es a n d i n C h in a , w ith th e f e m in ist m o v e m e n ts strik in g th e h e ar t o f th e P e o P l e , a n d w ith th e

in er e asi n g eq ua li y of w om en a t n d m en , there 15 n o w a g r ea t er a w ar e n ess o f the sub tl e d istin etion s t o
b e m a d e in t h e v o e a b u lar y th a t n eu r t eh o i e e u se d to d e s e ri b e m e n a n d w o m e n , a n d th e re 15 a f r e q u en t d em a n d

a l w o rd s b e u se d a s m u ch a s P o ssib le .

L an gu age 15 a Pr o du et o f so ciet y . S ex ism 15 a n
b ee n i n a su b o rd in a t e P o sitio n . F u r t h er m o re , a t th a t

ou t Pu t of h iera r ehy , in w hieh w o m en hav e l o ng
tim e , P e o P Ie w h o re se a r e h e d in la n g u a g e W e re

n ta g e s to k e e P th e i r h ig h e r P o s i tio n in Ia n g u a g e . a lm o st a ll m e n . T h e ref o re , m e n h a d en o u g h a d v a
W lllle w o m e n

e w f

e h a n c e s to b e e d u e a t e d a n d g et so e ial P o w e r. T h u s i t b ro u g h t a b o u t th e sex re s h a v e b e en k eP t w ith a m a t e r一 of

in equ alit y an d

re f l e e te d i n la n g u a g e . 5 0 th e lin g u istie f e a u t
37

_ 一 a ct eon f n u

太原理工大 学硕 士研 究生学位论文 o n oP in ion .W om en '5 sta u s h as g t r a dua l ly im P rov ed .T h e p ast 10 0 y ears or 50 sa w w o m en

gai ni ng equalvot i ng ri gh t s , goi ng ou t of houses and t k i a ng al m os t al lki nds ofjobs t ha t m en ea n t ake

n d doi a n g just w el las , or even bet t er , th o ugh t t alequal o i y 1 t 5 sti l la l ong w a y of . T hough la f n guage
ehan ges w it h soeiet y , it d oes n ot eha n ge as f a st as soeiet y do es. T he eu r en t P or t ray al o f w o m en 15

ou tda t ed a n d d oes n ot r e f l eet t h e cha n ges i n t h e Po si tion and r o l es of w om en i n soeiet y .L a n gu ag e
eha n ges lag b eh i n d chan ges i n
exa m

so cial a n d eu lt u ral Practiees. S ex ist lan g u ag e

d istor t s th e f a ct. F or

P le , in E n g li sh , t h e eo n t in u e d d ise r im i n a t or y

P ra ctie e o f d if e r f e n tia t in g ti tle s f o r w om en

aeeord i n g to t h ei r m arit a l sta u s (i.e. t r . 一 M
d iserim i na t or y on th e b asis o f m a r it a l sta u t

M rS. a n d M iss) i n v iew

o f leg isla t ion b a r i ng
in h a b i ta t ion in

s as w ell as i n v iew of t h e eha n gin g Pa t er n

E n g lish a n d C h in e se . T h n I

ere f o re , t h e se x ist la n g u a g e s sh o u ld b e e h an g e d .

e one l u s io n , la n g u ag e c h a n g e s ee m s to h a v e la g g e d b eh in d s o e ia l e h a n g e , s ev e re ly h in d e rin g

h e lin gu istie r t e f l eeti o n o f soeia l eh a n ge . It 15 n eeessa y r

to k eeP lin gu istie r e alit y i n aeeorda n ee w i h t

soei alreal y . t i

4 .1 .2 L in g u i s tie C h a n g e

T h e w e ste m

e m in ists a lw a f y s ta k e la n g u a g e a s a d o m in a n t to o l to e re a te an d m a i n ta in th e e q u al

r ea t t m en t of th e sex es i n so ciet y .I n th eir ey es , w om en ,5 o PP r e ssion a n d W om en '5 sub ord i na t e sta U t

si n

so ci et y h as a ca u sal lin k to t h ei rt r ea t m en t a n d rePrese n ta t ion i n lan gu age . D ale S P end er (19 80 : 3 )

ProPosed: “L a n guage hel Ps f or m the li mi ts of our soei et y .I t 1 5 our m eans oforderi ng , el assi yi f ng and
m an iPu la t in g the w orld .I t 15 t r ou gh la h n gu age t h a t w e b eeom e m em b ers of a hu m an co m m un it y , th a t
th e w o rld b e c o m e s e o m P re h e n s i b le a n d m e a n in g f u l, t h a t w e b rin g i t o ex iste n c e th e w o rld in w h ie h n w e liv e , , . F r o m th is h y P o t h e sis , w e ea n se e it 15 m e n w h o h a v e co nt r ol o f l n g u a g e in P a a r ia t r ch al

soeiet y . T h ey a e r

h e o nes w h o ca t n

n am e , def i ne , en eod e a n d eha n ge m ea n i n g s. T he resu lt is a

l n g a u age w hi eh 1 5 l e ra t i ll y ma n 一 ma d e a n d w hi eh constr uets a n d Pr esen t s real y t i

r om f

a m al e

P e rsP e cti v e , beca u se i tf a i ls to ex P re s s f e m a le s ' v ie w , t h ei r e x P e rie n ee s a n d P e rsP e eti v e s w h ic h in t u r n

leads to t h ei r sub ord i na t e stat u si n so eie y .T h e eon eePt of in eq t u ali y t
h is t or y of E n g lish , n d a 15 ex r t em e l y e o n sP ie u o u s in

15 ref l ec t ed i n ev e可 stage of th e
m o d er n E n g lish h w en m an y

eou nter一 sex ist一 la n g ua ge m e asur e s co m e i t o b ein g. L an g uag e 15 natll n ral a n d it eon sta n tl y ch an ges to
aceom m o da t e la n g u a g e u se rs ' n e e d s to e x P re ss th e m se l v e s in d if e f re n t w a y s. L a n g u a g e sh o u ld re f l ect

38

太原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文
so c ia l e h a n g e s i n th e re la t io n sh i P b et w e en se x e s. L in g u istic e h a n g e e o n tri bu t e s to a s w e ll a s im P ro v e s

so eial a n d a t i u di t n al cha n ge e oncem in g gend er rela t io ns a n d w om en ,5 Po si tion i n so eiet y . L in guistic
ch a n ge i n e lu d e s th e ch a n g e i n eom u n ic a t iv e f u n e tio n s a n d st r uet u r a l sy ste m . T h e stru e t u ral sy ste m

ref e rsto t h e ehange of sound , voea b ul ar y and g ra m ma r ,i ncl udi ng t h ed y i ng ou t of ol dl n guis i ti ef ac t s, em ergenee of new li ngui sti cf ac t s and cha n ge of som e l i ngui sti ef a ets ( 戚 雨春 ,1985: 35).
O v e r th e P a st d e c e d e s, t h ere h a v e b e en m a n y a t e m P ts to o v e re o m e th e sex is t l a n g u a g e u se a n d m any e o u n te r - s ex ist一 l an gu age m ea su re s , new ca t egori t a Z io n s ha v e been e re a t ed n d a m a n y

m od if i ca t ion s h a v e b een sug gested f o r old ter m s. S om e ha v e alrea即 been a doP ted . F or exam Ple , to
aeh ieve real eq ualit y , a n ew te加
eou n t er p a t r

M s ', w h i ` ch co m b ines M iss w ith M r

s , ea m e in t o bein g . It is a

of 卜 七. U n d e r t h e Pr e ssu re f o m th e f r e m in ist m o v e m e n t, th e se e o in e d w o rd s h a v e b eeom e sP e a k e rs se le e t a P lu r a l Pr o no un

e l r a tiv e ly e o m m o n P a rla n e e ; i n er e asi ngl y , i n in f o r m a l o e e a sio n , m a n y '

to re f e r to a se x 一 in d ef i n ite P ro n o u n o r n o u n . It 15 f e asi b le to re d u e e lin g u isti e se x ism , b u t i t w ill ta k e a lo n g ti m e f o r th e n e w Iex ie a l i tem s a d v o c ate d b y t h e f e m i n ists t o g a in u n iv ersa l a c e e P t n a
th er e h a v e b e en g u id e lin e s iss u e d e ith e r b y in d iv i d u a ls o r g o v e r m L n

e e . B e s id e s ,

e n t a g e n e ie s to se n s itiz e la n gua ge

u s ers to t h e is su e o f la n g u a g e a n d g e n d er d iserim i na t io n , a n d to o f e r th em a ra n ge of al te r n a t iv e s to se x ist la n g u a g e P ra ctie e . M o st g u id e li n es a r e P u b li shed as b oo k l e ts o r b ro ch u re s . S o m e P u b lie a t io n s

ha v e ed itorial sta t em ents en eo ur a gin g their eon r ibutors to u se non 一 t sex ist langu age (also k n o w n as
g e n d e r一 i n c lu siv e la n g u a g e o r g e n d er 一 n e u tral la n g u a g e o r se x 一 r e e la f n g ua g e or n on 一 d isc rim in a to r y

lan g uage o r b ias一 r ee lan gu ag e). S o m e auth ors sta f t e th ei rwa y s Of a v oidin g sex ist lan g uage eith er in
P re f a ees o r f o o tn o te s . O f e o u rse , th e d e v e lo P m e n t o f la n g u a g e a n d w riti n g n e e d s h u m a n P ro m o tio n a s
w e ll a s P ro c e sse s a n d ste P s . A n d a d o P ti n g th e n ew d o e s n o t m e a n th e i m m e d ia t e e lim i n a tio n o f t h e o ld ; in ste a d , th e n e w sh o u ld b e P o P u la riz e d . O n ly u n d er f a v o ra b le e i r eu m sta n ees ea n th e a d o P tio n b e

e a sib le . A n 州 a f y , a s w o m en c o n tin u e to g a in re e o g n itio n i n gov er m n

e n t, e o m m e re e , P ro f e ssio n a n d l a n g u a g e is a n

h ig h e r e d u c a t io n , th e P ro c e s s w ill b e a c e e ler t e d . T h e ref a o re , f e m i n ists th in k th a t in stru m en t o f o P P re ssio n a n d lib e ra t io n , a n d la n gu a g e ca n b e re f o r m
Y V 0 ll l en .

e d an d eh a n g e d in f a v or o f

4 .2 R estrietio n s o f E lim in a tin g L in g u istic S ex ism

L ang uag e 15 a P rod uet an d ear ri er o f h um an th i k i L n n g , o f soeiet y as w ell as o f h isto r y .The f e a u re t

39

一一一 一一一一一 一一一一 一述里塑
of la n g u age lies i n i ts n a u re o f in t h eri ta n ce , histor y n d soeie a y t . Ju st as a m i r or , lang uag e seree ns

realit y .L a n gu ag es a n d th ei r h istories are in v aluab le resou rces f o rf em i n ists to an al y ze th e w or k in g s of
Pa r ia t r eh a l so e ie t ie s , a n d f e m i n ists h a v e d ra w n P e o P le '5 a t e n tio n to t h e se x is t im P liea t io n s o f u sa g e i n

ma n yl n guages.H ow ever , t a h el r ge一 a seal e ref or m ofa l anguage t o el i mi na t e se劝s m 1 5 no easy job .W e
ha v e e v e n le ss P o w e r to e o n r t ol w h t a P e o P le sa y or m ea n th a n th e P re se r i P ti v e d ef e n d e rs o f se x ist

con v en tion . In t h e m ou t h s o f sex ists , la n gu ag e ean still be sex ist. T h oug h th e elim in a t ion of sex

di sc ri mi na ti on i nl n guage 1 a 5 desi ra b l e , yet i t15ul ti ma t el y i m Possi bl e.

4. 2 .1 R estr ietio n s o f s o eial F a cto rs

La n gu age a n d w ri tin g a r e eo m P on en t s o f P e o P le '5 P erc e P ti ve k n o w led g e a n d ra t io n a l 知 o w l ed ge ,

of PeoPl e ,5 soei al aeti vi ti es a n d of t h e devel oPm ent of soei al hi stor y . W ri ti ng , just li ke l anguage ,
ser v e s so ci et y .T h e ref o r m o f lan g u age a n d w r i tin g 15 a eom P liea t ed Prob lem inv o l v in g ev er y asP eet of

so eiet y .S o cial need deter m i n es th e reg ula t ion of t h e de v elo Pm en t o f la n g u age .
D if e ren t so e ia l e o m m u n itie s a f n d d if e re n f t s o e ia l e la sse s i nf l u e n e e th e d e v e lo P m en t o f la n gu age .

L ik e la n gu age , w ritin g ser v es th e w h ole soe iet y , n ot an y sP eeial elass. Y et , t h e inf l u en ee s of soeial
e la sse s o n t h e d e v e lo P m e n t a n d u se o f w r i ti n g a r e m u ch g r ea t er t h an t h o se o n t h e d ev e lo P m e n t a n d u se o f la n g u a g e . In th e d ev e lo P m en t a n d u se o f w r itin g , t h e P la n i ng a b o u t la n g u a g e is v e r y im P o r t ant

o r th e sta f t e. If so eial eom m u n i ties a n d soeial e l asses (exeePt f e m i n ists) do n ot ad m it th ere 15 sex ist
la n g u a g e u se , o r if t h e y se e n o se n se in e lim i n a tin g th e se x ist la n g u a g e u se , 15 it P o ssib le f o r th e sta t e
to m a k e ru le s to e lim in a t e se x is t l a n g u a g e u se ? It , 5 n o t lik e l y . If th e sta t e d o e s n o t ta k e ste P s to g e t rid

o f lin g u istie sex ism , 15 it P o ss i b le to e lim in a t e it? f t 15 l ess l ik e ly . A c t u al ly , e v en if th e s ta t e im P o s e s

h er t u les on so eial eom m u n ities a n d soc i al elasses , i t 15 i m Po ssi b le f o r th e w h ole so eiet y to aeeeP t it
w illin g ly . T h e re f o r m of t h e E n g lish sP e lli n g in h isto r y 15 a lo n g y e t d ism a y in g P ro e e s s . D w ig h t

B ol i nger , i n hi sAs P eet s o f L a刀 gua g e, e x em Pli i es t f he di i cul f y of l t i ng u i s ti c eha n ge.h i t he l t e 19th a
een 仪 lr y an d th e e a r ly Z O t h eent u r y , a v ig o ro u s m o v em e n t o f re f o r m in g E n g li s h sP e llin g o e e u r e d in th e m an y g r ea t h e 2 6 th t P e rso n a liti es i nel u d in g U . S . P re s id e n t T h e o d re s.

U n ite d K in g d o m

a n d th e U n ite d S tate s , w h ic h w o n su P P o r t f r om in a n d d ra m t ist B e r a n a r d S haw , a n d

ev o lu tio n ist G e o rg e D a w r o R

o s ev e lt, w h o o rd e re d th e g o v e r n m e n ta l P r i n tin g f a eto rie s to a d o P t ab o u t 3 0 0 re v ise d sP e llin g f o r m

T he m ovem enteVen es ta b l i shed “C om m i ssi on of Si m pli y i f ng Engli sh Spel l n g ”, w i i t ht he f i na n ei alai d
40

太 原理工大学硕 士研 究生学位论文

o f $ 25 ,00 0 ea c h y ea r

r om the st f e el b a r on a n d Ph ilanthro Pist A n

r ew C a d m

egie . N ever t heless , th e
o un t o f

P ra c tie e o f re f o r m in g th e E n g lish sP e llin g m e t w i h t

w i d e o P P o sitio n . T h e re 15 a f a i r a m

resist a nee a m o ng E n g lish sPea k ers to f em i n ist ref o r m ers (C am eron , 19 85 :1 18). S om e P eoP le a e r

af r aid

th a t in ta m P ering W i th l an gu age , f e m in ists m ay be ab le to ta m Per w i h reali t y . T h e B ri t tish co nser v a t iv e
o R g er S e r u to n ra t h er in e l eg a t n l y ex P r e s se s h is o w n in d ig n a t io n a b o u t f e m in ist lin g u istie ref o r m o f m a n y g e n e ra t io n s . T o m u t ila e t th is reP o sito r y : of

“E a eh o f u s in h e r its in la n gu a g e t h e w isd o m

hu m a n ex P erienee 15 to m u t ila t e ou r m o st f u nd a m entalP er e ePtion s ,, (C a m ero n , 198 5 :124 ).
C ha n g es in se x is t la n g u a g e , w h eth e r t h ey a r e na u t a l o u te o m e s o f w o m e n ' 5 eh a n g in g e x P e rien e e s r “g a t e一 k eeP i n g , , in sti u io n s : e d u e a tio n , t u se

o r o f d eli b er t e a n d c o n sc io u s re f a o r m s, a r e re g u la t ed by P u b lish in g , m e d ia , le x ie o g ra P h y , 『a m m a r. T o

be aeeePt e d in t h e P u b lie d o m a i n o f Ia n g u a g e

(o f i eiald ocum ents , t h e T V n ew s) , f e m in ist in n ov a t io ns ha v e to take t h ef i rst steP .A n d th e f i rst steP 15 , r a f r o m n eutral: t f h ey to o a r e P oli tieal i ns ti tutio ns (C am eron , 19 85 :1 13 ). F or in stan ce , the N e w Y O r k

乃刀 Zes , f o r y ea r sr e f u se d to P rin i th e w o rd ` M s ' , e v e n if th e w o m e n b e i ng w r it t en a b o u t P re f e r e d it

4 .2 .2 R estrietio n s o f L in g u istic C h a n g e

El im in a ti n g lin gu isti c biases i n v olv es m ore than ju s t ex P o si n g th em an d su gg esti n g alter n ativ es.
It re q u ir e s c h a n g e , a n d li n g u istie ch a n g e 15 n o t e a sie r to ae e e P t t h a n n y o th e r e h a a n g e . It m a y be ev en

hard er (M iller et a l , 19 8 1: 9 5 , G ra d d ol et a l. 1993 :9 5 ,). B o th E n glish an d C h i n ese estab lish t h e
re la t io n sh iP b e t w e en w o rd f o r m t io n a a n d w o rd m e a n i n g th ro u g h eom m on P ra e tie e , w h ieh , o n e e

reco g n i zed by so ciet y , m u st b e o be y ed by a ll th e u sers , an d on w h ieh 15 also b ased the ref o r m

or th e

chan ge o f m ea n in g s . B e sid e s , it 15 i m P o ss ib le to g a in so e i a l re e o g n iti on i n e lim i n a tin g th e sex ist lan g u a g e u se in th e d e e P l y ro o t e d P ro v e rb s , d ieta , rid d le s , w o r d th e se x ist lan g u a g e u s e in t h e se c a se s m a y d e stro y li t er ar y o rd e r a n d se t P h r a se s , b e e a n se r i d d in g

tra d i tio n s a n d th e h isto rie a l lin k w ith o th er

lin g u isti e t r a d iti o ns. R ef o r m

m e a su re s a r e of t en i n ef e ct u a l. T a k e w o rd m e a n in g s f o r exal n P le . T h e ir

re e e P tio n a n d tra n sm is sio n a r e b e y o n d th e eo n t r o l o f th e f e m in is t s w ho Pr o P o s e th e m . A f t e r a ll,

sPeakers ean 't al wa y s be broug h t to see t he Poi nt of i n ova ti ons , st i l ll ess t he vi U e i t r n t hem .A s
e m in ists h a f v e resisted sex ist lan gu age , m a n y sPe ak ers h ave r e sisted th e alter n a t iv es (C am ero n , 19 8 5:12 2) S o m e al ter n a t iv es m a y brin g abo ut uneX P eeted resu lts. F or exa m P le , ` M s ' w as eo i n ed to
re P la c e ` M iss a n d M rs .' to a v oi d of e n se . U n e x P ee ted ly , it h a s b e e n ad d e d to t h e sy ste m to m a k e a

4 l

一一一一一一一一一一一一一2 堰兰

u r f t h er d istin etion , ref e r ing i n m any P eoP le '5 u sag e to o ld u n m
n d un f a e m in in e w o m e n w h o e an ,t g e t o r k e e P a m an .

r a

ied w om en , d iv oreees or ab no r m al

4 .3 S tr ateg ie s a n d M eth o d s o f C h a n gin g S e xism

S h o u ld w e e h a n g e a sex ist la n g u a ge i t o a no n一 n se x ist la n g u a g e . P e o P le w h o h a v e a d if e re n f t P o in i

o f v iew o f so eial rela t ion s h a v e d if e ren f t a n sw ers.O n e 15 t h a t societ y do es n ot ha v e rela t ion s w i th t h e lan gu age , eh ang e the l n g a u a ge ca n n ot ehan ge so cial reali y .A t la n g u age th a t o nly re f l ect th e

eom m u n i y If t t h e soei al r eali y ehanges , ehanges i t n na u r t al l anguage , t h er e1 5 no need t o eha n ge the
lan g u age .A lan gu age t h a t t h e nat o ral lag beh in d eha n ge s i n the soeial reali y of ch a t n ge ,w e ha v e of t en o b ser v ed th a t the ehan g es i n so eiet y and the la n gu age did not r e f l ect t h is eh a n ge .
L e t , 5 re v iew h e th e o r t y o f S a P ir一 W h o rf H y P 0 t h e s is. It 15 a e la im e o n e e m in g th e re la t io n sh iP

b et w een l an gu age a n d eu ltu r e , w h ich eo nsists of t w o Pa t s: ling u istie re la r t iv it y
d e ter m in ism . L in g u isti c d ete r m in ism sta t es t h a t th e st U r et u re o f la n g u a g e d ete r m

an d lin g u istie
in w h ie h in e s

n e s th e w a i y

sP e a k e rs v ie w th e w o rld . T h

t 15 , P a a t er n s o f la n g u a g e sh o w w a y s o f th o u g h ts a n d la n g u a g e d ete r m

h o w sP e a k e rs P e re e iv e a n d o r g a n i z e th e w o rld a r ou nd t h em . 5 0 i t 15 P o ssib le f o r u s to re f o r m Pa t r of l n g u a g e to b e t e r P e o P le '5 m i a n d a n d w o rld .
F e m in ist , so e io lo g ist , la n g u a g e re se a r c h e rs h a s e r e a t ed m any n 即 w o rd s , a lo t o f P ro g ra m

se x ist

m es ,

Su c h a s t h e c re a t io n o f n e w sin g le a f e w p erso n a l p ro n o u n s , ae e o rd in g to A u g u st 7 , 1 8 8 4 p u b lish e d in

th e N ew Y o rk C or m n

er c i al A dv er t iser abo ve , in ab ou t 1 850 w ill A g r id 一 P erson P ron ou n n e (sub j eet) ,

ni s (Possessi ve) , ni m (ob j ect).T he nam e of A m eri ea n w om en l eaders l i nguis ts L evada tem Pera u re t ( Va r da O ne)reeom m enda ti ons w i h a new w or t d ve , vi s , ver resPeet i vel y rePl aee he , she , hi s , her , hi m ·
T h e s e P e rso n a l P ro n o u n s a r e n o t w id e l y a p P lie d a n d h a v e b e en h a n d ed dow n . N ot o n l y to c re a t e a

n eu r t

a l P ro n o u n s a n d no un s a r e r e a

ly p o p u la r. I n th e 19 5 0 5 i t w as su g g e ste d th a t ch a n g es i n C hi n e se ,

so m e w ith “F , , w o rd n ex t to th e w o rd b a d , b u t d id n o t re e eiv e re sP o n se s . T h e la n gu a g e o f th e S ta t u te

of t h e co n u eo rnrnun iea t io n

u nit y

d ecided no t to a t if r i ciall y eh a n g e the la n gu age , o t h e附 ise , w ill af e c f t ad ditio n , se x ist la n g U ag e w i h t t h e de v eloP m ent o f so eie y t

ts i

u n etio n s.I f n

w ill lo se i ts
h e t

o rig i n al m ea n in g o f sex d ise ri m in a t io n , a s lo n g a s t h e e o n e eP t o f g en d er d ise rim in a t i on f r om P e o P le d is aP P e a e r

d , th e 50 一 ea l le d se x ist lan g u a g e w ill b e n o . S ex i st la n g u ag e in th e f i n a l d e e isio n o n

the disa p Pea r a n ee of th e eom m un i y ,5 dev eloP m en t a t n d ch an ges E v en som e f e m i n ists st r on gly

42

太原理工大学硕士研 究生学位 论文

ProPosed m a n y sub j ecti ve st ra t egi es a n dw a y st o erea t e a w om a n 一 eent er ed l n gua a g e 50 as to exPr ess
th e i r id ea s , f e el in g s a n d v a lu e s f r om a f e m a le '5 P ersP e eti ve.1 t h in k , it 15 n o t re a listi e to e o m P le te ly c re a t e a new la n g u a g e a s a sP ee if i e d lan g u a g e f o r w o m e n . W e b e liev e t h a t t h e la n g u a g e a n d so e ia l

il t eraction , la l n gu age ref l e ets soeiet y ,w ha t kin d o f soeial reali y are w h a t t k ind of la n guag e , b ut w e can
n o t ig n o re th e la n gu ag e o f t h e c o u n te r一 P ro d u e tiv e . W e ta k e th e in i ti t i a v e to c h a n g e th e se x ist lan g u a g e ,

t least th a a t w ea r ea w a r et h at g en d er diserim ina t ion T h is soeial realit y , la n g ua g ea n d g en d er eha n ge th r o ug h n on 一 sex ist la n gua g e i n th is w a y eaused m ore eon cer n , thu s ch a n g ing so cial reali y , bu t t w e
b e eha n ged .

sh o u l d m a k e it e l e a r la n gu a g e 15 t h e e o m m o n th in g s , n o t h ad to e h a n ge ea n

S alz m an n (19 93 :186) arg ues th a t “o ne sh ou ld a v o id t h e use of a m aseulin e o r f e m in in e P rono un
w h e n re f e re n e e m a y b e to m e m b e rs o f b o th s e x e s · … E v en w it h o u t g en d e r一 n e u tra l P ro n o u n f o r m s,

th o u g h t , e lim in a t in g li n g u isti e se x ism

15 n o t P a t ic u la rly d if r i c u lt. P u b l f ish e rs a n d th o u g h tf u l w ri ters

h ave m ade st ro n g ef o r f t s in recen t y ea r s to elim in a t e Iing uistie sexism as w e]1 as to av oid ste r eot y P in g
m em b ers o f e tl m ie m in o ri tie s., , U N E S C O issu e d g u i d e lin e s f o r non 一 sex ist lan g u a g e f o r E ngl ish a n d

F reneh in 19 89 a n d f o r G er m an in 199 3 (P a u w els , 199 8 :11).M ill er & Sw if t P u blish ed T h e H a n d bo ok
of N on 一 sex ist W ri ting f o r W riters , E dito rs a n d SP ea k ers (P a n w els , 19 98 :14 6). T h e B ri t ish N a t ional Jou m alists (19 82) reeo m m en d ed al ter n a t iv e f o r m s: “ If th e sex o f the Person be i n g d iscu ssed 15
un 如 o w n
of e

o r c o u ld b e f e m a le o r m a le , u se ` sh e o r h e ' o r ` sh e h /

e' or ` s/ h e ' . A lte m a t iv e ly , t h e p lu r a l

rs a n o n 一 Se X ist p ro n o u n , o r th e p ro n o u n m 叮 b e u n n e e e s sa 叮 .” T h e f o llo w in g a r e so m e f e a sib le .

stra t e g ie s to a v o id se x ism

4 .3 .1 G en d er S P eeif i ea tio n

G e n d e r sP e e if i ea t io n m e a n s t h a t w h e n w e re f e r to a w o m a n , w e u se th e f e m a le s ' f o r m re f e r to a m an , w e u se th e m a le s ' f o r m

; w h en w e

. T h e stra t e g ie s w ill a e h ie v e e q u a l t r e a tl n e n t o f th e g en d e r in

la n g u a g e in m a k in g th e i n v is i b le se x c le a r in la n g u a g e s th r o ug h t h e sy m m etrie a l m a r k in g o f g e n d e r. I n
n a u n sP e c if i e d e o n te x t , w e ea n u se b o th th e m a le a n d th e f e m a le f o r m s in o rd er to ex P lie i tly m en tio n

o f b o th se x e s , o r w e ca n u se th e d o u b le P erso n P ro n o u n s. H e re a r e so m e ex a m C h in e se f o r re f e re n e e .

P le s in E n g lish a n d

(l) .U sin g P l u ral f or m
o f b o th se x e s.

in stead o f a singu lar m aseu Iin e Pro no un w h en ref er e n ce m a y be to m em b ers

43

一一一一一一一一一一一一一一一塑整塑进堂
e v is ed : R W h en b a h t in g b a b ie s ,

论文

e· g· 1)S ex ist: W hen b a t h ing a b a b y , n ev er leave him un at t en ded .
n ev e r le av e th e m u n a t en d ed.

Se x i t : 给婴儿洗澡 时 , 一定不能让他无人照料 。 s R ev is e d : 给婴儿洗 澡时 , 一定不能让他们无人照料 。
e· g· 2) S e x ist: F rom eaeh aeeord i n g to h is a b ilities to each aceord i n g to h is n eed s.

e v ise d : F ro m e a c h o f u s a c c o rd i R n g to o u r a b ili t ie s , to e a e h o f u s a ee o rd in g to o u r n e e d s .

各尽所 能 , 按 需分配 。
e. 9. 3 ) Sex ist:N o m a n k n o w s h is t U e cha r r aeter u n t il he h as r u n ou t of gas.
R ev ise d : Y o u d o n 't 如 o w w h a t y o ur 加 e eha r a c ter 15 u n t il y o u h a v e r u n o u t o f g a s.

只有当汽油用光 了 , 人的本 来品性才 会显露 出来 。 (2)usi n g “t h e , ' or “a ja n , , w hen t h e generi e oeeurs.
e. 9. 4. S ex ist : e R Ca n a er i tie g i v e h is o P in io n o f a n o m e le t w i t h ou t b ei n g a sk e d to m a k e on e

vi sed :

C a n

a critic g iv e a n o P i n io n o f .二 ?

评 论家议论煎蛋 时难道 非要 他去 自己煎鸡 蛋吗 ?

4 .3 .2 G en d er N eu tra l抚a tio n

D u e to t h e f e m ale su f i Xe S i n E n g lish a n d th e eh araeter e om p on ent 女 in C h in ese , g en d er 15
P re se n te d c le a r ly in m o r p h o lo g y .f t 15 e o m m o n th a t su f i x es a r e u se d to m a rk a f e m a le , b u t n o t a m a le . G en d e r n e u t ra li za t i o n 15 to g et rid o f t h e sP e c if i e d g e n d er e x P re ss io n s an d c o n str u e tio n s . T h u s t h e

i m Pl em ent oft h e gender neut r al i za ti on w i l lhel P us i denti y a person i f n al lt r ee eont i l t s.SPeei x e i cal f y l
sP e a k in g , t h e t r h ee eon e t t si x n e lu d e t h e re f e r e n e e to a m a le , to a f e m a le o r to a P e rso n w h o se se x 15 n o t

sP e c i i e .T h e f f o llo w in g a r e s o m e sP e e if i c m e th o d s .

(l) usi n g gend e卜 r ee w o rd s w it f h o ut f e m ale su f i xes o r 女

e. g.chi l d, t eacher , of i eer(警官) , peopl f e , w orker , 而m i『 an t (移 民) ,v oter(投票者 ) , eoach(教 练 ) , ehureh m em ber(教 友 ) , sal er e p (推 销 员 ) , g a n d pa r en t (外 / 祖 父 或祖母 ) ,

leader , ev en i n g s饭d en t , em p loy ee (雇 员 ) , testee (考 生 , 应 试 者 ) , en gin eer , eu stom ers (顾

客 ) , deal er (交易者 , 商人 ) , cl er k

(职员 , 办事 员 ) , ei vi l 宜 an (平 民 ) , sci ent i st , operat or pol i ti ei n (政 a

( 接 线 员 , 办 事 员 ) , pa t ri ot (爱 国 者 ) , person , pl n ner(策 划 者 , 计 划 者 ) , a
44

太 原理工大 学硕士研 究生学位 论文

客) , producer(生产 者 、 制 造者) , t ut or (家庭教师 , 导师 , [美 国 〕 助教 ) , repor t er , w r i t er ,
ehi ef exeeuti ve of i ei f al (首席行政长官 ) , ever y body , ex p er t.
(2) T h ere a e r a larg e nu m b er o f ag en t no un s w ith th e su f i x一 a n in E ng lish .W e can erea t e som e

n ew W o rd s a s 一 e rso n a n d一 P e o P le to ta k e P la c e o f t h e se x ism su f i x es.
e. 9 . sP o k e sm a n
Jur y m an 一



sP o k e sP e rso n
m a n ag er

m an a n d h is w o rld



w o rld h isto r y

h ef t a r m er a n d h is w if e



th e f a n n c o u P le

m an h andl e
d r af t sm a n
w at c l ln la n

~



jur y Person
dr a f t er
u ar g d

o r f e m an



su P e r v iso r

o re f f a t」 le r s
si g n a lm a n

~
~

n c esto rs a
sig n a le r

i rem an f
m ilk x n an
m a ilm a n
SP ac e m a n ca m e ra m a n




~ 一

i re f f ig h ter
m il k d e li v ere r
m a il c ar r ie r
a st r on aut c am e ra P er so n

m an Po w er
P re h isto rie m a n
m an一 to 一 m an


~


w or k f o rc e
P reh is t o ric P e o P le
P e rso n 一 to 一 P e rso n

eom m o n m an m an 一 m ade 一



o rd in ar y sy n th etie

P e rso n

m a n k ind
sP in s te r 一



h um an it y
o ld m a id ~ l ig h t a f t end ant

a irli n e ste w a r d /st e w a r d e ss h o u se w if e 一

h o u se h a n d le

g e n e ri e ` he,
g e n erie `h im , g en e rie ` h is ,


一 一

h ey , h e /sh e , sh e 爪e t
h im 小 e r h is小 e r
45

太 原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文
g e n e rie ` m a n



P e o P le eent u rie s . S o m e e h a r a e te rs

n I

C h in e se , th ere a r e so m e e h a n ge s i n la n g U a g e f o r m s in t h e t w e n tie h t

eom posed of 女 w i t h nega ti ve m ea n i n gs ha v e been t ra n sf or m ed i nto nonsexi s t w ords.For exam pl e, 淫 i n stead of 妊 , 懒惰 i nstead of嫩 婿.H ere 1 5 a pass铭e f o rus t oa v oi d sexi sm i nl n 邪昭e. a

4 .3 . 3 A v o id in g G e n d e r S ter eo t y P e in W o r d O rd er a n d D iseo u rses

.(1) u si n g other se劝st一 order Ph r a s es interchan g ea b ly .
e. 9 . U sin g “m a n a n d w om a n , , a n d “w o m a n an d m a n , ', “伪th e r a n d m o t1 1e r ' , a n d “m o th er a n d f t h er , , , a

“boy s and gi rl s” a n d “gi rls and boys ”.U si ng “爷爷奶奶 ” a n d ` 。 奶 奶爷爷 ,, , “爸爸妈妈 , , a n d “妈妈爸
爸 ”a n d oth er sex ist一 o rd er ph rases i e reh a t n n geab l y.

(2) a v o id i n g g end er stereo t y P e in d iseou rse W e k n ow t h a t sex ism ean b e Pereeived not o n l y in la n gu a g e itself , bu t also beh i n d la n gu ag e in

m ass m edi a.T her ef o re w e shoul d joi t our ha n n ds i n eli mi na ti ng sexi sm exi st i ng i n diseourse.Fi rst of
a ll, th e P re se n t a io n o f w o m e n ' 5 lif e sh o u ld n o t b e lim i te d to t h e t r a d itio n a l f i e ld s su e h a s e o o k in g a n d lo o k in g 一 af t er 一 e h ild r en . W o m en s h o u ld b e eo n f i d en t in g e t in g i v o lv e d in a ll t n h e f i e ld s P ro v id e d

o rt f h em , a n d b e m ore a c ti v e to do eve州 1 1in g th a t m en d o ev en exeel m en . T he ind ePen den t identit y
n d ro le s o f w o m en sh o u l a d b e af i r m sh o u ld P u t ed i n a P osi ti v e an d ac t iv e w a y in ste a d o f liv in g f o r m e n ·W e e l e g isla t io n s sh o u ld

o u t o f u se th e id io m s e o n v e y in g d ero g a t or y

m e a n in g o n w o m en . T h

deal w i h th e elim i t n a t ion o f sex diserim ina t ion a n d eq u al em P loy m en t o PP or U ni t y t t h a t af e ets t f h e u se

of jo b titles a n d o eeuP a t ion al ter m i n o log y .La n g uag e gu ide lines h a v e b eeam e a m ain v eh iele f o r
im P le m e n ti n g n o n一 se x ism l n g u a g e re f a o r m a e ro s s m a n y la n g u ag es a n d sP ee e h eo m m u n ie a t io n s.
to 9 0

C o m P a re d w i t h th e i m P lem e n t a t io n o f li n g u isti e ch a n g e s in th e w e s t , C h in a h a s a lo n g w a y

as f r a

as l i ngui sti e eha n ges ar e eoncer n ed.For ex a m Pl e , job adver ti sem en t swi h sexi t sm ex P ressi ons

r e notuncom m on.Som e job ad a v er ti sem ent s m ake i tcl ea r t ha t onl y m en are el i gi bl et oa p Pl yf o rthe
p o s itio n o r P o st. 5 0 C h in a 15 a d v ise d to lea m 介o m th e w e s t to h a P le m e n t li n g u istie e h a n ge , t h rou gh

leg isla t ion a n d n on 一 s e x is m la n g u age g u id e li n e s. It e a n n o t b e d e n ie d t h a t th e re se a r e h o f th e g e n d e r l n gu age h as m ad e g a r e at P ro g re ss n o w a d a y s.

B u t t h e re se e m to b e so m e P ro b l e m s in t h e r e se a r e h . L in g u ists P o in te d o u t m a n y g en d e r b i a s w o rd s i n

E n glish , su eh a s: m a n kind , brot h erh ood , 户esh m a n t h a t a ref a m ilia r to u s all.B ut som e lingu ists a r ef r a
46

太原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文
to o se n sitiv e a n d ta k e i tf o rg r a n te d th a t so m e w o r d s lik e b o y e o t , h isto r y n d h er a n ia a r e a lso g e n d e r

bi as w or dsjus t beeause they bea r “ boy ,, , “hi s ,, and “ her, , i n t h em .D i e ren f i f o m those sexi r st w or ds ,
th e s e o n e s a r e n o t e o m P o u n d w o rd s , a n d “b o y , , , “h is , , “h er , , h a s n o t i n d ePend ent m ean i n g in t h e se

。 rds:T h er e sea c h shoul r d be sei ent i五 c and ob j ect i ve.

47

太原理 工大学硕士研究生学位论文

太原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文

C h a P te r F iv e

C o n c lu sio n

La n g u ag e eP i t om izes soeiet y
d ise rim i na t or y

n d histor a y

n d i a t a c eum u la t es t h e f U i r t s of th in k in g . S oeiet y 15
a sP ec t of

ag a in st f e m a le s a n d se x i st P ra c t i e e s in Ia n g u a g e u se a re c o n sP ie u o u s. E v er y

hu m an soe i et y , su ch as eon eeP t of r a nk s , eon eePt of m a l e su P eriorit y

and f e m ale in f e riori y , th e t

di e r f e n ees b et w een so ei a l eo m m u n ities (e. g.t h e di e ren ees of ea f r eer , th e dif e ren ees of edu ea f t io n)
r e r a e f l ec t ed i n la n g U a g e . W e ea n n o t o n ly u n d e rsta n d t h e r u le o f w o rd f o r m a t io n f r om th e

ch a r a cteristie s o f P e o P le '5 t h in k in g , b u t w e sh o u ld k n ow a b ou t th e e h a r ae teristic s o f P e o P le , 5 th in k in g

r om f

la n g u a g e an d w r itin g . S ex ism

15 a m a n if e sta t i o n o f m a le 一 d o m in a n t一 an d 一 e m al f e一 su b o rd in a t e

so clet y .
T h e b a sis o f a la n g u a g e lie s in its v o e a b u la r y n d g a r am m a t ie a l st r uet u re an d th e d isto r t in g e f e t s c

o f g e n d e r id e o lo g y

o n la n g u a g e a re m o st v is i b le an d m o st b la t a n t in v o ea b u lar y .N a t u ra l ly , g r a m

m a r 15

also af e cted by sex ist ideo log f y . H ow ever , as soe i et y a n d Peo Ple '5 thin kin g eh ang e , v oeab u l ar y an d
w o rd m e a n in g s a ls o c h an g e . V o e a b u la 卿 a n d w o rd m ea n in g s e a n , t rem a in f i x ed . N e w w o rd s a re

e o in e d o r b o r o w e d o r m a d e o u t o f e x istin g w o rd s , a n d th e m e a n i n g s o f o ld w o r d s g ra d u a lly e h a n g e .

T h e issu es o f r e d u e in g a n d e lim in a t i n g lin g u isti e sex ism

ha v e re m a in e d a t

h e h e ar t t

o f th e

so cio ling u isties st u 即 . F em i n ists arou nd th e w orl d , es P eeiall y in t h e E ng lish 一 sP eak ing eo un tries h av e
ex e r t e d g re a t ef o r t s , u se d th e i r in itia t iv e s an d to o k a e tio n s to e h a n g e th e b ia se d reP re se n ta t i on of

sex i sm i n l anguage. R eduei ng sexi st l anguage use 1 5 a Pro j ect t ha t has l ong been eonduct ed by
e m i f n ists a n d so m e s eh o la r s , a n d s o m e a e h iev e m e n ts h a v e b e e n m a d e . N ev e r t h e le s s , th e se x ist

la n g u a g e u s e 15 still “f l o u rish in g , , . F e m in ists h a v e e v en f o u ght f o r th e e rad ie a t io n o f se x ist la n gu age

u se . T h e i r in t en tio n 1 5 d e sir a b le b u t im P r a e tie a b le to so m e d e g r e e .A f t e r a ll, f e m in ists a r e v er y m u eh in

th e m ino ri y of soe iet t y , and the i r n eed d oes n ot reP resen t th e n eed o f the w h ole soc i et y . W ha t '5 m ore ,
th e b io lo g ic a l d if e f ren c e o f th e m a le a n d th e f e m a le 15 P e 确 a n en t in th e u n iv er se a n d i t d e te r m s o f m en a n d w o m e n . 5 0 lo n g a s d if e f i n e s th e

so e ia l ro le s a n d sta u t

re n e e s in th e s ex e s a re e q u a t ed w i h t

d if e ren ces in aceess to P ow er a f n d i nf l u en ee in soc i et y , th e elim in a ti o n o f ling u istie sex ism
b so lu te l a y o u t o f th e q u e stio n . E a rly i n 19 4 6 , th e U N C o m m issio n o n th e S ta u t

15

s o f W om en w as ni tie s f o r w o m en

e sta b lish e d to se e u re e q u a l P o litie a l rig h ts , e e o n o m ie rig h t s, a n d edu ea t io n a l o P P o r U t th ro u g h o u t th e w o rld .

N o n eth e les s , a ll t h e se o n ly m a k e it ille g a l to d ise rim in a t e a g a in st w o m e n , b u t w e h a v e n 't so lv e d

49

一一一一一一一一一一一一一止垫碑
a ll w o m e n '5 P ro b le m s b y g e t in g a t
C on f e re n c e o n W o m en '5 P ro b l e m s in

h e ro o t o f th e d ise rim i t na t io n . S in e e th e F irst I n te r n a t io n a l
19 7 5 , m an y P ro b lem s o f w o m e n h a v e b e e n d e a lt w i th , a n d

W om en '5 sta u s ha t s b een raised . N ever t h el e ss , t h e m ale一 d om ina t n

一 an d 一 e m ale一 f o b edient so eial r e ali y t ,

h as n ot ehan ged a n d w ill n ev er eh a n g e.L ead ers a n d e x Per t s ,i n w orld o rg a n iza t i ons, i n ev e汀 eo u n t y r
r om f th e een r t al go v ernrnen i to th e lo eal go vem m ent , in ever y enter p rise , in ev er y o rg a n iz t a

io n

(ex ceP t w om en ,5 o rgan iza t ion ) , in ever y f i eld (ex eeP t w om en ,5 f i eld ) a r e m o stl y m ale , w h ich 15 ha r dl y
a m a t e r o f d isP u te . F e m i n ists h a v e e o m e a lo n g w a y , a n d still h a v e a lo n g w a y to g o !

T h e o nly w a y

to elim in a t e ling u istie sex ism 15 to af t er so eial reali y : yet al t teri n g so eial realit y 15

n o easy ta sk .A et u all y , ev en t h e eh a n g e o f so eialr e alit y ean on ly r e du ce sex ist la n gu age , b ut i t e an n ot elim i na tei t .A s lon g as soeiet y v iew s w o m en a n d m en as d if e ren t and un eq f u al , as lon g as m en o ceuP y h e d om inan t t P o sitio ns i n soeiet y , ling u istie sex ism w ill P ersist.It 15 im Po ssible to eli m in ate ex istin g
s ex ist lan g u a g e ; ra h t er , it 15 P o s sib le f o r n e w se x ist te r m s to c o m e i t o be i n n g . T h e n e w ly 一 e o in e d se x ist

ter m

“W al m an , ' (a t k r adem ar k , i n ehi nese , 随身听) 1 5 a ease i n poi nt. A l t hough bot h m al es and

e m ales a f r e in vo lved i n its P rod u c t ion , an d al th o ugh b oth m ales a n d f e m ales en j oy listen i n g to m u sie
w i h t th e sm a ll an d d e lie a t e in st U r m ent, i t 15 n a m e d “W a l拓 n a r n , , , n o t “w a lk w om a n , , o r “w o rk P e rso n , , o r

any t hi ng el se. E vi den tl y , the el i mi na ti on of l i n罗is ti e sexi sm 1 5 per ha P s a pro j eet never t o be
com P l e ted .T h e o n l y th in g t h a t f e m i n ists f e eleo n i en t w i th 15 to re d u c e th e e x t en t o f lin g u is t ie se x ism . N ot w i h sta n d in g th a t lin g u istie a e tio 一 t ha v e d ra stie e f e e d u e in g o r e li m i na t i n g li n g u istie s ex ism . a lo n e w ill n o t P ra c tic e s an d o P P re s siv e sit U a t io n s in

t o n red u e i c n g o r e lim in a t i n g d ise rim in a t or y

ot h er asPeets o f f e m ales ' li e , it m a f y
n d e x P e rien e e s , a a n d m a y
P o ssib le , P e r m

Prov id e a n

oP Po r U ni t y f t o rf e m a les to ex Press t h eir P ersP eetiv es
n o w . If it 15

ra ise P e o P le '5 a w

r e n e ss th a a t t h e re e x ists li n g u istie se x ism

is si bl e a n d P ra etie a b le , w e sh o u ld red u ee i t to a ch ie v e a m o re a ee u ra t e a n d rea lis t ie

Po r t a y al of w o m en an d a g r ea t er lin gu istie aecurac y

by m ean s of erad iea t i n g gen der a m

bigu i y . t

S ex ism 15 an o ld h istoriealtoP ie , b ut P eo Ple w h o a r e P ursi n g ju stiee on ee f igh t again s t t h e unf a i r P o int
o f v iew f o rf e m a le s , w h ie h c a u se d th e o P P re sse d an d su b m is siv e sta U t tim e . W e ea n s t ill f m d e lu e s o f sex is m in th e la n g u age n ow ada y s.
T h is t h e sis st U d ie s th e g en d e r d ise r而 in a t io n o f la n gu a g e bet w b y d if e f t a e en E n g li sh a n d C hi n e se . f t b e g in s

sf o r w om en f o r a lo n g P e rio d o f

re n t i t in g b e t a w een g en der a n d se x a n d re v ie w i n g P re v io u s re se a reh e s o n g e n d e r la n g u ag e bo t h n i

ho m e and a b ro ad . B y re f e r in g to v a ri o u s so u rce s , th e a u t h o r h a s e x a m in e d ev id en e e o f se x ism E n g lish a n d C h in e se . F ro m th e stu d y , th e w rite r e an d ra w th e e o n c l u sio n th a t

b ot h

d iscrim in a t io n

a g a in st w o m en in E n g lish a n d C h in e se 15 u n q u e stio n a b le .
50

太 原理工大学硕士研 究生学位论文
A s a m a t er o f a f a c t, t h is d is crim i na t io n a g a in st w o b u t a lso i n m e n e x is ts n o t o n ly i n E n g lish a n d C h i n ese

ot h er la n g u a g e s. T h u s , th is 15 a u n iv e rsa l P h en o m e n o n . T h e g e n d e r d iv is i o n 15 50 b a sie to

the org an iZ t ion o f th e soeiet a y a n d diserim in a t ion again st w om en 15 deePly ro oted in t h e str u et r e of u

soei et y , 50 i t1 5 onl y na U ralt t hatt h ere 1 5a l ot i n eom m on i nt heor y and i n real y , notonl t i yi n C hi n ese n d Engli a sh butother I n guages.From t a he w r i ter ,5 cont ra s ti ve anal ysi sa n d st ud y ofthe sexi stusages
n i E n g lish a n d C hi n e se , r n a n y si m ila r i t ie s a r e d ise o v ere d . F ro m th e w o rd 一 st U r ct u re , w o rd 一 o r f m a t i on,

P h ra se s a n d P ro v e r b s to e u sto m s , c o n v en t io n s a n d cu l u re s , th e re e x ists d isc r t i m in a t i o n a g a in st w o m e n . H o w e v er , sin e e E n g lish a n d C h in e se h a v e d if e f re n t la n g u a g e sy ste m s a n d ha v e b e en e sta b lis h e d e w o rk s , th e w a y i n w h ic h sex ism m a n if e sts

n d d ev e lo P e d in d if a e re n t g eo g f r a P h ie a l a n d h isto rie a l f ra m

itse lf 15 d if e r f e nt. T h is ex Plain s lang uag e d iv er s i y .E ng lish 15 an in f t l ectin g Ia n gu ag e and C h i n ese is a n
iso la tin g o r m o n o sy lla b ie la n g u a g e . G ra m m a t ie a l P a t er n s a n d ru le s o P e ra te d if e re n tly in e ae h f m a t ie a l m a r k e rs a re

la n g u a g e . In E n g lish , in f l e etio n s a r e m o re im P o r t an t a n d o b lig a to r y , e x P lic i t g r a m
la rg er in n u m b er t h a n in C h in e s e . W l lile i n C h in e s e , th e w h o le g r a m

m a r d e P en d s o n w o rd P o s i tio n a n d

m e an in g . E n g li sh 一 sP e a k i n g P e o P le re so r t to f o r m al a n d eom P l e x stru et u re to ex P res s t h em sel v es,
h w ere a s C h in e se sP e a k e rs e o n e en t r t a e m ai n ly o n m e a n in g to m a k e su re th a t th e in t e n d e d m e a n in g 15

e o n v e y e d . C h in e se P e o P le a r e aPt a t th i nki n g in te r m

s o f im a g e , th e re f o r e , o u r C h in e se e h a r a e te rs ,

w h ieh orig in ate f r om th e ob j eets , are ideo g r a P h ie .Id eog r am s i n C h inese heIP to ex Press m ea n in g. I n
a d d iti on , i t 15 w e ll r e eo g n ize d t h a t a sso e ia t io n a n d a n a l og y C h in e se P e o P le P re f e r to m a k e u se o f m eta P h o r , sy m b o lism ,

to m a k e th in g s u n d er s to o d . o n g lin g u ists th a t la n g u a g e itse lf 15 n o t sex ist. S o m e lin g u istie

T h e re 15 a u n a n im o u s o P in io n a m
stra te g ie s to w e a k e n th e se x ism

in la n g u ag e w o u ld w o rk b e t e r to g e th e r w ith so e ia l e h a n g e , w h i e h 15

th e b a sis o f la n g u a g e im P ro v e m e n t. T h e re f o r e , lin g u istie stra te g ie s a n d so e ia l a c tio n sh o u ld b e tak e n

sy n c h ro n o u sly f o r tf i e Pu r p o se o f e lii n in a t in g se x ism

in Ia n g u a g e . S P e n d e r c o n e lu d e s t h at as m or e

m ean i n g s are ch a n g ed , so eiet y w ill ch an ge a n d t h e sex ist sem a t ic r n u le s w ill b e w ea k en ed .(SP end er , 19 80 ) T he au th or of th e thesis believ es tha t o n o ne h a n d all m em b ers o f d if e ren f t so cial elasses sh o uld
be ed uea t e d to e n h a n e e th e ir u n d e rsta n d in g o f g e n d er la n g u a g e d if e re n e e s a n d o n th e i f r in iti t i a v e s to

v o id u sin g sex ist la a n gu age . O n the oth er h a n d , Iang U age P la n

er s are suP P osed to st r eng t hen t h ei r

re se a re h o f s ex ist P h e n o m en a in t h e la n g ua g e, f i n d o u t th e P ro b le m s a n d t h en P u t f o r w a rd f e a si b le a lte r n a ti v e s to a e h iev e n e u tra liz e d a n d h a r m o n io u s la n g u ag e . W e e an se e t h e da w n of t h e h o P e to

w eaken t h e sex ism

in soeiet y

as w ell as i n lang u ag e. W i th th e d eveloP m ent o f so eiet y

an d the

im Pro vem ent o f w o m en '5 Po si tion in so ci et y , th e g en der b ias w ill g r ad ually d im in ish .
5l

一一一一 一一一 一一一一 一一一竺 莲 论立 T hi st h esis a t em Pts t o gi ve a eom Para ti vel y system a ti c eont r asti ve st U dy of gender bi as bet w een
E n g lish a n d C h i n e se . T h e r e 15 a g r ea t d e a l to b e d o n e i n t h i s a r e a . S in ce v er y e o m P le te d o n C h in e se g en d er la n g u ag e i n lin g u istie s , it 15 d if i e u lt t f o la n g u a g e s. It 15 e x P e ete d t h a t 九t U r e n d of a e r co nf in na t io n s a n d 九r h t w or k i n t h is f i e ld w ill re 一 ex a m lim ite d re se a r c h h a s b ee n

eom P a r e C h in e se w i th W e ste m

in e t h e co ne l u sio n s i n t h is th e sis

er r e f i n e m e n t to th e re su lts o b ta in ed h e r e . T he f i e ld u n d o u b ted ly

b ene f i ts th e g r ow i n g i n te re st in th e s o e io li n g u istic a n al y s is o f g e n d e r la n g u a g e d if e re n e e s in C h in e se f n d eo n a i r i bu t e s to t h e d e v e lo P m e n t o f e ro ss一 g en der a n d c ro ss一 e u lt u ra l e o n u u n ie a t io n .

A sw e k n o w , w om en an d m en a r et w o in disP en sa b le Par t s of the so eiet y . W o m en a r e g en erally

eal l ed the hal f sk y a n dt he y w ork toget her w i t h m en t o m ake uP t he w hol e sk y .H ow e v er , sexism i n
la n g u a g e , e sP ee ia lly th e id e o lo g y o f sex ism e x isti n g in m a ss m e d i a e o n tin u e s to P re s en t th e im a g e s o f

w om en as n ega t ive , w h ieh 15 h a m r

u l to w om en '5 d ig f n i y a t n d th ey f a il to rePo r t w om en '5 eh ang in g as a w h o l e . T h u s w e see w o m en

lif e in t h is ever一 eh a n gin g w orl d an d thei r eon r ib u t t io n to the so eie y t

in th e m e d i a as t h e m istr e sse s to b e b l am ed f o r th e g o v e m m e n t of i e ia ls ' ta k in g b rib e s , a n d w e t h in k

w om en sh ou ld P a y

m ore a t ention to their eh asti y t t h an to t h ei r righ ts a n d d ig n it y , and g irls sh ou ld

re e e i v e ed uca t io n to b e g o o d f u t u re m o th e r. T h ere 15 n o d e n y i ng t h a t a la n g u a g e o f se x d i s erim in a t io n . B u t w i h t so e i a l P ro g r ess a n d th e

d e v e lo P m en t o f w o m e n ,5 li b e ra t io n m o v e m e n t, a n d in d e e d so m e n o n 一 se x ist la n g u a g e to th e la n g u age o f g e n d er e h a n g e , w e sh o u ld m a k e i t e le a r h a t t th e e lim i na t io n o f g e n d e r d ise rim i na t i o n la n g u a g e

d ePen d s on t h e P rog r ess o f societ y , to 9 0 th r ou gh th e lo ng T im e , w e are in a sh or t P erio d of tim e 15 th e
e li m in a t io n o f u se l e ss . T h ere f o re , w e in th e f o r m
m o v e m en t

u la ti o n o f P o lie ie s a n d te X t to t h e teX t

oft h e re f o r m

m u st f o llo w t h e la n g u age o f t h e la w ) la n gu age a n d g e n d e r d ise rim i na t i o n sh o u ld a lso st u dy

h e use of ob t j ec ti v e resea rc h me h ods , di t ti s ng u i sh beb刀 een l n g a u age a n d eu而 re R e l ti a ons.T he t h esi s
rev eals gen d er in equ ali y t em b ed ded w ith in t h e la n gu age of E n glish a n d C hi n ese .It 15 h oP ed th a t t h e

Presen t Pa p er w i llProm Pta n d hel Pl t ereom ersto eonti a nue i n t hi s sub j eet.

52

太原理工大学硕士研究生学位论文

B IB L IO G R A P H Y

(l ) B row n , G il li n ,Y a u e , G eor g e Di s eour s e A na加 1 5 . Foreig n
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e x .L on do n :L ong m a s n , 19 90

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(12 〕 Joh n so n 5 .L an g ua g e a nd 五 勿 seuli ni 尔 O xf o rd : B l aekw ell . 19 97
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a陀 d s o c i a l P 妙 ch o l 。舒 .N e w o r y k 二 i W le . y 9 90 1

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英汉传统文化所反映出的性别歧视现象及其在语言中的 体现分别作了论述和比较,...无论是本国的宗法性 传统宗教: 道教,还是“西土”传来的佛教,都有明显歧视...
...English and Chinese 英汉语言中的男性性别歧视
自 20 世纪 60 年代起,语言性别歧视研究随着女性解放运动的展开而得到蓬勃 发展...比较英汉性别歧视性语言 606人阅读 5页 1下载券 英汉语言中的性别歧视现......
浅谈英汉传统文化中的性别歧视
浅谈英汉传统文化中的性别歧视 江苏电大武进学院姚丽萍 【摘要】 从女性主义立场出发, 对英汉传统文化所反映出的性别歧视现象及其在语言中的体 现分别作了论述和比较...
英汉性别语言的性差心理
英汉性别语言的性差心理_教育学/心理学_人文社科_专业资料。英汉性别语言的性差心理 [摘要]语言作为人类重要交际工具,本身并不存在着性别的歧视, 而是社会 有了...
语言学角度下的英汉性别歧视探讨
龙源期刊网 http://www.qikan.com.cn 语言学角度下的英汉性别歧视探讨 作者:何强 来源:《新课程· 教师》2014 年第 06 期 摘要:英语和汉语是人类历史发展中...
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