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2014广东高考冲刺完型填空解题技巧


惠州市学大信息技术有限公司
Huizhou XueDa Century Education Technology Ltd.

个 性 化 教 学 设 计 教 案
授课时间:2014 年 5 月 日( 年级:高三 课题名称 教学目标 教学重点 教学难点 学科:英语 完型填空 掌握本节课老师所讲技巧 灵活运用本节课所讲技巧 : : ) 备课时间:2014 年 5 月 日 学生姓名: 授课教师:

课时:2

根据对广东高考完形填空的命题的研究,我们推荐以下一些解题方法或技 巧: 一、基本方法: 1.上下求索——寻信息 因为答案信息点有的在空格前, 有的在空格后, 有的在前文和后文都有出现, 需要综合考虑或起相互印证的作用。有时,还要根据上、下文提供的信息, 结合常识,适当的逻辑推理,才可得出正确答案。 [例 1] The school decided that when the driver opened both the front and back doors,27 who were getting off the bus should get off first,and students who were getting on should get on 28 . 27.A.parents B. students C. teachers D. drivers 28.A.sooner B. later C. faster D. earlier 例 2]One afternoon,I was out exploring...and saw a new kind of cactus (仙人 掌).I crouched down for a closer look. “You’d better not 47that.” I turned around to see an old woman... “Would you like to come to my home tomorrow? Someone should teach you which plant you should and shouldn’t touch.” A. break B. pick C. pull D. touch 2.左顾右盼——找搭配 答题时,眼睛不能只盯在空格上或只盯在空格所在的这一个句子上,一定要 “左顾右盼”,弄清前后的习惯搭配或句式结构。注意,常常不止一个选项前 后可以构成搭配关系,这时需要根据上下文的意思来定夺。 [例 3]On April 12,1888,Alfred’s brother Ludwig died of heart attack. A major French newspaper 21 his brother for him and... A. found B. misunderstood C. mistook D. judged 解析: 四个选项中, 能与后面 for 搭配的, 只有 mistook, 即 mistake A for B (将 A 误以为 B),故选 C。 [例 4]Nobel arranged in his will to give the largest part of his money to 28 the Nobel prizes,which would be awarded to people who... A. establish B. form C. develop D. promote 解析:根据动宾搭配,在四个选项中,能与名词 the Nobel prizes(诺贝尔奖)
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教学过程

惠州市学大信息技术有限公司
Huizhou XueDa Century Education Technology Ltd.

搭配的,只有 establish(设立),即“设立诺贝尔奖”。用他的大部分钱去“构成/ 开发/促进”诺贝尔奖,是讲不通的。 3.思前想后——通全文 有时,若单独看空格处或空格所在句,其中两个、三个甚至四个选项填入格 中都不错,句子也通顺,但结合全文内容来理解,就只有一个是最佳答案了。 因此,选择答案时,一定要考虑到此选项不但在本句中合符语境,而且要在 全文中也讲得通,即贯通全文。 [例 5]Nobel arranged in his will to give the largest part of his money to establish the Nobel prizes,which would be awarded to people who made great 29 to the causes of peace,literature,and the sciences. A. additions B. sacrifices C. changes D. contributions 解析:若单独看空格处,选项 B、C、D 都可以填,make great sacrifices 作出巨大 牺牲,make great changes 发生巨大变化,make great contributions 作出巨大贡献; 从文章内容或常识来看,诺贝尔奖金应当是奖给那些为世界和平、 文学和科学 事业“作出过巨大贡献”的人,故只选 D。 [ 例 6]Alfred Nobel became a millionaire and changed the ways of mining, construction, and warfare as the inventor of dynamite (炸药)...the article read. “Dr. Alfred Nobel, who became 23 by finding ways to kill more people faster than ever before, died yesterday.” ...Nobel arranged in his will to give the largest part of his money to... A. famous B. sick C. rich D. popular 解析:若单独看空前的 became,填四个选项都没有语法错误,但是由前文中 的 became a millionaire 和后文 give the largest part of his money 可知,rich 为 最佳答案,故选 C。 二、四个步骤 1.通读全文,理解大意 重视首句信息,跳过空格,浏览全文,从整体上感知全文,理解短文大意, 这是解题的基础。这一步非常重要,万万不可忽视。 2.瞻前顾后,避难就易 在理解短文大意的情况下,结合各选项的意义和用法,特别是与前后词语的 搭配,上下文的意义关系等,先解决那些自己有把握的问题。对少数难题, 暂时跳过,或许在上文中难以判断的题在下文中就有暗示或者明显的提示 了,或许一个在前面不能解答的题在填出了另一空后会令你豁然开朗。 3.复读全文,解决残敌 借助已经补全的空格,我们已对全文有了更清楚的理解,可以集中解决所遗 留的个别难题。 4.再次复读,弥补疏漏 全部做好后,考生务必要结合自己选择的答案重新阅读短文内容,确保全文 文意连贯。 三、五种技巧 1.词语同现
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惠州市学大信息技术有限公司
Huizhou XueDa Century Education Technology Ltd.

某些语义相关联的词语在语篇中共同出现的可能性,叫词语同现,也有人称 之为“词场”。如 catch 和 cold,ill 和 doctor,big 和 small 等。 一个语篇往往会围绕着某一主题或话题,与此相关的词就可能会共同出现, 以实现语篇衔接。如 2011 年广东高考完形填空的短文,是围绕把优生从普 通班里分出去会带来严重问题这一主题展开的, 涉及这一主题的可能有“普通 班”“特殊班”“优生”“普通生”,以及学校、老师、学习等等,因此,special, gifted,intelligent,top,regular,average,school,classes,teachers,children, learning 这些相互关联的词语就很可能会同时出现在语篇之中。 了解词语同现,对正确解答完形填空题很有帮助。 [例 1] The argument has been on the belief that in regular classes these children are held back in their intellectual (智力的) growth by 2 situation that has designed for the average children. A. designing B. grouping C. learning D. living 解析:与 classes,children,intellectual 同现的单词,很可能是 learning,故 选 C。 [例 2] You have to push the door with the word “PUSH” to go out of the building and to pull the door with the word “PULL” to 24 the building. A. enter B. leave C. open D. close 解析:因有 push(推)就有 pull(拉),有 go out of(出去)就会有 enter(进入),这 就是词语同现,故选 A。 [例 3] To make sure that he was remembered with love and respect. Nobel arranged in his 27 to give the largest part of his money to establish the Nobel prizes,...Nobel had to die before he realized what his life was really about. A. book B. article C. will D. contract 解析:与 die (死),arrange(安排后事)具有相关性的词,即同时出现的词,应 当是 will (遗嘱),故选 C。 2.词语复现 词语复现是指某一个词以原词或同义词等方式在同一语篇中重复出现。 语篇的句子通过复现关系达到相互衔接的目的。 词语复现又可分为原词复现、同源词复现(又叫同根词复现)、同义或近 义词复现、上下义词复现(即总括与分述,如 animal 是 sheep,tiger,wolf 等 的上义词;rose 是 flower 的下义词)等。 了解词语复现这种衔接手段,有助于快速准确地解答完形填空题。 [例 4] It has been argued by some that gifted children should be grouped in special classes. There can be little doubt that 4 classes can help the gifted children to graduate earlier and take their place in life sooner. A. regular B. special C. small D. creative 解析:与前段第一句中 special classes 的 special 是原词复现,故选 B。 [例 5] There were many ways to prevent this from happening: hanging a knife over the baby’s head while he slept or covering him with some of his father’s clothes were just two of the recommended 27. A. cases B. tools C. steps D. methods
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惠州市学大信息技术有限公司
Huizhou XueDa Century Education Technology Ltd.

解析:因 methods 与前文中的 ways 同义词复现,故选 D。 [例 6] Many are concerned that gifted children become bored and lose interest in learning. However,this 11 is more often from parents and teachers than from students... A. concern B. conclusion C. reflection D. interest 解析:因 concern (n. 担心 ) 与上文的 concerned (adj. 担心的 ) 是同源词复 现或同根词复现,故选 A。 例 7] However,this concern is more often from parents and teachers than from students,and some of these 12 simply conclude that special classes should be set up for those who are talented. A. students B. adults C. scholars D. teachers 解析:因 adults 是上文 parents and teachers 的上义词,即这是上下义词复现,故 选 A。 3.逻辑推断 根据上下文的逻辑关系来推断正确答案,逻辑关系包括因果关系、对比 关系、并列关系、转折关系、让步关系、递进关系、条件与结果的关系等。 从五年来的广东高考完形填空题来看,最多的是利用因果关系来推断正确答 案。 [例 8] In the regular class,having no worry about keeping up,they (intelligent children) began to reflect 9 on many problems,some of which were not on the school program. A. directly B. cleverly C. voluntarily D. quickly 解析:因为 having no worry about keeping up(因为不担心跟不上),所以“自动 地(voluntarily)”考虑许多问题,因果推断,选 C。(现在分词短语表示原因) [例 9] Many are concerned that gifted children become 10 and lose interest in learning. A. doubted B. bored C. worried D. tired

解析:由与之并列的 lose interest,可知是 become bored。也可这样理解,因 为厌烦了,所以才失去兴趣,故选 B。(此处的 and 表示结果,前面是原因) [例 10] These tell the story of a mother whose baby grows sick and pale and has changed so much that it is almost 24 to the parents. A. uncomfortable C. unacceptable B. unbelievable D. unrecognizable

解析:因 changed so much,结果父母“认不出来”了,故选 D。(that 引导结果 状语从句 [例 11] Nobel was 24 to find out not that he had died,but that,when his time was up,he would be thought of only as one who profited from death and destruction.
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惠州市学大信息技术有限公司
Huizhou XueDa Century Education Technology Ltd.

A. upset

B. anxious

C. excited

D. pleased

解析:因他发现当自己死后被认为是靠制造死亡获取利润的人,所以他感到 “伤心难过”,故选 A。(在表示情感变化的形容词后的不定式表示原因) 4.背景常识 将文段意思和我们原有的生活经验、文化背景知识,以及科普常识等结合起 来,进行简单推理,从而得出正确答案。事实上,该技巧与“逻辑推断”常常 交织在一起的,因为虽有背景常识,仍需简单推理;逻辑推理离不开背景常 识。 [例 12] In South Korea,we do not need to wait for people to get off. One morning,I hurried to the bus,and when the bus doors opened,I 29 tried to get on the school bus through the front door. A. politely B. patiently C. unconsciously D. slowly 解析:由前文可知,因在韩国不必等别人下了车再上,作者当时是初来美国 的韩国人,在韩国土生土长,由常识可知,作者早已习惯不等别人先下了再 上车, 所以看到校车将门打开后,就“无意识地,不知不觉地”上车了,故选 C。 [例 13]...the Nobel prizes,which would be awarded to people who made great 29 to the causes of peace,literature,and the sciences. A. additions B. sacrifices C. changes D. contributions 解析:根据常识,奖金应当是颁发给那些为世界和平、文学和科学事业作出 过巨大“贡献”的人,故选 D,make contributions to...对……作出贡献。 [例 14]After doing a little research,I found this type of technology already available in English to consumers via a relatively 26 application called FaceCode. A. independent B. infrequent C. inexpensive D. instant 解析:根据常识,要得到某物就可能需要花钱,也就涉及贵还是便宜,故选 C。 [例 15] All the students around looked at me,I was totally 30 ,and my face went red. A. embarrassed C. unsatisfied B. annoyed D. excited

解析:根据常识,周围所有的人都看着作者,作者一定会“感到尴尬”,故选 A。 5.前后搭配 主要指动词与介词的搭配、动宾搭配及句式搭配等。广东高考完形填 空中主要考查动宾搭配。能不能搭配,除涉及词语的用法外,还需结合常识 来判断。 [例 16] On April 12,1888,Alfred’s brother Ludwig died of heart attack. A
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惠州市学大信息技术有限公司
Huizhou XueDa Century Education Technology Ltd.

major French newspaper 21 his brother for him and... A. found B. misunderstood C. mistook D. judged 解析:根据动介搭配,能与后面的介词 for 搭配的,只有 mistook,故选 C。 (注:这类题是极少考查的,五年仅此一题) [例 17]...Nobel arranged in his will to give the largest part of his money to 28 the Nobel prizes,... A. establish C. develop B. form D. promote

解析:根据动宾搭配,应是“设立诺贝尔奖”,即 establish the Nobel prizes,故 选 A。 此外,当选项是表示文章的起承转合、上下连贯等逻辑关系的词语时,就要 求我们正确判断上下文的逻辑关系,如递进关系、对比关系等,从而选择恰 当的选项。

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惠州市学大信息技术有限公司
Huizhou XueDa Century Education Technology Ltd.

第一节 完形填空(共 15 小题;每小题 2 分,满分 30 分) 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从 1~15 各题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳 选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

We all know that some things are obviously right. For example, it is right to be 1 to other people. It is also right to look after the environment. Some things are 2 wrong, too. For instance, we should not hurt or bully(欺负) others, nor should we litter. Rules often tell us what is right or wrong.. Rules can help the public make the right 3 ,and remain safe. Car drivers have to obey traffic regulations that tell them the right things to do on the road to avoid crashes. Cyclists who give signals before turning or stopping help prevent 4 . If people follow rules without taking other matters into consideration, it will be 5 for them to form what is sometimes called a “black and white” view. For example, they may believe that people should always tell the truth, and that lying is 6 acceptable. Such people always stick to their views, even if it means that they may get into 7 . Sometimes it may not be so easy to know 8 what is right or wrong. Some people choose not to eat meat because they believe that it is 9 to eat animals, but others argue that they can eat meat and 10 be kind to animals; some insist that stealing is always wrong, but others think that one does not need to feel to 11 when stealing some food to eat, if lives in a really poor area and he is 12 . Rules help us live together in harmony, because they show us the right way to _13 _ other .However, some people argue that rules may be __14_, having observed that rules change all the time , and that some schools have some regulations and other have different ones —so who is to _15___what is right ? 1. A. kind B. sensitive C. fair D. generous 2. A equally B. slightly C. clearly D. increasingly 3. A. suggestions B. conclusions C. turns D. choices 4. A .accidents B. mistakes C. falls D. deaths 5. A. interesting B. vital C. easy D. valuable 6. A. seldom B. rarely C. merely D. never 7. A. trouble B. power C. prison D. control 8. A. roughly B. eventually C. deliberately D. exactly 9. A. awful B. cruel C. unhealthy D. unnecessary 10. A. still B. even C. later D. somehow
11. A. nervous 12. A. begging 13 A. follow 14. A. disgusting 15. A. predict 课堂作业 B. anxious B. staving B. instruct B. confusing B. explain C. afraid C. growing C. treat C. unsafe C. decide D. guilty D. wandering D. protect D .unimportant D. consider

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惠州市学大信息技术有限公司
Huizhou XueDa Century Education Technology Ltd.

If you are feeling that life just cannot be any worse for you, it can be challenging to think positive thoughts. When we are stressed, depressed, 1 , or in a negative state of mind because we feel that "bad things" 2 happening to us, it is important to change those 3 thoughts into something positive. If we don't, we will only attract more "bad things." It is often very hard to think positive when so many things are negative, but I am ___4_ that someone, somewhere is worse off than you. We can choose to think 5__ by beginning with the smallest of steps. If you start with one small, positive thing and 6 it during the course of your day, you will begin to move into a more positive 7 : positive thoughts, feelings, opportunities. With practice, you will change your outlook and choose to be 8 , regardless of the events around you. Here are a few examples for you to 9 . Begin and end each day with a "Thank you for this wonderful day!" When you see the gas prices hiking, say "I am glad that I have a 10 in which to get around." If you are having health problems, be grateful for what does work: "I really do 11 my eyes that see, my ears that hear, my mouth that tastes, my legs that walk, my 12 that write. Write down what you're grateful for each day. When you're feeling really down, read what you 13 beforehand. This will help uplift your spirits. If you practice this 14 , you will find that your list will get longer and longer. The 15 to make it a moment of joyful peace is to move yourself into a positive thought and keep it there long enough. The more you practice, the happier you'll be. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A. upset A. stop A. relative A. disappointed A. carelessly A. catch A. situation A. happy A. take B. healthy B. try B. negative B. sure B. stubbornly B. repeat B. conclusion B. sad B. make B. car B. put B. hands B. heard B. specially B. performance C. serious C. keep C. sensitive C. sad C. actively C. speak C. attention C. moved C. learn C. plane C. appreciate C. head C. wrote C. slightly C. trouble D. terrible D. avoid D. positive D. interested D. differently D. sing D. ambition D. confused D. practice D. bike D. know D. arms D. saw D. regularly D. key

课后作业

10 A. ship 11 A. perform 12 A. knees 13 A. talked 14 A. quickly 15 A. design

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