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1. 阅读理解的本质 2. 阅读和语言的关系 3. 文本结构 4. 阅读技巧

阅读测试 阅读教学


Reading is the process of understanding written and printed texts and obtaining the information we need as efficiently as possible.

1. Understanding 2. Written language 3. Texts 4. Information 5. Efficiency

literal meaning(字面意义) figurative meaning(比喻性意义) Application(运用)

1.I saw a strange cat in the kitchen.

2. Cares kill a cat.

Nothing Gold Can Stay Nature’s first green is gold, Her hardest hue to hold. Her first leaf is a flower, But only so an hour. Then leaf subsides to leaf, And Eden sank to grief. Then dawn goes down to day, Nothing gold can stay.

It pays to be polite. He sits out the other guests. There is no child but knows him. I have got a devil of a toothache He lives in a palace of a house. He is not above asking questions. We cannot thank him too much. It never rains but pours. I didn’t go because I was afraid.

I don’t know everyone of them. I don’t know both of them. What with illness and what with losses, he is almost ruined. He despises honor, if any one does. The apples are good and ripe. It’s good and cold out. He is a child of ten. He is a father of ten.

1. What is it to “know a word”? 2. Building a better vocabulary 3. Prefixes, roots and suffixes 4. Guess the meaning of new words

What is it to “know a word”?
pronunciation spelling Parts of speech collocations register Meaning: denotation and connotation formation

Building a better vocabulary
1. Using the reference books dictionary what’s what? 2. Prefixes, suffixes and roots 3. Organize your vocabulary

Prefixes, roots and suffixes
astr audi bene fer Jur Luc path ped Ter Star to hear Good to carry Law Light Feeling Child Earth astronomy auditorium benefit transfer justice lucid sympathy pediatrics territory

Prefixes, roots and suffixes
Prefixes showing quantity Half semiannual, hemisphere One unicycle, monarchy, monorail Two binary, bimonthly, dilemma Hundred Century, centimeter Thousand millimeter, kilometer

guess the meaning of new words
1 Details and explanations They gave the car much publicity. They talked about it on the radio. They showed pictures on TV. They wrote about it in the paper. And they had billboards all over town.

2 Examples Bob had to use a different alias in every state. For example, in New York, he called himself John; in Virginia, he called himself Mike; and in Florida, he called himself Arthur.

3 Comparison The stick is brittle like glass. 4 Contrast George was cautious, not careless, with the gun.

5 Experience He was in agony when he cut off the end of his finger. 6 Definition Sam’s job was to hoist the flag, to run it up the flagpole.

It’s especially important to mebegle. He picked up the lazzapilt and began to read.

The music was playing so tubbly that it hurt my ears. We caught three sibglits and some other fish, too. She stood up and mished out of the room.

One cause of misconceptions is ethnocentrism—the belief that one’s own culture’s way of doing things is better than the way of other cultures.

I am a resolute man. Once I set up a goal, I won’t give it up easily.

This includes poultry for the main course (e.g. chicken, turkey, duck, goose), salads, breads, and vegetables, and features a variety of desserts, for example, pies, puddings, and ice cream.

When they are sure the children are really asleep, the parents creep like robbers into their bedroom and leave the presents near their beds.

When viewing photographs of food, hungry subjects experience a much greater increase in pupil diameter than do sated subjects.

These people are nomadic hunters and gatherers. In other words, they travel from one area to another to hunt animals and gather fruits and vegetables.

The builders of the pyramids lived in a village not far from their worksite. When they died, their families buried them in tombs in a nearby cemetery.

The pharaohs often had more than one wife, but most ordinary Egyptians were monogamous. There was a succession of wars— one after another after another.

When I first moved into this house, I had only a bed, two chairs, and one table. It looked very empty. The furniture was sparse. We will look at three faiths—the old Greek religion, Buddhism, and Christianity.

Is his grandfather still alive, or is he deceased?

She’s obsessed with her weight; she worries constantly about her appearance. He suffers from both physical and psychological maladies.


three main features: unity coherence cohesion

Unity: only one main idea. Coherence: the ideas in the text are closely related to one another. Cohesion: the sentences are related to one another grammatically.

Information is different from knowledge in at least three aspects. Information is something “unknown” Information can help reduce suspense Information is time-related

Mental efficiency background knowledge prediction organization of texts memory

Some words have a positive meaning. For example, if you are in a good mood, you are happy. Therefore, in a good mood has a positive meaning. Other words have a negative meaning. For example, if you are in a bad mood, you probably are angry about something. Therefore, in a bad mood has a negative meaning. Finally, some words have a neutral meaning. They have neither a positive nor a negative meaning.

Music is used in many ways to affect people’s feelings and actions.

Music is used in many ways to affect people’s feelings and actions. It is used in fast food eating places to make you eat faster and get out. In banks, music is piped in to give you a feeling of cheerfulness and confidence. It is used in factories to speed up the workers and increase the amount of work produced. It is used in hospitals to make the sick feel better. And , at sports events, music is used to make players try harder.

Turn on the world news broadcast any evening, and the predominant mood is one of semidarkness and hopelessness. Maybe Brazil and Peru haven’t gone to war, but the news is that some other countries have. Thousands of people have been left homeless by earthquakes, floods, and fires, but nobody reports on the millions of people unharmed by natural disasters. In the cities, men and women go about they daily affairs of earning a living, quietly and calmly, without making the news, but crime, greed, and corruption seem to be on every street corner according to the latest news

Physical efficiency no sub-vocalization no fingers or pen move heads up and down, not left to right increase eye span

different types of reading
for information for survival for entertainment

A book is a mirror: if an ass peers into it, you can’t expect an apostle to look out.

Why is reading difficult?

1. South is declarer at a contract of 3 No Trump. West leads the 4 of Spades. What should be declarer’s next play?

2. Do you have the feeling that in life, when you’re finally holding all the cards, everyone else is playing chess?

夹岸复连沙, 枝枝摇浪花。 月明浑是雪, 无出认渔家。

长条垂拂地, 轻花上逐风。 露沾疑染绿, 叶小未障空。

Reading skills
Main idea and Supporting ideas Vocabulary in context Inference Organization patterns Signal words Purpose and tone Summary Note taking Transformation Intertextuality Recognizing Relationships Between ideas

Critical reading skills
Recognizing Fact and Opinion. Detecting Bias. Identifying Logical Inferences and Conclusions. Recognizing Valid and Invalid Arguments.

Main Ideas and Supporting Details
Distinguish between specific and general words Identify the topic Identify the controlling thought Identify the topic sentence Infer the main idea when a topic sentence is absent Identify supporting details Use transition words to help understand the organization of the paragraph

A paragraph is a group of related sentences about a single topic Topic: the subject of the whole paragraph Main idea: the point that the whole paragraph makes Details: the sentences that explain the main idea Transitions: words and phrases to connect the ideas

Identify the general word in each group. a) jealousy hatred emotion worry b) spiders cockroaches mosquitoes insects c) chemistry science physics biology

Identify main topics and ideas:
General ideas: broad ideas that apply to a large number of individual items Clothing Pies Specific ideas : more detailed or particular; referring to an individual item Scarf Apple, cherry, chocolate cream

Which are general?
Soda, coffee, beverage, wine Pounds, ounces, kilograms, weights Soap operas, news, TV programs, sports special Sociology, social sciences, anthropology, psychology

The main idea is the most general statement about the topic: People differ in numerous ways. They differ according to physical characteristics, such as height, weight, and hair color. They also differ in personality. Some people are friendly and easygoing. Others are more reserved and formal.

What is the topic of the following?
Nutrition is the process of taking in and using food for growth, repair, and maintenance of the body. The science of nutrition is the study of foods and how the body uses them. Many North Americans define nutrition as eating a healthful diet. But what is healthful? Our food choices may be influenced by fads, advertising, or convenience. We may reflect on the meaning of nutrition while pushing a cart down a supermarket aisle, or while making a selection from a restaurant menu.


A paragraph is…
a group of sentences put together for a reason. While paragraphs are like individuals, each with its own ideas; they must also work like a team to link ideas together

The Topic Sentence
Topic sentence




Clincher sentence

is ONE SENTENCE that expresses the main idea of the whole paragraph. Usual location? The first or second sentence of the paragraph Give the reader clues as to what to expect

Supporting sentences
To make an idea clear to the reader, you must ELABORATE (develop it in greater detail) on it.
Use sensory details—info collected from your senses (sight, hearing, smell, touch, taste) Use facts and statistics—info that is proven to be true with or without numbers Use examples—specific instances or illustrations of a general idea

The Clincher Sentence
Restates or emphasizes the paragraph’s topic sentence, or main idea. Pulls all the ideas together Signals the end of the paragraph Use words like therefore, as a result, or consequently

What Makes a Good Paragraph?

3 major qualities:
Unity Coherence Elaboration

When all the sentences work together as a unit to express or support one main idea

3 ways unity works: All sentences relate to the topic sentence All sentences support an implied main idea All sentences relate to a sequence of events

How ideas fit together in a paragraph

Can be created 2 ways:
1. Order of ideas:

Chronological order -events in order they happen a. example: finding a honey tree b. Spatial order -where things are located a. Example: Describing a scene of a mountain or a place c. Order of importance –most to least or least to most a. Example: effects of a long drought on a town d. Logical order – compare/contrast or definition a subject a. Example: ice skating vs roller skating

2nd way to gain coherence is to show How ideas are connected by… Direct references— using a noun or pronoun to refer back to a noun used earlier. 1. Repeating a word used earlier 2. Use a word or phrase used earlier

Transitional words and phrases Comparing ideas Contrasting ideas
Also Moreover Still But Yet For Since So After Then Next Before Into Next Over In Here First Last And Similarly In spite of instead however so that because thus eventually finally first meanwhile above across behind before inside mainly then Another Too on the other hand although nevertheless as a result therefore consequently at once at last therefore when beyond down around there under to begin with more important

Showing cause & effect Showing chronological order

Showing spatial order

Showing order of importance

A good paragraph will use the supporting sentences to elaborate on the main idea presented in the topic sentence of the paragraph.
Main idea Topic sentence
S u p p o r t

Reason #1 elaboration

Reason #2 elaboration Reason #3 elaboration Clincher sentence

I n g d e t a i l s

Paragraph Sample Actually, robots are already being used in many ways. They are common in factories, especially automobile factories. A robot is ideal for lifting heavy objects or for doing repetitive tasks like screwing in bolts and painting car parts. Scientists also use robots to handle dangerous materials or to do work under the sea or in outer space. Doctors use them to do more accurate surgery.

※ A paragraph deals with only one main idea.

consists of a topic sentence and several supporting sentences.

※ A paragraph

Topic sentence(main idea)

Supporting sentence

Supporting sentence


Supporting sentence

Figure 1: One idea in one paragraph

The topic sentence
※ A topic sentence should carry the meaning of the paragraph in general. ※ A topic sentence is often given at the beginning of paragraph. ※ A topic sentence may include two crucial parts: topic + controlling idea. Ex: Robots are already used in many ways.

The supporting sentences
※ All the supporting sentences should convey more specific ideas or give more details to the main idea. ※The supporting sentences come after the topic sentences. ※The supporting sentences may include examples, ※T detailed information, evidence, and facts.

Topic sentence

Robots used in many ways (main idea)

Supporting sentence
Used in factories

Supporting sentence
Used to handel dangerous materials or to do work in dangerous places

Supporting sentence
Used to do more accurate ssurgery

Specific idea
Automobile factories

Specific idea
Lifting heavy objects Doing repetitive tasks

Specific idea
Like screwing and painting

Figure 2: Example (Robots)

The organization of the paragraph Actually, robots are already being used in many ways. They are common in factories, especially automobile factories. A robot is ideal for lifting heavy objects or for doing repetitive tasks like screwing in bolts and painting car parts. Scientists also use robots to handle dangerous materials or to do work under the sea or in outer space. Doctors use them to do more accurate surgery.


一 了解句子主要成分 二 把握结构特征 三 插入 四 主语从句 五 同位语从句 六 状语从句 七 并列结构

八 比较结构 九 省略 十 强调句 十一 分词 十二 不定式 十三 倒装 十四 虚拟语气

If you see an article consistently advertised,it is the surest proof I know that the article does what is claimed for it, and that it represents good value. Until such time as mankind has the sense to lower its population to the point where the planet can provide a comfortable support for all, people will have to accept more “unnatural food.”

如果你看到一种商品不断地打广告,我认为 这是最可靠的证明,此商品一定与其宣传名 副其实,一定体现良好的价值。

除非人类终于意识到要把人口减少到地球能为所 有的人提供足够的饮食的程度,否则人们将不得 不接受更多的“人造食品”

Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point if view. Science, in practice, depends far less on the experiments it prepares than on the preparedness of the minds of the men who watch the experiments…

你的幽默必须与听众有关,应该有助于向他们表 明你是他们中的一员,或者你了解他们的处境并 同情他们的观点

在实践中,科学的进步依赖于做实验,但更依赖 于实验的观察者(即做实验的人)是否有做好准 备的头脑。

There is no more difference, but there is just the same kind of difference, between the mental operation of a man of science and those of an ordinary person, as there is difference between the operations and methods of a baker or of a butcher weighing out his goods in common scales, and the operations of a chemist in performing a difficult and complex analysis by means of his balance and finely graded weights.

科学家的大脑活动与普通人的大脑活动之间的差 异,就像面包师烤面包或屠夫用普通秤称货,与 化学家用天平进行复杂分析的操作之间的差异一 样,没有什么别的不同。

The chief reason for the population growth isn’t so much a rise in birth rates as a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical care.

人口增长的主要原因不是出生率的提 高,而是由于医疗条件的改善死亡率 下降的结果。


Chronological Logical Order Comparison/Contrast Illustration/Example Definition Cause/Effect Classification Spatial

Cats make better pets than dogs. Dogs are messy and do not clean up after themselves. Dogs eat too much food and require too much care. Dogs jump on people and knock over the furniture. Cats, on the other hand, are clean and tidy. Cats eat sparingly and take care of themselves. Cats are usually well-mannered and behave themselves with company.

Cats make better pets than dogs. Dogs are messy and do not clean up after themselves. Cats, on the other hand, are clean and tidy. Dogs eat too much food and require too much care. Cats eat sparingly and take care of themselves. Dogs jump on people and knock over the furniture. Cats are usually wellmannered and behave themselves with company.

Research has shown that mental illnesses have various causes, but the causes are not fully understood. Some mental disorders are due to physical changes in the brain resulting from illness or injury. Chemical imbalances in the brain may cause other mental illnesses. Still other disorders are mainly due to conditions in the environment that affect a person’s mental state. These conditions include unpleasant childhood experiences and severe emotional stress. In addition, many cases of mental illness probably result from a combination of two or more of these causes.

Nonverbal communication includes such behaviors as facial expressions, posture, gestures, voice inflection and the sequence and rhythm of the words themselves. Just as a dimmer switch on the light can be used to adjust, nonverbal cues often reveal shades or degrees of meaning. You may say, for example, “I am very upset,” but how upset you are will be conveyed more by your facial expressions and gestures than by the actual words.

If animals could talk, what wonderful stories they would tell. The eagle already knew the earth was round when men were still afraid of falling off its edge. The whale could have warned Columbus about a barrier between Europe and India and saved that explorer a lot of anxiety. Justice would be more properly served if animals could give testimony. There would be a reduction in crime, no doubt. and quite possibly an increase in the divorce rate. All of us would have to alter out behavior in some way or another, for our environment would be considerably changed.

So Grant and Lee were in complete contrast, representing two diametrically opposed elements in American life. Grant was the modern man emerging; beyond him, ready to come on the stage, was the great age of steel and machinery, of crowded cities and a restless, burgeoning vitality. Lee might have ridden down from the old age of chivalry, lance in hand, silken banner fluttering over his head. Each man was the perfect champion of his cause, drawing both his strengths and his weaknesses from the people he led.

During summer, when days are longer than nights, nature buzzes with life as thousands of insects that went unnoticed before suddenly appear in all their glory. The handsome dragonfly whirs through the air, while deep in the woods crickets ,bell-ring bugs and others perform a symphony. And, when the sap of oak trees begins to flow, beetles of all kinds scarab, longicorn, stag and more - march up the trunks in twos and threes.

In summertime one can see far more butterflies than in other seasons in the fields and woods. Spring butterflies cannot compare with summer ones in luminescence, colours or wingspan. When night falls, fireflies shine in dazzling bursts of light. And in mountains and fields, swarms of bugs, grasshoppers, scorpion flies and moths patrol the ground and air. Summer really is the season of insects.

Television is generally biased against the workers. You can prove this any night by watching the news. When a strike is reported, a management representative will be interviewed in favourable surroundings (e.g. in his office). The strikers, however, will be interviewed all together out in the open. The manager will emerge as a polite, responsible, authoritative person, whereas the workers will emerge as people who shout and who all speak at the same time (as impolite and aggressive).

Actually, robots are already being used in many ways. They are common in factories, especially automobile factories. A robot is ideal for lifting heavy objects or for doing repetitive tasks like screwing in bolts and painting car parts. Scientists also use robots to handle dangerous materials or to do work under the sea or in outer space. Doctors use them to do more accurate surgery.

People differ in numerous ways. They differ according to physical characteristics, such as height, weight, and hair color. They also differ in personality. Some people are friendly and easygoing. Others are more reserved and formal.

Guide to College Reading
Making Inferences


An inference is a reasoned guess about what you don’t know based on what you do know. You cannot expect to find the answers directly stated anywhere in the passage You must use the information to make logical inferences about the author’s intended meaning

“As James studied Agnes, he noticed that her eyes appeared misty, her lips trembled slightly, and a twisted handkerchief lay in her lap.” Inference: Agnes is upset and on the verge of tears.

Developing Inferences
Make two inferences for each of the following examples. The street is wet. It has rained. The street has been hose down.

How to Make Inferences
Be sure you understand the literal meaning
Have a clear understanding of the key idea and details Notice details-especially unusual/striking details Ask yourself why certain details were included

Add up the facts
Ask what is the writer trying to suggest or what do these facts/ideas point toward

Watch for clues
Writer’s choice of words and details often suggest his/her attitude toward the subject—especially emotionally charged words

Be sure your inference is supportable.

Understanding the Author’s Purpose
In many textbooks, the writer’s purpose is fairly clear. However, sometimes a writer will express an opinion indirectly. Writers use tone, style and other features of language to achieve the results they want.

Understanding Tone
Refers to the author’s attitude toward his/her subject. Think of how you interpret the tone of a speaker’s voice Pay attention to word choice, types and length of sentences, description Tone is important in determining the author’s purpose.

Instructive Sympathetic Persuasive Humorous Nostalgic Humorous Angry Insensitive Naive

To the Editor: I pay a good amount of my income in taxes. I think I have a right to be able to get out of my driveway the day after a snowstorm. Why pay taxes if you can’t depend on getting decent service from them? 1. This author’s tone would be best described as angry (B)amused (C)bored (D)happy

To the Editor: Why isn’t your newspaper reporting any good news? All I read about is murder and death. Frankly, I’m sick of all this bad news. 2. This author’s purpose is mainly to complain (B) apologize (C) amuse (D) inform

I suggest that there is an easy way to solve the housing problem we are facing. Let’s move the state legislature into tents and let needy families move into the capitol building. At least that way we might get something for our tax money. 3. This author’s purpose is mainly to make a serious proposal ask for information amuse the reader warn the reader

Style and Intended Audience
Style may be defined as the characteristics that make a writer unique. Depending upon whom the writer is addressing, he or she will change the level of language, method of presentation, and word choice.

Objective Factual Subjective Express attitudes, feelings & opinions Authors use language in special ways to help the reader understand and create a picture of a situation. Create Descriptions Making comparisons Using symbols

Word Choice
Connotative Meanings Opposite of Denotation Implied Meaning A Word’s Nuance— ideas associated with the word’s usage May be Favorable or Unfavorable Denotative Meanings Literal Meaning found in the dictionary Factual, exact No added meanings

Connotation positive vs. negative
Crowd, mob, gang, audience, class, congregation Slim, skinny, slender, slight, wiry, scrawny Intelligent, brainy, nerdy, smart, gifted Particular, picky, fussy, meticulous, precise, exacting Request, demand, command, appeal, plead, claim, ask Gaudy, showy, flashy, tawdry, glitzy, jazzy Glance, stare, look, glimpse, peek, peer, examine, gaze, scan Take, snatch, grasp, filch, pocket, steal

Figurative Language
Describes something that makes sense on an imaginative level but not on a factual or literal level. Example: Sam eats like a horse. The wilted plants begged for water.

Making Comparisons
Similes and metaphors Compare one object or living thing with another Questions to ask yourself
What two things is the author comparing? Why did the author choose that comparison? What do they have in common?

Figurative Language-Comparison
Sam eats like a horse (simile) A horse eats large amounts of food. Sam eats large amounts of food.

? The purpose of figurative language is to paint a word picture—to help the reader visualize how something looks, feels, or smells ? The red sun was pasted in the sky like a wafer. ? I will speak daggers to her, but use none. ? Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee.

Using Symbols
Symbols can be either pictures or objects that stand for ideas, people, concepts, or anything else the author decides. Symbols are a communication shortcut—make ideas more understandable by connecting them with things the reader can see. Common symbols: U.S. Flag (loyalty to country), Statue of Liberty (freedom), dove (peace), “golden arches” (McDonald’s), scales (law/justice)

Main Idea
This passage deals primarily with … The primary purpose of this passage is to … The main idea of this passage is that … This selection is intended primarily to … Which of the following best describes the main idea of the passage? The author’s main point is … The best title for this passage is …

Conclusions, generalizations, summary, comparisons, cause-effect, time relationships, author’s tone
Which of the following conclusions about X is supported by the passage? Which word would the author most likely use to describe his subject? The author implies that X and Y differ in what ways? The author’s opinion about X is that …?

Application of one or more ideas
Based on the author’s description of X, how would a teacher using this plan arrange the student’s activities? Based on the examples provided in the passage, how could the government best deter illegal immigration?

Figurative language
By the phrase, “a breath of fresh air” in lines 6-7, the author means that … The use of the phrase “alien from another planet” to describe the sister is an example of what type of figurative language? By saying “the room was like a sauna,” the author is indicating that …

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