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中国货币发展史概要(凉枫)


The Brief Introduction of Chinese Monetary History
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Introduction:
China's earliest currency was made of shells. Shell played an important role in the monetary development in the history of ancient China, which was important items currency in Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties.

Peng was the unit of measurement. Ten small shells were a Peng.

Some main dynasty
Song Dynasty currency

Sui and Tang dynasties currency
Three Kingdoms Currency Wang Mang period of Currency Qin and Han Currency Pre-Qin Currency

Pre-Qin Currency
Owning to different living environment of the tribes (countries), the coin began after a period of indefinite form period, and it was based on main production tool as prototype. According to research, there are four main origins: living in forest areas, the prototype was foresters cutting ax, Ge and some other edge tool. These coins, according to regional differentiation, have emerged the words or word symbol mainly based on place names. This land method of casting place names has been extended to the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China.

Qin and Han Currency
After Qin Shi Huang unified China, the unity scale system based on Qin Heng, unifying Qin Ban Liang. But because of the the tyranny and the huge military spending, coins were constantly losing their weight and became lighter. At the beginning of Liu Bang in Han Dynasty revolted, he casted coins in order to raise the military. Coin Wen Xi is named as the old name Qin Ban Liang. But the actual weight was only about three baht. And it was allowed to be casted by the public

Wang Mang period of Currency
From the Wang Mang self-photoed second year (A.D.7), there has carried out three times of currency reformation. Although the money system is confusing, he casted the world-famous exquisite currency. The quality of the coins was the best at that time. Wang Mang coins employed on Xuan Qian Zhuan. No matter round coins, cloth coins, or knife coins all have high outer profile, so the characters on them were well-protected.

Three Kingdoms Currency
This period’s currency system was complex. The currency of the Three Kingdoms period’s casting places and time were difficult to find out. During the Three Kingdoms period, the money system for different regions vary: Wei has five baht; Shu casted five baht, and Zhibai five baht; Wu has Oizumi five hundred, Oizumi Tousen, Oizumi two thousand, Oizumi five thousand.

Two Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties Currency
When Western Jin Dynasty unified China, it enriched the treasuries as well as national prosperity. Therefore, in addition to the Han Dynasty old money, it should have its own mint coins. At the end of Western Jin Dynasty, after the Eight Kings rebellion, minorities ran their nations independently and many also has their own mint coins. The leader in Ba family Li Te, Li Liu and so on established Han Dynasty in Si Chuan and casted “Han Xing”. This was the first currency which was named of reign title in the history of our country.

Sui and Tang dynasties currency
After Emperor Wen defeated Chen, Sui five baht became the unified legal currency. In the early Tang, the currency in Sui was still used. In the fourth year of Tang Gaozu, he ordered to cancel the five baht and adopt the currency named Kaiyuantongbao. Since then, the history of baht ended and Baowen system began.

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms currency
In this dynasty, all the currency was made of lead and iron. There are many low quality currencies, but litter fined, which reflected the political unrest, economic depression and poverty in that time.

Song Dynasty currency
The currency was mainly made of copper and iron, lead. It is more important to pay something by silver coin than last dynasty. When paper currency began to produce, obviously, it is different between southern and northern Song. Northern copper coin were more than iron, while southern was in opposite. The currency was used in Qianwen calligrapher written by the emperors.

Ming And Qing Dynasty currency
This dynasty used the paper currency, copper coin could also be used. But copper had various kinds. At the beginning of Ming, Zhu yuanzhang made the currency which was called Beiwen value. It was a symbol of Ming copper cion and had an influence until late Qing. Qing currency is generally paralleled standard. The price between silver and cooper maintains in a Liang weight to a thousand Wen. There are three main features of Taiping currency. First, currency is called Shengbao which is different from the early currency. Second, there is no sign of Tianji and Value. Third, it is two sides.

New China currency
The lawful currency of the People's Republic of China is the RMB, and the unit is Yuan. There has already implemented five sets of RMB,and it is to be a currency system of paper, metal, general and precious metal souvenir coin and so on.

Chinese copper coin and paper currency
Chinese copper coin began in Guangdong from April 26, Guangxu fourteen years to Guizhou black half coppers in 1949 which lasted half a century. This kind currency not only ended the history of square hole currency, but also connected with the foreign currency. It is a revolutionary change to chinese currency economy.

Chinese copper coin and paper currency
China is the first one to use paper money in the world. In 11th century, the first paper currency was found ---“jiaozi” in northern Song, in Sichuan. Then, the paper currency is carried on each dynasty.

Southern Song implemented “huizi”,”guanzi”, and Jin dynasty “jiaochao”, Qing “Baochao” and so on. After the Opium War, Modern Banking is gradually rising, bank voucher has become popular. The paper is gradually becoming the main currency.

Chinese copper coin and paper currency
Since 1935, the KMT government carried on the currency reform using the paper currency instead of silver dollar. legal tender, Gold Yuan and Silver Dollar had been implemented.


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