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全新主题大学英语2 U6 T

Unit Six
China in Foreigners’ Eyes

Section A
Adventures in China
PART I Background Information
1. East Anglia The University of East Anglia was founded in 1964 on a site 15 minutes from the centre of Norwich and 15 miles from the Norfolk Broads, a beautiful and tranquil expanse. Its history, courses and architecture reflect its 60s origins. Sir Norman Foster, Denys Lasdun and Rick Mather were responsible for the buildings. The compact structure of the campus helps promote a fun, friendly and relaxed atmosphere, where it is easy for the 13,000-plus students to study and socialize, and, as the UEA motto goes, “do different”. The university is probably best known for its school of creative writing, taught by such luminaries as Poet Laureate Andrew Motion. The course enjoys an excellent reputation, producing writers of the stature of Kazuo Ishiguro and Ian McEwen. Indeed, the list of former students is also impressive. Courses in development studies, environmental sciences and American studies are also highly rated, as is art history. The Sainsbury Centre for the Visual Arts is a fantastic free resource for students. Since 1999, students’ access to work experience as part of their courses has been developed, which is helpful for career prospects. 2 Pingyao Located in the central part of the Shanxi Plain, Ping Yao City, 108 km away from Taiyuan city (the capital of Shanxi Province) is famous for its ancient streets, ancient residences, ancient city-towers and buildings and identified as historical and cultural world heritage by UN. It begun in the time of AD 827 and was renovated at the former site in 1370 BC. It is square in shape. Outside the city, there are 6 Wengchengs (city-towers) around being formed the shape like a tortoise, so the Pingyao has an another name: Guicheng (tortoise city) which means to exist for long time. 3. Langmusi An ideal destination for backpackers as it has not been listed on the itinerary of any Chinese travel agency: a quiet, picturesque Tibetan village at an elevation of 3,300 m, beautiful landscape, well preserved Tibetan cultures, unknown to most tourists. Daily life is regulated by Tibetan religious rituals. Curious travelers are even allowed to witness a sky-burial ceremony. 4. Shuanglin Temple Located in the Qiaotou Village about six km (four miles) to Pingyao, the Shuanglin Temple is reputed to be the “ancient painted sculptures museum”. The temple houses more than 2,000 colorful sculptures reflecting the exquisite skills of the artisans of the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. The Shuanglin Temple was included in the World Heritage List by UNESCO as an important cultural site of Ping Yao City in 1997.

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PART II Language Study
1. My family and I are riding across a grassy plateau carpeted with wild flowers. (Para. 1) My family and I are riding across stretch of land covered with grass and wild flowers. grassy: ?a. covered with grass; covered with turf 被草覆盖的;长满草的 She set off, passing a grassy field on her left, until she reached a gate. 她出发经过左面的一片青草地,一直走到一座大门前停下来。 The grassy land was flat on either side, stretching away as far as the eye could see. 两边都是平整的青草地,向远处延伸着一眼望不到边。 carpet: ?vt. cover with or as if with a carpet 用地毯(或地毯状物)覆盖 The garden is carpeted with a mass of multicolored flowers. 花园里花草茂密,五彩缤纷。 From January through February, the island’s summertime, it is carpeted with all kinds of flowers. 从一月到二月是岛上的夏天,各种各样的鲜花布满整个岛屿。 2. Far away, a giant bird circles in the thermals. (Para. 1) In the distance, a big bird is circling in the rising currents of warm air. 3. We can see for miles in every direction, but there is no sign of human life or habitation.(Para. 1) We can see far into the distance in every direction, there is no footprint of human civilization. habitation: n. 1) [U] act of living in a place 居住 These places are not fit for human habitation. 这些地方不适合人类居住。 There was no sign of animal habitation, no sheep in the area, no birds’ nests or birds to be seen in the trees. 在这片区域没有动物生存的迹象,没有羊群,没有鸟巢,树上也看不到鸟儿栖息。 2) [C] place to live in 住所 On these plains there was not a single human habitation. 这些平原上杳无人烟。 During his 50 years in America, he had nearly a dozen different habitations. 他在美国的 50 年里,几乎住过十一二个不同的地方。 4. We are alone in this vast and lovely landscape, and I quietly rejoice that my eldest daughter decided to drop out of Cambridge last year for there is no way we would be here otherwise. (Para. 1) We are the only tourists in this spacious and beautiful place, and I feel very happy inside that my daughter stopped going to Cambridge last year, which has given us the chance to visit China. landscape:

?n. [C] everything you can see when you look across a large area of land, esp. in the country
(陆上)风景,景色 The two hills and the valley formed a beautiful landscape. 那两座小山和山谷构成了一幅美丽的风景。

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We were deeply attracted by the spring landscape. 我们被春天的景色深深地吸引住了。 An early morning hot-air balloon flight gives the visitor an ideal opportunity to see Kenya’s striking landscape from unusual slant. 清晨的热气球飞行为参观者提供了一个理想的机会, 就是从不寻常的角度来欣赏肯尼亚 的迷人风光。 vt. improve the appearance of an area of land by changing the design and planting trees, flowers, etc. 给(一片土地)作景观美化 The landscaped campus looks very beautiful in summer. 夏天,经过绿化的校园看起来非常漂亮。 According to our plan, it will take us several months to landscape the garden. 根据计划,我们要花几个月的时间来美化花园。 rejoice: v. show signs of great happiness; cause to be happy (使)感到高兴 The teacher rejoiced that his students all passed that difficult test. 老师为自己的学生都通过了那次很难的测试而感到高兴。 The whole family are rejoicing at their unexpected good fortune. 全家人都为这意外的好运气而高兴。 drop out: leave something such as an activity, school, or competition before you have finished what you intended to do 退学,停止参与 Teenagers who drop out of high school have trouble finding jobs. 从高中退学的少年找工作时都很困难。 The football team began with 20 players, but 10 have dropped out within the first month. 足球队开始时有 20 名球员,但在第一个月内就有 10 名退出了。 5. Hannah enlisted instead at Beijing University, rightly believing that she would learn to speak Chinese much better and faster there than in East Anglia. (Para. 2) Hannah enrolled at Beijing University for a good reason for she knew that she could study Chinese better and quicker there than in East Anglia. enlist:?? v. take into; enter the armed forces 入伍,入学,招募 He enlisted at college when he was 18. 他 18 岁就上了大学。 Many young men enlisted for the defense of their country. 许多年轻人为保卫国家而报名参军。 We want to enlist him into the service of the company. (搭配大辞典) 我们想招聘他到公司任职。 vt. engage or secure (a person, his services, or his support) for a venture, cause, etc. 获得?? 的帮助,谋取??的支持 He enlisted that rich man’s support in raising the money for poor children. 他得到了那个富人的支持为贫穷儿童筹款。 It is important to enlist people’s sympathy and help in a charitable cause. 获得人们的同情和帮助对慈善事业来说是很重要的。 rightly: ad. justly, properly, correctly, justifiably 有充分理由地,理所当然地? All parents are rightly concerned about the quality of education their children receive. 所有的父母都理所当然地关心自己的孩子所接受的教育的质量。

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The Government and our times rightly attach great importance to conquering inflation, but it is not the only aim of a successful economy. 我们的政府和这个时代有充足的理由重视对通货膨胀的控制,但这并不是成功经济的惟 一目标。 6. That gave us not only a reason for paying our first visit to China but — more importantly — access to a fascinating people and extraordinary country that would otherwise be almost hard to know because of the language barrier. (Para. 2) Hannah’s decision provided us with the chance of going to China, a chance for us to get to know interesting people and a unique country. Without her, it would be very difficult for us to know China because of the language barrier. 7. Most foreign visitors can scarcely begin to plan independent journeys around China because outside Beijing and Shanghai — and even within those cities — remarkably few Chinese speak English. (Para. 3) Most foreign visitors seldom travel alone in China because, even in Beijing and Shanghai, the majority of Chinese people don’t speak English. scarcely: a. only just, almost not 勉强,几乎不 The effect which these words produce is scarcely to be imagined. 这些话所产生的影响简直是不可想象的。 This common difficulty of the promotion process can scarcely ever be solved in the short run. 这种在晋升过程中常见到的难题,在短期内是难以解决的。 8. It is almost impossible for visitors to book even a train ticket by themselves, let alone tell a taxi where to go, order a meal, or bargain in a market. (Para. 3) It is almost impossible for foreigners to buy train tickets by themselves, direct a taxi driver, order food, or discuss prices while shopping. let alone: not to mention, far less or more 更不用说 My friend doesn’t even know him, let alone falling in love with him! 我的朋友根本就不认识他,更不用说爱上他了! Mrs. Smith gave no sign of being interested in her, let alone liking her enough to want to invite her. 史密斯太太对她没有表现出多大的兴趣,更不用说喜欢到想邀请她。 To translate Chinese works into English successfully is no easy work, let alone the translation of Lu Xun’s works. 将中文作品翻译成好的英文实属不易,更不用说翻译鲁迅的作品了。 9. Consequently, all but the bravest adventurers are forced to join tour groups that stay in bland hotels, eat faux-Chinese food and visit Disneylike tourist attractions, which is sad since China, as we quickly discovered, has so much more to offer. (Para. 3) As a result, most foreign visitors, except the bravest adventurers, have to join tour groups. They stay in boring hotels, eat unauthentic Chinese food, and visit places similar to those in Disneyland. This is a shame because there are many more interesting aspects of China, as we soon discovered. bland: a. ordinary, plain 普通的,平淡的 His musical taste is broad but bland. 他音乐方面的喜好相当广泛,然而平淡无奇。

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The building is as bland as a modern concert hall: a place of marble floors, wide entrance-hall and big staircases. 这座大楼和一个现代剧院一样普通:大理石地面,宽大的门厅和楼梯。 attraction: n. [C] interesting or enjoyable place to go The Great Buddha at the Temple of Heaven in Hong Kong is a great attraction. 香港的天坛大佛使人流连忘返。 Tropical plants, sandy desert, waterfalls, craters and caves make a tourist attraction. 热带植物、沙漠、瀑布、火山口与洞穴吸引了游客。 10. It has the culture and cheapness of India, but without the extremes of poverty. (Para.4) Similar to India, China has a unique culture and things are cheap. But by comparison with India, in China there are fewer people who live in extreme poverty. extreme: n. [C] 1) very large or very small degree of something 极度,过分 Love and hate are two extremes of feelings. 爱与恨是感情的两个极端。 He was in a great extreme of distress when his grandmother died. 他祖母去世后,他陷入了极度悲伤。 2) either of two things as remote or as different as possible 极端 She goes to extremes in everything. 她凡事都走极端。 He always goes from one extreme to the other. 他经常从一个极端走向另一个极端。 a. of a high, or the highest, degree 极高的,极度的 The hunter lived on the extreme edge of the forest. 这个猎人著作森林的最边缘。 Extreme cold will do harm to your skin. 极度寒冷会对你的皮肤有伤害。 11. … witnessed stewardesses in neat uniforms standing to attention and saluting as our train reached its destination, and watched taxi drivers turn off their meters after taking the wrong route. (Para. 4) … have seen in person the neatly dressed stewardesses saluting when our train arrived at the platform and taxi drivers turning off their meters if they took a wrong road so as not to charge the passengers. witness: ?vt. 1) be present at and see 看到;目击 He witnessed the robbery, but he didn’t dare to tell anyone. 他亲眼看到了抢劫过程,但他不敢告诉任何人。 The reporters from many countries witnessed the meeting between the two great men. 许多国家的记者见证了两位伟人之间的会面。 2) be present when an official document is signed and sign it yourself to prove that you saw this happen 在(文件)上签名作证;连署 She witnessed my signature on the new agreement. 她为我在新协议上的签名作证。 He witnessed the documents by signing his name below mine.

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他把名字签在我的名字下面,为此份文件作证。 n. [C] person who sees something happen and is able to describe it to other people 目击者, 见证 人 The young man always beat his wife when there were no witnesses around. 没有目击者在眼前时,那个年轻人经常毒打他的妻子。 He has published more than 10 news and reportage works in his life, and he is the witness of big changes in century China. 他一生出版了十多部新闻和报告文学著作, 是世纪中国大变革的见证人。 英汉汉英辞典 salute: ?v. show respect or honor, esp. by raising the hand to the forehead 敬礼;致敬 The officers saluted as the soldiers marched past. 当士兵队伍走过时,军官举手敬礼。 We salute the flag every day in the morning at school. 在学校我们每天早晨都向国旗敬礼。 destination: ?n. [C] place to which somebody or something is going or is being sent 目的地 Once you reach your destination, you pray to find the person you want to meet, very often it’s impossible. 一旦到达目的地,你会祈祷看到你想见的人。但通常这是不可能的。 Egypt became a popular tourist destination in the nineteenth century and continues to attract many visitors. 埃及从 19 世纪开始成为旅游者喜爱的地方,到现在还在继续吸引很多游客。 12. It is a country where every meal is a new experience, every corner yields a fresh surprise, and journeys are often as interesting as the places they lead to. (Para. 4) In China, every meal is a different experience and everywhere you go, you will find new surprises. The trips to the attractions are as interesting as the places themselves. 13. Our two-day ride into the grassy highlands of northern Sichuan Province from the tiny town of Langmusi was a highlight. (Para. 6) Out two-day trip into the highland of northern Sichuan Province from the small town of Langmusi was one of the most important and interesting parts of our journey. highlight: ?n. [C] most conspicuous or prominent part 精彩的时刻(或细节);特色 Visiting the local people is the highlight of his travel. 拜访当地的人们是他这次旅行中最重要的部分。 Zhao Benshan’s comic script has always been the highlight of the Spring Festival Gala. 赵本山的小品一直是春晚的最大的特色。 With the rapid progress of information and networking technologies, the development of embedded systems becomes the highlight around the all aspects of IT industries. 随着信息和网络技术的高速发展, 嵌入式产业迅速崛起, 成为整个 IT 行业的最亮点。 vt. give prominence or emphasis to 使注意力集中于 The president highlighted the importance of his visit to China. 总统强调了他访问中国的重要性。 The mayor’s speech highlighted the need for reduced tax. 市长的讲话强调了减税的重要性。 These figures clearly highlight the difference in world living standards. 这些数据凸显出世界各地生活水平的差异。

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The peace talks merely highlighted the great gulf in understanding between the two sides. 数次和谈仅仅凸显出双方理解上的严重分歧。 14. We rented horses and guides for 150 yuan (? per person, and followed a river high 10) into the mountains to a vast green bowl dotted with the Tibetan tents and the herds of yaks and goats that they take up there to graze each summer. (Para. 6) We rented horses and guides at the cost of 150 yuan (? per person, rode along a river and 10) over a mountain to a big green basin. In the basin we saw Tibetan tents and the herds of yaks and goats scattered here and there. Each summer the Tibetans take yaks and goats there to eat grass. dot:? vt. spread things over an area 散开,遍布;点缀 Potted plants were dotted about the room in various corners. 房间的各个角落里点缀着盆栽植物。 At night when the sky is dotted with stars, people can see the Milky Way spanning from the north to the south. 夜晚当繁星满天时,人们会看到贯穿南北的银河。 n. [C] small round mark 点,小点 She bought a blue dress with white dots. 她买了件蓝底带白点的衣服。 He watched the train until it was only a dot in the distance. 他目送着列车离去,直到它在远方成了一个黑点。 She wears a long-sleeved white dress with small pink dots on it and tight pink cuffs. 她穿了一件长袖白色的裙子,裙子上有粉色的圆点和收紧的粉色袖口。 herd: ????n. [C] group of animals of the same type that live and feed together 兽群,牧群(尤指牛群) a herd of buffaloes 一群野牛 Herds of elephants were moving across the plain. 象群正在通过平原。 He wants his herd delivered to the cattle market in good condition. 他想让他的牛群运到牛市时仍很健壮。 v. (cause to) go in a herd 放牧;挤在一起,(使)走到一块 The young man is herding the sheep on the hillside. 这个年轻人正在山坡上放牧。 The cowboys herded the cattle and drove them to market. 这几个牧童把牲口赶在一起,并把它们赶到市场去。 The teacher herded the children into the classroom. 老师把孩子们领进教室。 When it rained people without umbrellas began to herd into the corner. 下雨了,没带雨伞的人们开始往墙角聚集。 graze:?? vi. eat grass that is growing in a field 吃草 Cattle were grazing in the fields. 牛群在田野中吃草。 The sheep were grazing peacefully at the foot of the mountain.

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羊群正在山脚下静静地吃草。 vt. put cows, sheep, etc. in a field so that they can eat the grass there 放牧 He always grazes his sheep alone. 他经常独自去放羊。 It is impossible for farmers to graze their cattle on the mountain in this area. 在这个地区农民想在山上放牛是不可能的。 Then he told John to go and graze the cows, and Tony to tend the sheep. 然后他让约翰去放牛,托尼去照看羊。 After the harvest John brought up the cows to graze the stubble and fertilize the fields for next year’s buckwheat crop. 秋收后,约翰把牛群赶到地里去吃麦梗,给地施肥为明年的荞麦生产做准备。 15. We stayed with one of the local families. We watched women with handsome, weather-beaten faces milking the yaks, spreading the animals’ dung thinly on the grass to dry for fuel, boiling their milk to make curd and fetching water from the river. (Para. 7) We lived with a Tibetan family and observed their daily activities. The Tibetan women were pretty, but still showed signs of the weather on their faces. These women milked the yaks, dried the animals’ manure, boiled the milk to make curd and collected water from the river. weather-beaten: a. bearing marks or signs which come from exposure to the sun, wind, rain, etc. 饱经风霜的 The weather-beaten house witnessed the hundred years of history of the village. 这座饱经风霜的房子见证了村庄的百年历史。 The old fisherman has a weather-beaten face because of all his years of fishing experience. 由于多年打渔在外的缘故,这位老渔民有着一张饱经风霜的脸。 16. We watched wild-looking men on horseback rounding up the yaks at dusk to protect them from wolves. (Para. 7) We also watched the Tibetan men, who looked wild and strong, riding on horses as they brought together the yaks to protect them from wolves before night came. round up: collect or bring together 驱拢;赶拢 The farmer rounded up a scattered herd of cattle and went home. 那个农民把牛群赶在一起回家了。 The guide rounded up the tourists and hurried them back into the bus. 导游把观光者集合在一起,催他们回到车中。 17. We sat in a tent made entirely of yak wool and ate vegetable noodles with yak meat cooked on a dung-burning open stove. (Para. 7) We sat in a Tibetan tent, which was made of yak wool. The hosts treated us with noodles with vegetables and meat. The food was made on an open stove, using dried animal dung as the fuel. 18. As night fell the temperature fell down — the altitude was about 3,700m (12,000ft) — and by 10 pm we were lying in our sleeping bags on goatskin rugs and giggling as our guides covered us with a further layer of thick wool blankets. (Para. 7) At night, the temperature was very low. We stayed at a place about 3,700m above sea level. We slept in our sleeping bags on goatskin rugs. When our guides covered us with additional thick wool blankets we all laughed. altitude: ?n. [C/U] height, esp. of an object above sea level or above the horizon 高度, (尤指) 海拔(高度)

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The altitude also hinders people because the air is so thin that there is not enough oxygen to breathe. 海拔高度也阻止了人们前进,因为空气如此稀薄,没有足够的氧气呼吸。 It causes a clock on the ground to run more slowly than an identical one placed at high altitude. 两座相同的时钟,放在平地上的要比放在海拔很高地方的走得快。 The summit is 2,373 feet, not a great altitude, but to the pilgrims who climb to it time and time again, it is a stepping stone to heaven. 这座山峰高 2 373 英尺,海拔不算高,但对那些一次又一次攀爬此山的朝拜者来说,这是 通往天堂的踏脚石。 giggle:?? vi. laugh in a silly way because you’re amused, embarrassed or nervous 咯咯地笑,傻笑 The girl giggled when she read the letter. 这个女孩看着信咯咯地笑起来。 The students started to giggle after the teacher told them the story. 听了老师讲的故事后,学生们开始咯咯地笑起来。 n. [C] slight silly repeated laugh 咯咯的笑声;傻笑 We heard the giggles of girls in the room. 我们听到房间里有女孩子们的咯咯笑声。 During the class there was a giggle from the back of the class. 正上课时从教室后面传来咯咯的笑声。 With a little giggle, Allen asked curiously, “Did you catch up with Harry?” 爱伦笑了一下,好奇地问: “你赶上哈利了吗?” layer: ???n. [C] quantity or thickness of something that lies over a surface or between surfaces 层 The body had been covered with a thin layer of soil. 身体上已经盖上了一层薄薄的土。 Scientists estimate that the ozone layer would take at least a century to fully recover and regenerate itself. 科学家估计臭氧层需要一百年的时间才能修复完整并再生。 The American birthday cake is usually a multi-layer affair, each layer separated with various fillings, usually covered with icing. 美国的生日蛋糕通常是多层的,每层之间有各种各样的馅,外面覆盖一层糖霜。 vt. form or make a layer of (something) 把??堆成层 All the boxes were layered by the workers. 工人们把箱子一层层堆积起来。 He layered the books against the wall and emptied the bookshelf. 他把书靠墙一层层堆起来, 把书架空出来。 His mother asked him to layer the potatoes and onions in a dish. 他妈妈让他把土豆和洋葱分层放在盘子里。 19. But the hosts were able to describe a lifestyle that has remained unchanged for generations, and confidently expect their children to continue it. (Para.8) But the hosts had no problem describing their life which has lasted for several generations. They hoped with confidence that their children would keep this traditional way of life.

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20. In truth, everything in China is an adventure. The train journey from Shanghai to Chengdu took 40 hours, cost less than ?35 each for what are called “hard sleepers”, and was a delight despite running six hours late. (Para.9) Speaking frankly, everything we see and experience in China is interesting and exciting. It took 40 hours from Shanghai to Chengdu, but we only spent less than ? for each ticket. We 35 stayed on the so-called “hard sleepers”, and our long train journey was a fun experience though the train was six hours late. in truth: in fact, speaking frankly 事实上,老实说 What he says is, in truth, a piece of academic folklore. 他所说的实际上是一种学术传说。 In truth, the earth is actually a bit nearer to the sun during our winter. 在冬天地球离太阳实际上还要近一些。 She laughed and chatted but was, in truth, not having much fun. 她虽然又是笑又是侃,但实际上玩得并不开心。 21. Outside our windows the grey industrial towns of eastern China, and the construction of new roads, housing and high-rise office blocks, gradually gave way to a beautiful landscape of neat fields, lily ponds, and quiet villages. (Para.9) During the journey, we first saw towns in grey, the construction of roads, and tall office buildings, etc., which were graduallly replaced by beautiful scenes such as neat fields, lily ponds and quiet villages. housing: n. [U] buildings in which people live 住宅,房屋 Housing has become the meat-and-potatoes problem of this coastal city. 住房问题已经成为这个海滨城市的主要问题。 The bungalows were built in 2001 to ease the housing shortage. 这些平房是 2001 年建造的,用来缓和住房的紧张状况。 high-rise: ?a. tall buildings with many storeys or levels, reached by lifts (指楼)高耸的,高层的 Recently many high-rise office buildings were built in this small town. 最近这个小镇建起了许多高耸的办公楼。 The new high-rise school building attracted many people’s attention. 这座新建的高层教学楼吸引了许多人的注意力。 give way to: be replaced by something, esp. something newer or better (被)替代 Steam trains gave way to electric trains soon after the war. 战后不久,蒸汽机车就被电动机车所替代。 When she saw the clowns, the little girl’s tears gave way to laughter. 这个小姑娘看到几个小丑就破涕为笑了。 22. Inside stewardesses brought round trolleys of hot food, tirelessly swept the floors and kept the restroom perfectly clean. (Para. 9) Inside the carriage, stewardesses brought us hot food on trolleys, kept cleaning the floors and the restroom. bring round: take something or somebody somewhere 把某物或某人带到??地方 He brought the dictionary round when we met. 我们见面时他把辞典带了过来。 To our surprise, he brought his wife round with him to the party tonight. 令我们惊讶的是今晚他把他的妻子带来一起参加了舞会。

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He said that he had a camera which he would bring round, but when he arrived he claimed to have lost it. 他说他可以带个相机来,但等他到来时却说他把相机弄丢了。 23. We ate magnificent dinners in some of Beijing’s best restaurants, where waitresses brought dishes of well presented delicacies faster than we could consume them. (Para.10) We had wonderful meals in some of Beijing’s best restaurants. The food there was well-cooked and looked very beautiful. They served the food very quickly. Before we could eat up one course another course was brought up. magnificent: ?a. 1) (infml.) extremely good 极好的,顶呱呱的 What a magnificent opportunity! 多么难得的机会啊! We will send you these magnificent stereo recordings absolutely free next Monday morning. 星期一早上我们会寄给您这些上佳的立体声唱片,完全免费。 2) impressive, deserving praise 壮丽的,雄伟的 The library’s magnificent collection of 750,000 volumes is available to the scholars of the world. 馆内藏书 75 万册,如此浩繁卷帙可供全世界的学者借阅。 Indeed, I have seen breathtaking photographs of sights from magnificent canyons and waterfalls. 我确实见过从壮观的峡谷和瀑布所拍摄的慑人心魄的风景照。 delicacy:? n. 1) [C] type of food considered to be very special in a particular place 珍馐;佳肴 I was entertained with all kinds of delicacies. 我受到各种各样的美味佳肴的款待。 When we moved to Scotland I discovered the greatest delicacy of all — the smoked herring. 当我们搬到苏格兰后,我发现了世上最美味的东西——熏鲱鱼。 2) [U] quality of being easy to break or damage; frailty 脆弱;娇嫩 The girl’s delicacy has always worried her parents. 这女孩纤弱的体质一直使她的父母感到忧虑。 Because of the delicacy of her skin, she never sunbathes. 因为她的皮肤极其娇嫩,所以她从来不晒太阳。 consume: ?vt. 1) eat or drink 吃;喝 The students consumed all the hot dogs and hamburgers. 学生们把所有的热狗和汉堡都吃掉了。 It didn’t take the hungry students long to consume the loaf of bread. 这些饥饿的学生没费多长时间就吃掉了那块面包。 In a previous study, Steinman found that women who consume animal products, specifically dairy, were five times more likely to have twins. 斯汀曼在此前的一个研究中发现,常食用畜产品尤其是奶制品的女性生双胞胎的几率比 不食用这些食品的女性大五倍。 2) use a supply of something such as time, energy, or fuel 消耗, 花费

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The girl consumes much of her time in studying. 那个女孩把很多时间都用在学习上了。 His car consumes much gasoline each year. 他的汽车每年都耗费大量的汽油。 Moreover, each of us needs to consume at least 5 liters of water per day, and everything we eat and drink contains water. 此外,我们每人每天至少消耗 5 升的水,我们所吃所饮的一切东西也都包含着水。 24. Elsewhere, the five of us gorged on delicious dumplings, noodles and steamed buns from roadside stalls for less than the cost of a chocolate bar in the UK. (Para. 10) In other places, we ate a lot of dumplings, noodles, and steamed buns from the peddlers and small food stands on the roadside. The food was so cheap that the price was lower than that of a chocolate bar in the UK. gorge: ????v. eat a lot of something, until you’re too full to eat any more 狼吞虎咽地吃,贪婪地吃 These girls gorged themselves on fresh fruits. 这些女孩子们大吃新鲜的水果。 That boy gorges on meat only each meal. 那个男孩每餐只是贪吃肉食。 All fish love eating tubifex and will gorge themselves silly on the worm. 所有的鱼类都喜欢吃颤蚓,并且会大吃特吃这种虫子。 n. [C] deep narrow valley with steep sides 峡谷 the Great Sanmen Gorge on the Yellow River 宏伟的黄河三门峡 The Yangtse Gorges 长江三峡 steam: ??vt. place food in or over boiling water so that it cooks in the steam 蒸煮(食品) She is steaming fish for supper. 她正在为晚餐做蒸鱼。 We will have steamed buns for lunch. 中午我们吃馒头。 I usually steam the fish like you do except just using thin slices of ginger. 除了只用薄姜片以外,我做蒸鱼的方法和你一样。 vi. send out steam 发出蒸汽 The kettle on the stove was steaming. 炉子上的壶在冒蒸汽。 He served me with a big bowl of steaming soup. 他给我端来一大碗热气腾腾的汤。 stall:?n. [C] 1) table or small shop with an open front that people sell things from, esp. at a market (市场等上 的)货摊,摊位 Who’s going to man the stall at lunchtime? 午饭时谁来看摊? On my way home I bought this trout at the market fish stall for my mother. 在回家的路上我在市场的鱼摊上给妈妈买了这条鲑鱼。 He has a flower stall in Walnut Road market and a vegetable stall in Park Road market.

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他在核桃路市场有一个鲜花摊,在公园路市场有个蔬菜摊。 2) section inside a farm building that is large enough for one animal to be kept in 隔栏,猪(牛、 马)圈 He spent the holidays cleaning out the pig stalls and feeding the chickens on his parents’ farm. 他假日中在他父母的农场清扫猪圈,喂小鸡。 The cowshed consists of a set of stalls in which the cows are fed and milked by machine. 这个牛棚由一排牛圈组成,奶牛在里面由机器喂食和挤奶。 25. We spent hours walking the backstreets of towns and cities, enjoying glimpses into the interiors of tiny bakeries, tofu factories and noodle-makers. (Para. 11) We walked for hours on the quiet and narrow streets and enjoyed looking around. We were curious to see the insides of bakeries, tofu factories and noodle-makers. backstreet: n. [C] side-street, alley 偏僻街道;小巷 From there, a quiet backstreet led to the rear entrance of her apartment block. 从那里开始,一条僻静的街道直通她的公寓所在街区的后面入口处。 Frank had left home and was now living in lodgings in a little backstreet. 弗兰克离开家,现住在一个位于偏僻小街道的出租房里。 interior: ?????n. [C] 1) inside part of something, esp. a building or vehicle 内部;(尤指)屋内,车内 The interior of the house was clean and bright. 房间内部干净、明亮。 The interior of the cave was dark and some strange sounds from distance were heard. 山洞里面很黑,还能听到远处传来的奇怪的声音。 2) central part of a country or continent that is a long way from the coast 内陆;腹地 Many foreigners travel in the interior of China. 很多外国人在中国内地旅行。 He wants to travel in the interior of Africa. 他想去非洲内陆地区旅行。 a. connected with the inside part of something 内部的; 内陆的 We arrived at an interior town when night came. 天黑后我们到达了一个内地城镇。 The students found that the interior walls of the dormitory were painted green. 学生们发现宿舍的内部墙面都刷成了绿色。 26. We watched — and occasionally joined — groups performing their morning exercises or evening dances in squares and parks. (Para. 11) We watched people do their morning exercises or have their evening dances in squares and parks. Sometimes we also participated to have fun. 27. We found markets selling snakes, worms, royal jelly and produce so strange that we were unable to tell if it was fruit or vegetable, root or nut, or even meat. (Para. 12) We saw many markets selling strange things such as snakes, worms, royal jelly and farm produce. Some things sold at the market were so strange and sometimes it was very hard for us to tell if it was fruit or vegetable, root or nut, or even meat. produce: ?n. [U] things that have been made or grown, esp. things connected with farming (水果、蔬菜等)农产品

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The farmers nearby brought their produce to town early each Saturday morning. 每星期六清早附近的农民们就把农产品运进城。 In a small town, his son has a store where he sells groceries and produce. 在一个小镇上他的儿子开了一家商店,卖日用品和农产品。 root: n. [C] 1) part of a plant that grows under the ground and absorb water and minarals 根 By then, howeveer, in many places the grass had already taken root. 不过到那时,在很多地方草已长了根。 The prime requirement of a newly planted tree is rapid establishment of the root. 对新栽幼树的起码要求是迅速建立起根系骨架。 Water deficit is influenced by the level of soil water potential at the root surface. 水分亏缺是受根系表面土壤水势高低影响的。 2) main cause of problem 根源;起因 Money is often said to be the root of all evil. 金钱常常说成是万恶之源. As greediness is the root of all evil, so poverty is the worst of all snares. 正如贪婪是万恶之源一样,贫穷是最坏的诱惑。 Note: “royal jelly” refers to the substance produced by bees to feed their young that some people believe has major health benefits 蜂王浆 28. A bowl of what looked like large, rough-skinned kiwi fruit turned out to be raw duck eggs buried in mud for 12 days. (Para. 12) A strange thing that we found was something like a kiwi fruit and soon we knew they were raw duck eggs which were buried in mud for 12 days. Note: Here it can be inferred that what the author mentioned is Songhuadan (preserved duck egg) (松花蛋) 29. By all means go to Pingyao if you are overcome by Beijing’s sweltering heat. (Para. 14) If you cannot stand the heat of Beijing, we strongly recommend that you take a trip to Pingyao. by all means: using all possible ways 一定, 尽一切办法 This plan must be realized by all means. 这个计划必须想尽办法实现。 You must try by all means to persuade him to go with us. 你一定要尽力劝他和我们一起走。 It is clear that to develop heavy industry one must increase the supply of products by all means. 要想发展重工业就要千方百计地增加产品的供给,这是显而易见的。 be overcome by: losing control of one’s emotion or action by something 受影响,控制不了 Overcome by emotion, she found herself unable to speak for a few minutes. 她过分激动,发现自己有几分钟不能说话。 There have been times when I’ve been so overcome by grief and rage that I’ve doubted my sanity. 有时候我被悲哀和愤怒的情绪所支配,以至于我怀疑自己是否神志正常。 sweltering: a. very hot in a way that make you feel uncomfortable 酷热的;热得令人难受的 The air conditioner stopped working suddenly, so everyone was sweltering in the meeting room. 空调突然坏了,所以会议室的人都热得难受。 These constant changes in the weather beat me; one day it’s sweltering hot, and the next we’re

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almost back to winter temperature. 天气这样变化无常,令人大惑不解,第一天闷热,第二天又几乎回到了冬天。 30. Pingyao is certainly a remarkable place. Do what we did. Rent bikes. Cycle four miles out past the coal yards and railway sidings to the pastoral Shuanglin temple. (Para. 14) Pingyao is a very unique place. If you go there, do what we did. You may rent bikes and go past the coal yard and the railway track to visit Shuanglin temple in the countryside. remarkable: a. notable, striking 出众的,非凡的 Man had achieved a remarkable understanding of a wide variety of natural phenomena. 人类对于各种各样的自然现象,已经有了很不平常的理解。 She’s immature intellectually, but she has a remarkable mature mind in other ways. 她在智力上还不成熟,可是在其它方面她的头脑却异常的成熟。 It seems remarkable that Chinese women so readily adapt themselves to wholly new situations. 中国妇女能这样迅速地适应全新的情况,似乎是令人惊叹。 pastoral: a. showing country life or the countryside, esp. in a romantic way 田园式的, 乡村生 活的 He likes pastoral poetry very much and writes many such poems himself. 他特别喜欢田园诗,而且自己也写了许多类似的诗。 The pastoral landscape attracted most of the students who came from the nearby city. 田园风景吸引了大多数从附近城市来的学生们的注意力。 temple: n. [C] 1) building used for the worship of a god or gods, esp. in religions other than Christianity 寺庙 An icon is to a temple what the spirit or life energy is to the human body. 圣像对一座寺庙的重要性就像精神或能量对人的身体的重要性一样。 There is a temple to Confucius in my hometown, which attracts many tourists from all over the country to visit it every year. 我家乡的那座孔庙,每年都吸引很多来自全国各地的旅游者来参观。 Many ancient temples were beautifully built with many valuable statues and paintings. 许多古老的寺庙建得很漂亮,还有许多珍贵的雕像和绘画。 2) each of the flat parts at the side of the forehead 鬓角;太阳穴 Anna can still feel the barrel of robber’s shotgun pressing against her temple. 安娜还能感觉到抢劫犯用枪抵着自己的太阳穴。 The doctor asked the old woman to put her fingers to her temples to give them a massage. 医生让老妇人把手放在太阳穴上按摩。 31. There you can stroll around in relative solitude, admiring 2,000 statues — some almost 1,000 years old — that are so lifelike and expressive that you’ll gasp. (Para. 14) There you can walk around without being disturbed and examine the marvelous statues, which are made so vividly that you will be deeply impressed. stroll:?? vi. walk somewhere in a slow relaxed way 溜达;闲逛 I stroll out onto the balcony and breathe in the night air. 我踱步来到阳台呼吸着夜晚的空气。 After supper they always stroll around for an hour or so in the park. 晚饭后他们总是在公园里散步一个小时左右。 Besides, the visitors can stroll near the track or relax by the pond.

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除此之外,参观者们还可以在车道附近散步,或者在池塘边放松休息。 She was the only one who need not worry about food or clothing, who had time to stroll about and amuse herself. 她是惟一的有吃有穿,不用着急,而且可以走走逛逛的人。 n. [C] slow relaxed walk 散步,溜达 I assumed that he had gone for a stroll. 我想他一定是出去散步去了。 I enjoy living in the countryside and like nothing more than a stroll through the villages. 我喜欢住在乡下,最喜欢在村子里散步了。 The weather was fine this morning and after breakfast, he accompanied me on the leisurely stroll to the theatre. 今天早上天气特别好,吃过早饭,他陪我溜达着向剧院走去。 As he remembered it later, it was like a stroll in company in peacetime through a fragrant autumnal forest. 他事后回忆起来,当时简直象和平时期在秋天飘散着花香的树林里结伴游玩一样。 solitude:?n. [U] being without company, state of being alone 独处,独居 I began to do my homework in quiet solitude when everyone left school. 当大家都离开学校后,我开始一个人静静地写作业。 He has been living in regions of solitude for many years, but he is more informed than us. 他多年来一直生活在偏僻的荒凉地区,但他知道的比我们还多。 statue: n. [C] large human or animal image that is made of stone, wood, metal, etc. 雕像, 塑像 The Statue of Liberty is in New York Bay. 自由女神像位于纽约湾。 The statues, which were made of copper and gold, were over two meters in height. 这些金和铜合金塑像两米多高。 The Giant Stone Buddha at Leshan Mountain in Sichuan Province of China, carved in the Tang Dynasty (618 A.D.-907 A.D.), is 71 meters high, making it the largest statue of Buddha in the world. 中国四川的乐山大佛是世界上最大的佛像雕刻。 它高达 71 米, 修建于唐代。 expressive: ?a. showing or able to show your thoughts and feelings (尤指行为) 富于表现力 的,明确表露(想法或情感)的 Everyone agrees that the young actress has an expressive face. 大家都认为这个年轻的女演员有一张表情生动的面孔。 Some young parents don’t know that a baby’s cry may be expressive of hunger or pain. 一些年轻的父母不知道婴儿的哭可能就是表示饿或疼痛。 gasp:?? vi. take a quick deep breath with your mouth open, esp. because you’re surprised or in pain (因 惊、惊吓、或痛苦而)倒抽气,喘气,喘息 I gasped with surprise at the unexpected news. 听到这出乎意料的消息,我吃惊得倒抽一口冷气。 My daughter, visiting the city for the first time, gasped at the prices of houses here. 我女儿第一次到这城里时,对这里的房价深感吃惊。 Deeply moved by her performance, the whole audience gasped with admiration. 她的演奏动人心弦, 全场观众赞叹不己。

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When she returned, the sight that met her eyes made her gasp involuntarily. 当她转回身,眼前的景象使她不由自主地倒吸一口冷气。 n. [C] quick deep breath, caused by strong emotion 喘气,喘息 We heard the gasps of a child. 我们听到孩子的喘气声。 With a gasp she was on her feet and pushing her way to the door. 她喘息着,站起身努力地向门口走去。 With a gasp of despair Ruth slammed down the glass of champagne and covered her face with her hands. 随着一声绝望的叹息,露丝把香槟酒杯摔到地上,用手捂住了脸。 32. To appreciate them, at least, you do not require an interpreter. (Para.14) You can admire the statues alone because you don’t need an interpreter to help you.

PART III Guided Writing Developing an Expository Paragraph: Cause and Effect
Cause-and-effect writing (also called “causal analysis”) focuses on why one event causes another event to occur. When you write about cause and effect, you are concerned with relationships among actions and events—how one action creates, destroys, changes, or influences a second to produce a specific outcome. The relationship among events in cause-and-effect analysis is causality ( 因 果 关 系 ): something causes something else, or many things cause something; something results from something else, or many things result from one thing. ? What Is Cause? Because effects are usually more observable to us than the factors that produced them, many cause-and-effect analyses focus on causes. The idea of causation can be expressed in several ways: why the Civil War was fought, the reasons your friend Mary joined the Army, your motivation for going to college, what brought about the changes in a law, what makes a person commit a crime, what produces nuclear fusion, etc. ? What Is Effect? Like a cause, an effect also can be described in various ways: the consequences of waiting too long to study for a test, the outcome of a lawsuit, the results of expanding commercial air traffic, a development arising from new environmental concerns, the product created by the process of clear thinking. Although some effects are known to us, they may require still better understanding or more emphasis because of their importance. In a science course, you may need to explain what effect ultraviolet light has on human skin; in an animal husbandry class, you may have to discuss the consequences of overfeeding certain livestock. We study unknown effects in order to understand their influence and potential as causes of other effects. Just recently, the governments of several nations combined efforts to study the effects of industrial chemicals on the earth’s ozone layer. The resulting research will undoubtedly lead to major changes in every country’s use of industrial chemicals. ? Patterns of Cause-and-Effect Writing According to the complexity of cause and effect, we can divide the cause-and-effect writing

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into four types. ? A single cause with a single effect: single cause ←→ single effect For example: The heavy traffic made me late to work. The earthquake cracked the plaster on my wall. ? A single cause with multiple effects: single cause → multiple effects For example: The storm damaged crops, flooded roads, and caused schools to be closed. Exercise strengthens the heart, reduces blood pressure and stress, and helps you lose weight. ? Multiple causes with a single effect: multiple causes → single effect For example: Pruning and feeding roses regularly will produce more blooms. High blood pressure, stress, obesity, and lack of exercise all contribute to heart disease. ? Multiple causes with multiple effects (also called “chain of cause and effect”): multiple causes → multiple effects For example: Drunk driving and speeding are the two biggest reasons for accidents and deaths on the highway. An unstable economy, lack of food and clothing, and a complete mistrust of the government led to riots in the capital and strikes in all the factories. ? Guidelines for writing effective cause-and-effect paragraphs When writing a cause-and-effect, keep the following suggestions in mind: ? Remember your purpose. Decide if you are writing to inform or persuade. ? Focus on immediate and direct causes (or effects.) Limit yourself to causes that are close in time and related, as opposed to remote and indirect causes, which occur later and are related indirectly. ? Strengthen your essay by using supporting evidence. Define terms, offer facts and statistics, or provide examples, anecdotes, or personal observations that support your ideas. ? Qualify or limit your statements about cause and effect. Unless there is clear evidence that one event is related to another, qualify your statements with phrases such as “It appears that the cause was” or “It seems likely” or “The evidence may indicate” or “Available evidence suggests”. To evaluate the effectiveness of a cause and effect essay, ask the following questions: What are the causes? What are the effects? Which should be emphasized? Are there single or multiple causes? Single or multiple effects? Is a chain reaction involved? Here is a student sample for teachers’ further analysis. Bad Effect of TV Violence Networks should not present children’s shows that contain violence. Children fed a constant diet of TV violence begin to believe that brutality is acceptable. Seeing dogs, cats, and mice pushing each other off roofs and hitting each other with bricks in these shows, children are bound to assume that brutality is and should be a way of life, another reason for keeping violence out of children’s shows is that young viewers may get the idea that violence is not painful. For example, my neighbor has told me that after a Saturday morning of violent cartoons her son Paul tend to hit and bully his sister and

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then seems amazed when she cries. Most important, the consequences of letting our children watch these shows are frightening to imagine. We may be raising a generation of adolescents and then adults so used to watching cruelty on telexing that they will not be moved to stop it when they see it in real life.

Key to Exercises
1. The topic sentence also functions as the effect of the subject: the fact that students choose their seats at school. 2. This paragraph is organized in order of importance with the most important factor last an as emphasis. 3. There are three causes mentioned in the paragraph: for convenience, for personal preference, and for study.

Now You Try It
Here is a student sample describing the change of living away from home for the first time.

Campus Life
Moving away from home and going to university is an experience that teaches a person how to become independent. When I lived at home with my parents, everything was easy. My mother would put warm, delicious food on the table for me and I could thoroughly enjoy my meals in the comfortable atmosphere at home. Now that I am at university, I have to walk across the campus at three specific times each day to eat terribly cooked dining-hall food. When I was at home I never had to worry about money problems, but now I have to learn how to budget my money and make it go as far as I can. The hardest thing I have learnt to do is to plan my own time so that I can follow lessons easily. What I have learnt to do on my won has made me an independent man.

Part IV Key to Exercises II.
1. The scenery was magnificent: the grassy plateau was carpeted with wild flowers. The sun was warm, the sky a perfect blue; there was a giant bird circles in the thermals far away. 2. His daughter, Hannah, believed that she would learn to speak Chinese much better and faster than in East Anglia. 3. The problem that most foreign visitors are confronted with is the language barrier. 4. The author and his family watched local women milking the yaks, spreading the animals’ dung thinly on the grass to dry for fuel, boiling the milk to make curd and fetching water from the river. They watched men on horseback rounding up the yaks at dusk to protect them from wolves, etc. 5. The author enjoyed the train journey because outside the landscape was beautiful and inside the stewardesses provided good services.

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6. The author and his family were impressed because the food was just too good. 7. The author and his family took local buses, rode pillion on motor bike taxis and rented bikes to explore the countryside. 8. The author and his family saw many strange things on markets such as snakes, royal jelly and raw duck eggs. 9. The author recommended Pingyao because there was a famous Shuanglin temple, where people can stroll around in relative solitude, admiring 2,000 statues and people could have a quiet walk without an interpreter. 10. The author thinks that China is a country full of surprises and new experiences.

III.
1. destination 6. statue 2. altitude 7. highlight 3. herd 8. layer 4. salute 9. grassy 5. bakery 10. gasp

IV.
1. weather-beaten 2. consume 6. dotted 7. drop out 11. produce 12. delicacy 3. overcome 4. carpeted 8. enlist 9. let alone 13. turn off 14. steam 5. round up 10. witnessed

V.
1. carpeted 5. stalls 2. herd 6. landscape 3. giggled 7. magnificent 4. strolling 8. drop out of

VI.
1. low-pitched 5. family-based 2. market-driven 6. high-heeled 3. heart-broken 7. absent-mined 4. strong-willed 8. home-made

VII
1. I was lonely 2. a lone teacher coming towards them 3. because she was alone in the house 4. the heart of that lonely student 5. found she was alone

VIII.
1. Many people have realized that money alone can not make them happy. 2. In the United Kingdom, almost one-third of the population lives alone; that is around twenty million people; hardly a minority group. 3. When I went to see Miss Havisham the next day, as she had requested, her house looked darker than ever, and I realized how lonely she was without Estella. 4. The bird looks so sad there, all cold and alone, that I hold my hand out to reach for it, but it flies off. 5. Two thirds of lone parent families depend mainly on social security benefits, compared with one

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in eight two parent families.

IX.
1. We saw the children diving into water from the diving board. 2. I saw many students looking down the microscope to observe the behavior of individual cells as the embryo develops. 3. We saw my neighbor’s boy beating our dog with a heavy stick as if he were mad. 4. We went to the sea and saw one of our old friends strolling along the beach with a strange man 5. During the night we heard our neighbor screaming and shouting for help.

X.
1. India is a country where women wear saris or other Indian styles of dress. 2. Nowadays a gym is a good place where people can get to interact with different persons. 3. Yu Garden, located in the southern part of Shanghai, is a well-restored Suzhou-style garden where people see more than 40 scenic spots. 4. Thailand is a country where monks travel free on most forms of public transport. 5. The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the mid-Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty where nearly 50,000 items of paintings are collected.

XI.
1. The French class began with ten students, but several have dropped out. 2. I believe old farming methods should give way to improved modern ones. 3. Dietitian always warns people not to gorge on rich food if they want to stay healthy. 4. We must take it as a major task for the economic work in 2009 to increase the income of farmers by all means. 5. He came across his former classmate while he was strolling about in the park. 6. That young girl had seldom been to smart restaurants, let alone banquets and receptions. 7. The students rejoiced that their teacher had recovered completely and didn’t expect that the teacher would be back to work so soon. 8. When the class was over, the girls would like to whisper and giggle together.

Part V Translation

中国游记
我和家人正骑马穿过一片高原地带, 青葱的草地上到处是盛开的野花。 阳光和煦, 天 空湛蓝。两位向导轻声地唱着歌。远处,一只巨大的鸟儿在天空不停地盘旋着。向四周望 去,方圆几英里内见不到一丝人烟。在这片广袤美丽的大地上,就我们一家人。我暗自高 兴是我的大女儿去年决定从剑桥退学了,否则无论如何我们也没有机会到这里来。 2 汉娜转而到北京大学注册上学,理所当然地认为在那里学习汉语要比在东安格利亚大 学更快、更好。这不仅给了我们一个第一次来中国的理由,更重要的是,使我们能有机会 接触到一个令人着迷的民族和不同寻常的国家。否则,由于语言的障碍,我们几乎很难了 解这一切。 1

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多数外国游客很难能计划独自在中国旅行,因为除了北京和上海之外,甚至在这两个 城市之中, 没有几个中国人讲英语。 外国观光者想自己预订哪怕是一张火车票都几乎不可 能,更不用说打车去什么地方、订餐,或者在市场讲价了。因此,除极少数最有冒险精神 的游客外,其他人都被迫参加旅游团,住的是毫无特色的宾馆,吃的是非正宗的中餐,看 的是迪斯尼似的景点。这真是令人悲哀,因为我们很快就发现,真正的中国远比这些要好 得多。 4 和印度一样,中国有其独特的文化,物价低廉,但没有印度那样的极度贫困人群。有 些城市的污染很严重, 不过, 在这个国家, 通过植树来改善环境似乎是全民的行为。 而且, 在这个国家我们看到了这样的现象: 农民在乡村马路上用长长的扫帚打扫卫生; 火车进站 时身着整齐制服的女列车员会向火车立正行礼; 出租车司机会在走错路时关掉计价器。 在 中国,每一餐都是一次新的体验;每个角落都能让你感到新奇和惊喜;无论你去哪里,路 途本身的光景丝毫不亚于你要去的地方。 5 我们自己的旅程从北京的一个大广场开始, 南行到上海。 乘火车西行 1,000 英里 (1,600 公里)到成都,乘吉普车北行 500 英里去兰州,然后乘飞机,经停有古老城墙环绕的平遥 县城后,返回到北京。 6 我们从郎木寺镇骑马走了两天进入了四川省北部绿草覆盖的高原, 这是我们这次行程 中的最大的亮点。我们租了马匹,雇了向导,每人 150 元人民币(10 英镑)。我们沿着 一条河上山前行,然后来到一个巨大的绿色盆地,藏族牧民的帐篷星星点点散布其间,成 群的牦牛和山羊吃着草。牧民们每年夏天都会把他们的牛(羊)群带到此地放养。 7 我们和当地的一家人住在一起,观看那些脸色健康红润、历经风霜的妇女们的日常 劳动: 为牦牛挤奶, 把牛粪薄薄地铺在草地上晾干做燃料, 把奶烧开做乳酪, 从河中取水。 我们还亲眼看到外表粗犷的男人们在黄昏时骑在马背上归拢牦牛群以防狼群。 我们坐在一 顶完全由牦牛皮毛制成的帐篷中, 吃着有牦牛肉的蔬菜面条, 这是在烧牦牛粪的炉子上做 成的。 随着夜幕降临,气温也降了下来。当时的海拔大约是 3,700 米(12,000 英尺)。 到了晚上十点, 我们躺在铺有山羊皮地毯上的睡袋里。 导游又给我们每人加盖了一层厚厚 的羊毛毯,惹得我们咯咯地笑起来。 8 和主人的对话实在是不容易。汉娜把我们的问题翻译成汉语,向导再把它们翻译成藏 语。 但主人们还是向我们讲述了他们几代都保持不变的生活方式, 并且满怀信心地期望自 己的孩子们能继续这种生活方式。 9 的确,在中国的每一件事都是一个难忘的经历。从上海乘火车去成都,整个旅程要花 40 个小时。我们买的是被称为“硬卧”的票,每张不到 35 英镑。这次旅程虽然晚点了六 个小时,但却是令人愉快的。车窗外,东部地区灰色的工业城镇,建设之中的公路、居民 楼和高耸的办公楼群等景象逐渐被漂亮的风景所替代:整齐的田地,莲花池塘,还有安静 的村庄。车厢内,列车员用手推车送来热乎乎的食物,不辞辛劳地清扫地板,把洗手间收 拾得非常干净。 10 我们在北京的一些最好的饭店里尝到了美味佳肴,这里的服务员端上来精心烹制的美 食,上菜快得令我们都吃不过来了。在别处,我们五个人在路边的摊亭大吃特吃可口的饺 子、面条和馒头,而花费还不及在英国一块巧克力的价格。 11 我们到城镇的偏僻的街道上去闲逛,一逛就是好几个小时,东瞧瞧西看看。我们去看 了小面包房, 豆腐坊和面条作坊。 我们观看了那些在广场和公园里晨练或晚上跳舞的人群, 偶尔也加入其中。我们还乘坐当地的公交车,坐摩的,或者租借自行车去农村游历。 12 我们发现各种各样的市场上,有卖蛇的,卖虫子的,卖蜂王浆的和农产品的。有的农 产品非常奇特,我们简直分不清是水果还是蔬菜,根茎还是坚果,或者甚至是肉类。一碗 看起来象很大的外表粗糙的猕猴桃样的东西原来竟是在泥里埋了 12 天的生鸭蛋。 3

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13 我们从不提前预订旅馆,但找旅馆却一点问题都没有。大多数的旅馆都很干净。一晚 花费超过 200 元(13 英镑)的房间就算是很贵的了。 14 如果你不能够忍受北京的酷热天气, 那你无论如何一定要去平遥看看。 平遥绝对是一 个值得游历的地方。像我们一样,租辆自行车。骑车四英里,越过煤场和铁路侧线,就来 到具有田园风格的双林寺。在那里你可以独自漫步,欣赏 2,000 座塑像,有些几乎有千年 的历史了。塑像形象逼真,栩栩如生,令人惊叹。欣赏塑像还有个好处,至少你不需要翻 译。

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Unit Six
China in Foreigners’ Eyes

Section B
China — a Land of My Imagination
PART I Background Information
1. Joanne Harris: Joanne Harris was born in Barnsley in 1964, of a French mother and an English father. She studied Modern and Mediaeval Languages at St. Catharine’s College, Cambridge and was a teacher for fifteen years, during which time she published three novels: The Evil Seed (1989), Sleep, Pale Sister (1993) and Chocolat (1999), which was made into an Oscar-nominated film starring Juliette Binoche and Johnny Depp. Since then, she has written seven more novels: Blackberry Wine, Five Quarters of the Orange, Coastliners, Holy Fools, Gentlemen and Players, and, most recently, The Lollipop Shoes and Runemarks, plus; Jigs & Reels, a collection of short stories and, with cookery writer Fran Warde, two cookbooks; The French Kitchen and The French Market. Her books are now published in over 40 countries and have won a number of British and international awards. In 2004, Joanne was one of the judges of the Whitbread prize (categories; first novel and overall winner); and in 2005 she was a judge of the Orange prize. Her hobbies are listed in Who’s Who as: “mooching, lounging, strutting, strumming, priest-baiting and quiet subversion of the system”, although she also enjoys obfuscation, sleaze, rebellion, witchcraft, armed robbery, tea and biscuits. She is not above bribery and would not necessarily refuse an offer involving exotic travel, champagne or yellow diamonds from Graff. She plays bass guitar in a band first formed when she was 16, is currently studying Old Norse and lives with her husband Kevin and her daughter Anouchka, about 15 miles from the place she was born. 2. Shangri-la Hotels: The Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts (香格里拉酒店集团) is a hotel chain based in Hong Kong. It is the largest Asian-based deluxe hotel group in the region. The group started in 1971 with its first and flagship hotel in Singapore, and now has 55 deluxe hotels and resorts located in key Asian, Australian and Middle Eastern cities with hotel room inventory of over 27,000. The hotel group also has a sister brand called Traders Hotel, established in 1989 to cater mostly to business travellers. 3. Turkish bath: The Turkish bath is the Middle Eastern variant of a steam bath, which can be categorized as a wet relative of the sauna. They have played an important role in cultures of the Middle-East, serving as places of social gathering, ritual cleansing, and as architectural structures, institutions, and (later) elements with special customs attached to them. Europeans learned about the Hamam via contacts with the Ottomans, hence the “Turkish” part of the name. In Western Europe, the Turkish bath as a method of cleansing the body and relaxation was

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particularly popular during the Victorian era. The process involved in taking a Turkish bath is similar to that of a sauna, but is more closely related to the ancient Roman bathing practices. A person taking a Turkish bath first relaxes in a room (known as the warm room) that is heated by a continuous flow of hot, dry air allowing the bather to perspire freely. Bathers may then move to an even hotter room (known as the hot room) before splashing themselves with cold water. After performing a full body wash and receiving a massage, bathers finally retire to the cooling-room for a period of relaxation. In Turkey, the advent of modern plumbing systems, showers, and bathtubs in homes caused the importance of hamams to fade in recent times.

PART II Language Study
1. Everything I liked seemed to have originated there. (Para. 1) It seemed that everything I liked seemed to have originally come from there. originate: vi. begin to exist or appear for the first time 起源;发生 The concept of factory outlet shopping originated in America. 厂家直销这一概念源于美国。 Many herbs originate from the Mediterranean. 许多草本植物最初产于地中海地区。 vt. create or start something; initiate 引起;发起 I intended to find out who originated this rumour. 我想找出是谁最先散布了这个谣言。 No one believes that he is responsible for originating this particular cliché . 没有人相信他是这种陈词滥调的始作俑者。 2. The real China was out of reach, closed to tourism and hidden behind a veil of secrecy that only enhanced its exotic appeal. (Para. 1) The real China was not accessible to the outside world nor tourists. It’s like hiding behind a curtain of mystery which only makes it more appealing. out of reach: 1) difficult to achieve or get because you do not have enough skill, power, or money (因为没 有足够的技能、权力或金钱而)难以实现(得到) Without economic help, the dream of college is out of reach today for many high-school students. 没有经济援助,许多中学生要圆大学的梦目前是不可能的。 For most ordinary players, achievements like these are out of reach. 对于大多数普通球员而言,这样的成就是不能实现的。 2) outside the distance that a hand, etc. can be stretched out 手不能及,遥不可及 The shelf is so high for me and the candy on it is well out of reach. 架子太高, 上面的糖果我根本够不着。 Keep those medicines out of reach of the children. 把那些药放在孩子够不着的地方。 tourism: n. [U] business of providing services for people who are traveling for their holiday (商 业性的)旅游业,观光业

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the tourism industry 旅游业 the wildlife-based tourism 以野生动物为主要特点的观光业 These beautiful old towns have remained relatively untouched by tourism. 这些古老美丽的城镇相对地还没有受到旅游业的影响。 veil: n. [C] 1) (usu. sing.) lack of knowledge or information, that prevent you from discovering the truth 掩饰;遮盖 A veil of secrecy has been thrown over the final preparations. 最后的准备工作被蒙上了一层神秘的面纱。 He could see through the veil of economic statistics and theory to the real world. 他透过经济统计数字和理论的装潢掩饰,能看清世界本来的面目。 2) thin piece of material worn by women to cover their faces at formal occasions such as weddings, or for religious reasons 面纱;面罩 They say they wear veils not for religious reasons, but for preventing strangers from seeing their faces. 她们说戴面纱不是因为宗教方面的原因,而是为了不让陌生人盯着她们看。 vt. 1) cover something with something that hides it partly or completely 遮掩;掩饰 veiled in secrecy/mystery 处于秘密/神秘之中 Veiled in shadow, he managed to slip unnoticed through the gateway. 在阴影的遮掩下,他神不知鬼不觉地溜出门去。 2) cover something with a veil 以面纱遮盖 Women are expected to be veiled when they go into the street in some societies. 有些社会要求女子上街时要戴面纱。 The women were veiled from head to foot. 妇女们从头到脚都被遮盖着。 enhance: vt. 1) improve the quality, amount or strength of (something) 提高,增强,加强 The measures taken should considerably enhance the residents’ quality of life. 采取的措施应该明显提高居民的生活质量。 What can we do to enhance our chance of victory? 我们怎样才能增加我们胜利的机会呢? 2) improve (something already good) 进一步改进 The candlelight both softened and enhanced her beauty. 烛光使她显得越发柔美。 The superb sets are enhanced by Bobby Crossman’s marvellous costumes. 博比·克罗斯曼绝妙的服装为华丽的舞台增色不少。 exotic: a. 1) introduced from a foreign country; not native 异国情调的;由国外引进的;非本地的 They are always flying off to film in exotic locations. 他们经常飞到异域拍电影。 She flits from one exotic location to another. 她辗转于异国他乡。 2) interesting or exciting because of being unusual or not familiar 奇异的,古怪的;异于寻

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常的 He loves exotic clothes and traveling the exotic places. 他喜欢穿奇装异服,到充满异国情调的地方去旅游。 The story sounded exotic, something from another world and age. 这个故事听起来像是天方夜谭,似乎发生在另一个世界,另一个时代。 3. But to many China remains a puzzle; images that may stimulate our appetite, but give us little knowledge of the true picture. (Para. 2) But to many people, China is not easy to understand; distinctive picture only make us more eager to know, but gave away little about the true China. image: n. [C] 1) picture that you have in your mind, esp. about what someone or something is like or the way they look(头脑中的)印象;概念 I had a sudden mental image of Robert waiting for me with flowers. 我头脑中突然闪现罗伯特拿着花等我的情景。 At forty-six, Burnett hardly fits most people’s image of an American college student. 已 46 岁的伯内特不大符合大多数人心目中美国大学生的形象。 2) appearance as seen in a mirror or through a lens 映像;影像 the flickering black-and-white images on the first movie screens 早期电影屏幕上摇曳的黑白影像 When he stared at his image in the mirror, Smith saw a middle-aged man. 史密斯凝视着镜子中自己的影像时,看到的是一个中年男子。 4. My images of China come from films, and from Chinatowns the world over. Hers come from history lessons and postcards: the Great Wall, the terracotta warriors. (Para. 2) My impression of China comes from films and the various Chinatowns world wide; my daughter’s mainly comes from history lessons and postcards of the Great Wall, the terracotta warriors and so on. 5. We are both excited and a little anxious as we touch down in Beijing. (Para. 3) When our plane land in Beijing, my daughter and I feel excited and a little bit uneasy. touch down: if an aircraft or space vehicle touches down, it lands 着陆;降落 Please keep your seatbelts fastened and your mobile phones switched off until the plane has touched down. 飞机着陆前请系好安全带并保持手机关闭。 When the singer’s plane touched down at Narita airport, Tokyo, thousands of fans screamed his name. 当这位歌星的飞机到达东京成田机场的时候,成千上万的歌迷大喊着他的名字。 6. In this country, we are both ignorant and illiterate. (Para. 3) In China, we don’t know anything about this country and we don’t know any Chinese, either. ignorant: a. not knowing something that you should know or need to know 无知的;愚昧的; 无学识的 The general public remained totally ignorant of the danger. 公众对这种危险仍然全然无意识。 To say you were ignorant of the rules is no excuse. 说自己不知道规则是不能成为藉口的。 We went to bed that night blissfully ignorant of the storm to come.

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好在那天我们上床睡觉时,对即将到来的暴风雨一无所知。 7. She drives us to our hotel through a city heaving with frantic activity. (Para. 3) She takes us to our hotel by car through the city which is very busy and full of hurried people. heaving: a. (infml) very busy and full of people 热闹的;熙熙攘攘的 The fish market was absolutely heaving. 鱼市热闹非凡。 The city was heaving with shoppers. 城市拥挤着熙熙攘攘的购物者。 frantic: a. extremely hurried and using a lot of energy but not very organized 紧张忙乱的,匆 忙的 There was a frantic rush to get everything ready for the unexpected inspection from the superiors. 为了准备迎接上级的突然检查, 出现了一片紧张的忙乱。 He made a frantic last-minute search for the lost key. 他紧张万分地最后找一遍丢失的钥匙。 8. …the buildings are a mixture of ancient and modern, every surface illuminated with Chinese characters; sweepers in straw hats keep the streets clean. (Para. 3) Ancient buildings, as well as modern ones, are decorated with shining Chinese characters. There are sweepers in straw hats cleaning the streets. Note: This sentence applies “absolute constructions”. An “absolute constructions” is commonly separated from the main clause by a comma. “Absolute constructions” can be used as adverbials of accompanying circumstances, time, cause, condition, as well as manner. “Absolute constructions” are commonly used in formal literary language as a sort of rhetorical device which helps to achieve concision in wording and vividness in description. The manager sat quietly in the office, his eyes closed. 经理静静地坐在办公室里, 眼睛闭着。 His homework done, Jim decided to go and watch the match. 他的家庭作业做完了,吉姆决定去看比赛。 Her shirt caught on a nail, she could not move. 她的衬衫被钉子钩住了, 她无法移动。 Weather permitting, the cricket match will take place on Wednesday. 天气允许的话,板球比赛将在星期三举行。 illuminate: vt. 1) decorate something by putting shining bright lights on it 用灯装饰 (建筑物等) illuminate a Christmas tree with little lights 用小灯泡装饰圣诞树 The streets were illuminated for the celebration. 街道灯火通明以示庆祝。 2) make a place bright with light, or to shine a light on something 照明;照亮 Her face was dimly illuminated by the reading lamp beside her. 她的脸庞被身旁的台灯微微照亮。 Even though it was Christmas Eve, no streetlights illuminated the street. 虽然是圣诞前夜,街道上的路灯却都没有点亮。 3) make something clear and easier to understand 阐明(主题等) This is a point which may illuminate other elements.

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这是可以用来阐明其他元素的一点。 His comments can illuminate aspects of a writer’s work unforgettably. 他的评述能阐明作者作品的各个方面,令人难忘。 Their doctrine illuminates much that might seem obscure in the Muslim teaching. 他们的学说把伊斯兰教教义中许多看来难以理解的地方解释得很清楚。 9. humid (Para. 4): a. hot and wet in a way that makes you feel uncomfortable 闷热潮湿的 humid jungles 湿热的丛林 It was a hot sunny day, but it was so humid that my clothes were sticking to me. 这是个炎热的晴日,但天气太潮湿,我的衣服都粘在了身上。 10. massage (Para. 4): n. [C/U] action of pressing and rubbing someone’s body with your hands, to help them relax, to relieve stiffness, cure strains or to reduce pain in their muscles or joints 按摩,推拿 My legs ache so I will not last without a massage. 我的腿疼得要命,非得推拿不可。 She gave me a wonderfully relaxing massage. 她给我作了推拿,使我浑身轻松。 vt. press and rub someone’s body with your hands, to help them relax or to reduce pain in their muscles 给??按摩,给??推拿 Spread the cream evenly over your arms and massage it into the skin. 将乳膏均匀地涂在两只胳膊上面,然后按摩使其渗入皮肤。 I’ve got a dreadful ache in my neck. Would you mind massaging it for me? 我的脖子很疼,你能帮我按摩一下吗? 11. The treatment works wonders; two hours later, we are fully energetic again, ready to discover Beijing. (Para. 4) The Chinese massage has a very good effect and two hours later, we are completely refreshed and well-prepared to explore Beijing. work wonders: have a very good effect on someone or something 创造奇迹; 产生奇妙的作 用 Fresh air and exercise work wonders for health and fitness. 新鲜空气和锻炼对保持身体健康能产生奇妙的作用。 A long hot shower worked wonders on my tired muscles. 洗个长时间的热水澡对我疲惫的肌肉很有好处。 Jessie has worked wonders with some of these kids. 杰西在其中的一些孩子身上创造了奇迹。 12. It’s an old city, even older than London, with a history that encompasses thousands of years of emperors, revolutions, and culture. (Para. 5) Beijing is an old city, even older than London. Its history includes thousands of years of emperors, revolutions and culture. encompass: vt. include a lot of people or things 构成,包括 The student debates will encompass a range of subjects. 学生辩论将涉及到许多主题。 The job encompasses a wide range of responsibilities. 这项工作涉及的职责范围很广。 The US proposed the creation of a free trade zone encompassing the entire Western

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hemisphere. 美国建议建立一个包括整个西半球在内的自由贸易区。 13. We British are used to thinking of ourselves as an ancient race, but when our ancestors were still living in mud huts, China already had poetry, silk, gunpowder, sophisticated literature and philosophy. (Para. 5) We British people tend to think our nation is an old one, but actually at the time our ancestors were still living a primitive life in mud huts, Chinese people already lived in a civilized world, with poetry, silk, gunpowder, rich, profound and complicated literature as well as philosophy. sophisticated: a. 1) if a way of thinking, a system or a machine is sophisticated, it is complicated or made with great skill 深奥微妙的,精制的,复杂的,尖端的 a subtle and sophisticated style 精微奥妙的文笔 The painting is psychologically sophisticated. 那幅画在心理刻画上不落俗套。 2) confident and having a lot of experience of life and good judgment about socially important things such as art, fashion, etc. 老于世故的;有判断力的;有鉴赏力的 Consumers are getting more sophisticated and more demanding. 消费者变得越来越老到,要求越来越高。 Her witting conversation showed her to be very sophisticated. 她妙趣横生的谈话显示了她是个精于世故的人。 philosophy:?n. 1) [U] the study of the nature and meaning of existence, truth, good and evil, etc. 哲学 an expert on Western philosophy 西方哲学专家 Meaning relates to virtually every branch of philosophy. 意义几乎关涉哲学的所有分支学科。 2) [C] set of beliefs or an outlook on life that is a guiding principle for behaviour 人生哲学; 生活的信念或原则 a person without philosophy of life 没有生活信念的人 Don’t expect anything and you won’t be disappointed, that’s my philosophy. 不抱希望也就不会失望,这就是我的人生哲学。 14. Our first stop is the Forbidden City, where the emperor and his family once lived in luxury, and where millions of Chinese tourists now come every year to see this relic of their imperial past. (Para. 6) Our first scenic spot is the Forbidden City, where the emperor and his royal family used to live in privileged comfort, now millions of Chinese tourists come every year to visit it and to feel its splendid and awesome past. luxury:?n. 1) [U] great comfort, esp. as provided by expensive and beautiful things, or something which is pleasant to have but is not necessary 奢华,奢侈 They led a life of luxury, in a huge house in the country. 他们在乡村的一所大宅子里过着奢华的生活。 In this society, a few enjoy luxury while others endure grinding poverty. 在这个社会里,少数人享受着奢华而其他人则忍受着贫困的折磨。 2) [C] thing that is expensive and enjoyable but not essential 奢侈品

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We can not afford luxuries like piano lessons any more. 我们再也负担不起像钢琴课这样的奢侈花费了。 She likes to have a few luxuries like fresh flowers. 她喜欢有一些像鲜花这样的奢侈品。 relic: n. [C] 1) old object or custom that reminds people of the past 遗物,遗迹 Obelisks are among the least-understood relics of ancient Egypt. 方尖塔是最不为人们所了解的埃及遗迹之一。 These documentary films serve as poignant relics and silent witness of the appalling carnage. 这些记录片是令人震惊的大屠杀惨案的令人痛心的遗物和无声的见证。 2) something such as a system or rule that remains from an earlier time or situation (旧体制 或规定的)遗留物 The relics of the past were being swept away. 往昔的遗风一扫而光。 The ban on fundraising activities is a relic from the previous administration. 有关募捐活动的禁令是前任政府的遗留物。 15. What strikes us most are the bright colors: the red, blue, green and gold of the pagoda buildings with their elaborate roofs and dragon tiles. (Para. 7) What impresses us most are the bright colors: the red, blue, green and gold of the pagoda buildings. The roofs were delicately built and tiles are in the shape of dragons. strike: vt. 1) cause someone to have a feeling or idea about something 打动,给??以印象 Doesn’t it strike you as rather odd that he never talks about his family? 他从不谈论他的家庭,对此你不感到奇怪吗? It struck me as a little bit odd that she was always alone. 让我觉得有点古怪的是她总是孤零零一个人。 There was an air of grandeur in the building, that struck you with awe. 那座大厦有一种宏伟的气派,使人望之肃然起敬。 2) if a thought, idea, fact, etc. strikes you, you think of it, notice it, or realize that it is important, interesting, surprising, bad, etc. 使(某人)意识到;使(某人)突然产生某 种想法 The first thing that struck me about Alex was his amazing self-confidence. 关于亚历克斯,我首先想到的是他惊人的自信。 It struck us how ill he was looking these days. 我们突然意识到他这些日子看起来多么憔悴。 elaborate: a. very detailed and complicated 复杂的;详尽的 The actresses, dressed in elaborate costumes, attracted many people’s attention. 女演员们身着精致的服装,吸引了许多人的目光。 You want a plain blouse to go with that skirt — nothing too elaborate. 你需要一件样式简单的衬衫配那条裙子——样式太复杂的不行。 vi. give more details or information about something 详尽说明 The police refused to elaborate on the circumstances of the arrest.

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警察拒绝详细说明逮捕的情况。 Introduce your main points to begin with and elaborate on them later in the essay. 开头先介绍你的主要观点,然后再在文中详细阐述。 16. Color is no longer a forbidden luxury. (Para. 7) Color is not something exclusively enjoyed by the rulers. 17. Thirty years ago, China was predominantly blue. (Para. 7) Thirty years ago, Chinese people mainly wore blue. 18. varied (Para. 8): consisting of or including many different kinds of things or people, esp. in a way that seems interesting 各种各样的;形形色色的(尤指显得很有趣) The choir has a varied programme of concerts throughout the year. 合唱队有一个全年举行各种各样音乐会的计划。 The opportunities the job offers are many and varied. 这份工作可以提供多种多样的机会。 19. missing (Para. 8): that cannot be found; not in the proper or expected place; lost 找不到的, 丢失的 The burglars are in prison now but the jewellery’s still missing. 盗匪现在在监狱里,但是珠宝仍下落不明。 If your bike was stolen last week, why haven’t you reported missing until now? 如果你的自行车是上周被偷的,为什么你知道现在才报失呢? 20. I can’t help thinking that the “real” China has vanished beneath the less appealing trappings of the Western world — the branches of KFC everywhere, Western dress…(Para. 8) I have good reasons for thinking that the “real” China has disappeared beneath the less attractive aspects of the Western world — the branches of KFC everywhere, Western clothing... vanish: vi. 1) disappear suddenly, esp. in a way that cannot easily be explained (尤指不可思议地)突 然不见;消失 Before she could scream, the man had vanished into the night. 她还未来得及叫喊,那人就已突然消失在夜幕中。 The policeman in plain clothes rushed out of the bus station in hot pursuit, but the thief had vanished into thin air. 便衣警察冲出车站,穷追不舍,但小偷居然消失得无影无踪。 2) stop existing, esp. suddenly 不复存在;突然灭绝 Humanitarian ideals seem to have totally vanished. 人道主义的理想似乎已经完全绝迹。 The old Ottoman building on the Hebron road is a distant reminder of a vanished empire. 希伯伦市街上古老的奥斯曼建筑让人隐隐约约地想起一个消亡已久的帝国。 trappings: n. (pl.) all the things that are part of or are typical of a particular job, situation or event (有典型性)装饰 a white elephant complete with exotic trappings 一头全身披挂着富有异国情调的装饰品的白象 He enjoyed the trappings of power, such as a chauffeur-driven car and bodyguard. 他喜欢讲究权势的排场,例如雇有司机的汽车和保镖。

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21. But out of the city, on our way to the Great Wall, we begin to recognize the China of our imagination. (Para. 9) But when we get out of the city on the way to the Great Wall, what we see begins to match what we have imagined. 22. The countryside alone is worth the two-hour drive out of Beijing, and although we have seen it in postcards, we are quite unprepared for the Great Wall. (Para. 9) It takes two hours to drive out of Beijing, and the beautiful scenery in the countryside along the way gives a satisfactory and rewarding return for it. Although we have seen the Great Wall in postcards, its beauty and magnificence is still beyond our expectations. unprepared: a. not ready for something, therefore surprised or at a disadvantage when something happens 无准备的 I was unprepared for the surprising birthday gift he prepared for me. 我对他给我准备的令人惊喜的生日礼物没有任何准备。 I was totally unprepared for the challenge which faced me. 我对面前的挑战毫无准备。 23. So many famous landmarks disappoint. The Great Wall of China is not one of these. (Para. 10) There are a lot of well-known historic spots which let people down, but the Great Wall of China doesn’t belong to this group. landmark: n. 1) [C] building or place that is very important because of its history, and that should be preserved 有历史意义的建筑物(或遗址) Many historic landmarks in this area are closed to mass tourism. 这一地区的很多历史性建筑没有向大众旅游开放。 The boat ride on the Moscow River past the Kremlin and other historic landmarks takes two hours. 莫斯科河上的游览经过克里姆林宫和其他历史性建筑,历时两小时。 2) [U] event marking an important stage of development or a turning point in history 里程 碑;事物发展过程中重要阶段的事件或历史的转折点 The invention of the silicon chip is a landmark in the history of the computer. 硅片的发明是电脑历史上的里程碑。 In a landmark case, the Governor has pardoned a woman convicted of killing her husband, who had physically abused. 在这个具有历史意义的案例中,州长赦免了一个妇女,她被确认杀死了虐待她的丈 夫。 disappoint: v. fail to satisfy (someone or their hopes, expectations, etc.)(使)失望 The view from the top of the mountain did not disappoint — it was spectacular. 从山顶上看到的景致没有叫人失望——那是一派壮观。 I’m sorry to disappoint you, but I’m afraid I can’t come after all. 很抱歉使你失望,我恐怕是终究来不了了。 24. No photograph can do justice to its beauty, size and detail; the sense of wonder and age that lingers in the old stones. (Para. 10) None of the photographs can completely and vividly show the brilliance of the Great Wall, including its beauty, size and detail. They also fail to convey the sensations attached to the

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aged stones, the sensation of admiration and the feeling of passing time. do justice to: 1) show and emphasize all the good qualities of someone or something 展示(或强调)某人/ 某物的所有优良品质 The crowd’s applause did justice to the acrobat’s performance. 杂技演员的表演非常精彩,观众们鼓掌叫绝。 The photograph does not do full justice to the rich colours of the gardens. 这张照片没有真实地反映出花园的丰富色彩。 2) treat adequately, fairly, or with full appreciation 适当地、公平地对待,充分地评判 After hearing this story we all conclude that nothing can do justice to maternal love. 听了这个故事后,我们都总结到没有什么可以与母爱相提并论。 The subject is so complex that I cannot do justice to it in a brief survey. 这个主题太复杂,我无法只通过简略的研究就对它做出公正的评价。 25. The view from the top is exhilarating; the mountains straight from a Dai Jin print; the plate-sized butterflies; the rampant dragon shape, stretching out into the haze. (Para. 10) The scenery from the top is exciting and brilliant. The mountains look like that they came directly out of a Dai Jin painting; there are huge butterflies, the size of plates; the Great Wall, zigzaggs like a dragon, fading into the mist. exhilarating: a. making you feel happy, excited, and full of energy 使人高兴的,令人兴奋 的 an exhilarating walk on the cliffs 令人兴奋激动的悬崖散步 We came back from an exhilarating walk in the mountains. 我们在山地作了令人愉快的散步后归来。 rampant: a. (of plants) growing, spreading, or continuing to exist in an uncontrolled way (植 物)过于繁茂的,蔓延的 rampant garden weeds 繁芜的园中杂草 The vines ran rampant over the fence. 蔓草繁茂地爬在篱笆上。 haze: n. 1) [C/U] water, smoke, or dust in the air that makes it difficult to see clearly 薄雾;霾 There was an early-morning haze across the valley. 山谷里弥漫着晨雾。 The road shimmered in the heat haze. 路面在空气的热浪中微微闪烁。 A haze of dust hung over the field. 烟尘笼罩田野。 2) [C] situation or condition which makes it difficult for you to think clearly 迷糊;迷惑不解? She sat by herself in a haze of nostalgic bliss. 她独自坐在那儿,沉浸在一种怀旧的幸福之中。 He lived for most of the time in a haze of whisky. 他一生中大部分时间是在威士忌的懵懂醉意中度过的。 26. Like the Wall, we have seen them before in image form; but the reality is far more striking than any photograph. (Para. 11)

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Just like the Great Wall, we have seen them (terracotta warriors) before in pictures, but the real sites are much more attractive than any photograph. 27. formation(Para. 11): n. 1) [C/U] way in which a moving group of people or things is organized into a particular shape or pattern 队形,编队 marching in close formation 排着密集的队形行进 The soldiers broke into a run, keeping formation. 士兵们突然跑起来,并保持着队形。 2) [U] process during which something develops or is created 形成;组成;构成 factors that affect the formation of children’s personalities 影响儿童性格形成的因素 The first sign of the disease is the formation of blisters on the skin. 这种病的最初征兆是皮肤上形成水泡。 28. The scale is weird — more so when we realize that this is only a fraction of what was buried here; the rest, like the Qin tomb, with its mysterious hoard, is still awaiting excavation. (Para. 11) The size seems unusual and strange and we feel even more shocked and surprised when we realize that this is only a small part of what was buried here. The remaining part, like the Qin tomb, with its hidden collection of treasures, is still waiting to be dug up. weird: a. something that is weird seems strange and peculiar, usu. because you have not seen or experienced it before 有非常奇异的或不寻常的性质的 The time I spent with him had had a weird effect on me. 我和他在一起度过的那段时光,曾对我产生过一种奇特的影响。 He was sitting alone by a window with a weird contraption on the bench in front of him. 他一个人坐在窗口,面前的板凳上放着一个奇怪的玩意儿。 There is nothing to rival the weird and wonderful things that come out on the streets at carnival time. 狂欢节时街道上出现的奇妙怪诞的东西是无可比拟的。 fraction: n. [C] small part, piece, bit, amount, or proportion (of something) (某物的)小部 分,一点儿,少许,片断,(某物的)小部分 His shares are now worth a fraction of their former value. 他的股票现在只值先前价值的一小部分。 Only a fraction of my friends have video recorder. 我的朋友中只一小部分人有录像机。 The car stopped within a fraction of an inch of the wall. 汽车在离墙不到一英寸的地方停住了。 Although sexual and violent crimes have increased by 10%, they remain only a tiny fraction of the total number of crimes committed each year. 虽然性和暴力犯罪增长了 10%,但相对于每年犯罪总数而言那还是个很小的数字。 hoard: n. [C] collection of things that someone keeps hidden, esp. so that they can be used later 贮藏物, 囤积物 a miser’s hoard 守财奴储藏的财宝 In the kitchen we found a huge hoard of tinned food. 我们在厨房里发现了很多贮藏的罐头食品。 The electronics company is estimated to have a cash hoard worth $13.4 billion.

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估计这家电子公司集聚了价值 134 亿美元的现金。 await: vt. be ready or waiting for (somebody / something) 准备以待, 期待(某人/某事物) He is anxiously awaiting the result of the medical tests. 他焦急地等待着体检的结果。 A lot of hard work awaits you at university. 许多艰苦的工作正在大学里等着你呢。 excavation: n. [C/U] activity of digging in the ground to look for old buildings or objects that have been buried for a long time (对古物的)发掘,挖掘 The excavation of the site is likely to take several years. 这个地点的挖掘可能要花几年的功夫。 She has taken part in several excavations of Roman settlements across Europe. 她参加过在欧洲各地进行的罗马人定居地的数起发掘工作。 29. Anxiety regarding the damage already done by the climate to the terracotta figures has halted the work — and they mean to wait, for decades if required, until they are sure that the relics can be preserved intact. (Para. 11) Worrying about the damage already done to the terracotta figures by the climate has stopped the work. If necessary, they plan to wait for years, until they are certain that the historic remains can be saved from being harmed or destroyed. regarding: prep. concerning somebody or something 有关; 至于 EU regulations regarding the labelling of food 欧盟有关食品标签的规定 They backed down from their previous position regarding price. 他们不再坚持原来对价格的意见。 halt: v. 1) if you halt something or it halts, it does not continue or develop any further (使某人/某物) 暂停 The search halted overnight, then resumed early Thursday morning. 搜寻工作停了一夜,星期四一早又重新开始。 The strike halted all international train traffic through Hungary. 罢工使所有途经匈牙利的国际铁路都中断了。 2) stop moving, or stop a person or vehicle from moving (使)停止前进;停下 The door was open, and she halted on the threshold. 门开了,她在门口停住了。 Security forces halted the demonstrators by blocking the road. 安全部队用封路来使示威者停止前进。 n. (sing.) act of stopping the movement or progress of somebody or something 停顿 The workers are blaming the new computer system for the halt in production. 工人们责怪新的计算机系统使生产停顿。 The bus came to a halt just in time to avoid hitting the wall. 这辆公共汽车刚好及时地刹了车,避免了撞上墙。 preserve: vt. 1) take care of a place or building in order to prevent it from being harmed or destroyed 保护, 维护,保养(某场所或建筑物) a beautifully preserved fresco 维护得很好的壁画 The society works to preserve the district’s historic buildings.

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协会致力于保护该地区的历史建筑。 2) maintain (a thing) in its existing state 使(某物)维持现状 It’s important that these traditions are preserved. 重要的是要保留这些传统。 Our goal is to preserve the dignity and independence of our patients. 我们的目标是保持病人的尊严和独立性。 intact: a. 1) not harmed, damaged, or lacking any parts as a result of something that has happened 无损 伤的;完整无缺的 This great Victorian house will be preserved intact and opened to the public. 这座宏伟的维多利亚式建筑将会被完好地保存下来并向公众开放。 In many crashes, the passenger cabin remained intact and the plane did not catch on fire. 许多失事的飞机客舱并未受损,飞机也未着火。 2) untouched 未经触动的 a box recovered from an accident with its contents intact 从事故中抢救出来的箱子, 里面的东西完好无损 Only the highest tower had remained intact. 只有最高的那座塔完好无损。 30. “In heaven there is paradise, on earth there is Hangzhou,” goes the proverb, and I’m inclined to believe that this is true. (Para. 12) There is a proverb in Chinese meaning that Hangzhou is like paradise on earth, and I like to believe that it is the truth. proverb: short well-known statement that contains advice about life in general 谚语,格言 The proverb “A fall in the pit, a gain in your wit” is quite meaningful. 谚语“吃一堑,长一智”是十分有意义的。 “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket” is a proverb. “不要把你所有的鸡蛋放在一个篮子里(切忌孤注一掷)”是一句谚语。 31. view (Para. 12): vt. 1) look at something, esp. because you are interested (尤指出于兴趣)看,查看,观察 There is a special area at the airport where you can view aircraft taking off and landing. 机场有一个特殊区域,你可以观看飞机起飞和降落。 The extent of the flooding can only be fully appreciated when viewed from the air. 洪灾的范围只有从空中俯视才能完全看到。 2) form a mental impression or opinion of; consider 看待;考虑;估量 She is viewed as a strong candidate for the job. 她被认为是那份工作强有力的人选。 If we view the problem from a different angle, a solution may become more obvious. 假如我们从另一个角度看这个问题,或许会更容易找到解决办法。 32. leg (Para. 13): n. [C] part of a long trip, race, process, etc. that is done one part at a time (长 途旅程、赛程、过程等的)一段 The last leg of the race was Paris to London. 赛车的最后一段赛程是从巴黎到伦敦。 The airman has accomplished the second leg of his round-the-world trip. 空军士兵已经完成了他环球旅行的第二段旅程。

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33. Anouchka, who has never seen New York, has no point of reference; to her it is a magical place of skyscrapers and bright lights. (Para. 13) Anouchka has never seen New York (which also has lots of or even more skyscrapers and bright lights), so she is unable to draw a comparison between these two cities. Therefore, to her Shanghai is a fantastic place of high-rise buildings and bright lights. reference: n. [C/U] 1) process of looking at something in order to get information 参阅;查阅 The sentences are numbered for ease of reference. 这些句子都标出了号码以方便查阅。 It may be explicable by reference to central features of recent political philosophy. 参考近来的政治哲学主要特征,就有可能解释它了。 2) comment that mentions something or someone 提及;谈到 The title is apparently a reference to the singer’s brother. 标题很明显地提到了歌手的哥哥。 Her speech contained only a passing reference to tax reform. 她的讲话只捎带提到了税制改革。 point of reference (reference point): idea, fact, event, etc. that helps you understand or make a judgment about a situation (帮助理解某一情形或对其作出判断的)参照点,基 准点 His case will be the reference point for lawyers in tomorrow’s trial. 他的案子将成为律师们在明天审判当中的参考。 Surrounded by history on all sides, this empty island alone is free from every reference. 查遍各方面的历史记载,只有这座无人岛查不着。 magical: a. full of a mysterious quality that is enjoyable or attractive 神奇的;迷人的 we walked home hand in hand through the magical moonlight. 在那个美妙的月夜,我们手牵手地步行回家。 The journey had lost all its magical inspiring quality. 这次旅行已经丧失了它启迪灵感的全部魅力。 34. complacency (Para. 13): n. [U] feeling of calm satisfaction with your own abilities or situation that prevents you from trying harder 自满;自鸣得意 There is no room for complacency if we want to stay in this competition. 我们想要在竞争中立足的话,就不能自满。 Doctors have warned against complacency in fighting common diseases. 医生们已经警告在治疗常见病时不要自满。 What annoys me about these girls is their complacency — they seem to have no desire to expand their horizons. 姑娘们的自满情绪真是令我生气——她们似乎根本没有扩展知识面的欲望。 35. The people are as sharply dressed as anyone in Paris or Milan. (Para. 13) People wear just as fashionable clothes as anyone in Paris or Milan. sharply: ad. 1) in a fashionable way 时髦地 This jacket was designed sharply. 这件外套设计得很时髦。 The hotel bar was full of sharply dressed business executives.

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饭店酒吧挤满了衣着时髦的商界经理。 2) in a way that clearly shows the differences between two things 鲜明地;明显地 Their experiences contrast sharply with those of other children. 他们的经历和其他孩子的经历形成鲜明的对比。 Men contrasted sharply with women on the issues they considered important. 男人和女人对什么是重要问题的看法迥然不同。 36. ... its restaurant, Jade on 36, has a New York designer, a French cook and a view that angels would fight over — at least until the food arrived, and having tasted it, I know that for my last meal on earth, nothing but Jade’s Short Pink Menu will suffice. (Para. 13) Shangri-La hotel has a restaurant named Jade on the 36th floor. The restaurant is designed by a New York designer and has a cook from France. The view from the restaurant is so wonderful that I suppose even angels wouldn’t stop fighting for it until the food arrived. As for me, having tasted the food, I know that I want to have nothing but the food on Jade’s Short Pink Menu as my last meal on earth. nothing but: only 只有;只不过 The retired man has nothing but praise for the kind managers at his company. 这个退休的人对他公司的善良的经理有的只是称赞。 He is nothing but a criminal who has stayed in prison most of his life. 他只不过是个在监狱中度过了大部分时光的罪犯。 suffice: vi. (fml.) be enough 足够 I am not sending a gift — I think a card will suffice. 我不准备送礼物,我想一张贺卡就足够了。 I’m taking four hundred pounds’ worth of travelers’ cheques — I think that should suffice. 我带了价值400英镑的旅行支票——我想应该够了。 37. maze (Para. 14): n. (sing.) set of many small streets , paths, etc. that is easy to get lost in 纵 横交错的小街(或小道等) There’s a positive maze of streets behind the hotel. 在这家客栈背后,那一条条的街真叫人晕头转向。 The old part of the town was a maze of narrow passages between whitewashed buildings. 城镇的旧区尽是狭窄曲折的小道,两旁是石灰水刷砌的房子。 38. fragrant (Para. 14): a. something that is fragrant has a pleasant, sweet smell 有香味的, 芳香 的,芬芳的 The sauce itself was light, fragrant and slightly sweet. 果酱本身清淡、芳香,而且有点甜。 Many species of lily are prized for their beautiful and often fragrant flowers. 许多种百合因其美丽芬芳的花朵而倍受珍视。 39. irrepressible (Para. 15): a.(of feelings, etc.) that cannot be held back or controlled 不能抑 制的,不能控制的 irrepressible good spirits 按捺不住的好心情 a display of irrepressible enthusiasm 抑制不住的热情流露

PART III Reading Skills
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Separating Fact from Opinion
The difference between fact and opinion is not always clear, but some general rules can help you distinguish between them. 1. General statements that can be checked (confirmed) online or in a reference book) about past or present events are usually facts; statements about the future are opinions, since the future is always uncertain. 2. Statements that include the modals may, might, or could, or qualifiers such as perhaps, maybe , possibly, or probably are opinions. 3. Statements based on evidence(research, case studies, experiments, questionnaires) need to be evaluated. If they are based on one person’s research, they should be considered opinions. If they are based on a great deal of research and if most experts agree, then they can be considered facts. 4. The line between fact and opinion is sometimes open to discussion. Time, place, and culture influence these limits for all societies. We know that at one time it was considered a fact to say the earth was flat. Today, we say that the earth is round. Is it really round? Well, it is somewhat round, and certainly it is more round than flat. Now let’s look at the following three sentences: Earth is a planet where animals and plants can live. Earth is the third planet from the Sun. Earth is the most beautiful planet Among the three sentences, that “Earth is the most beautiful planet” is an opinion. It is true that animals and plants live on Earth, the third planet from the sun. The first and the second sentences are facts, or something that is a certainty. Here is another example. Look at the following three sentences: In America the traffic laws are too strict. In America a red traffic light means STOP. In America the biggest cars are the safest cars. Which one of these sentences does not change from person to person, or place to place? In America, no matter which of the fifty states you drive in, a red traffic light means STOP. The second sentence is a fact, or a certainty. The other two sentences are opinions. Some people believe that the traffic laws should be even more strict. Other people believe that the size of the car does not make it safe. They believe that the way a car is made and what it is made out of make it safe to drive, no matter how big or small it is. Answers to the exercise: Exercise 1 Passage 1 1. c. Mammoths use their tusks to scrape the snow off the ground. 2. a. people use Mammoth tusk ivory to make jewelry. Passage 2 1. O 2. F 3. F Exercise 2

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1. Fact.. The statement is a fact. You can easily verify it in any number of reference or history books. Moreover, there’s no attempt to evaluate the event, and the language used in the statement reveals nothing about the author’s feelings toward the event. 2. Opinion. The word "disgrace" pointedly tells readers how they should feel about the subject of homelessness in America, and feelings cannot be checked for accuracy. Once language brings emotions into the picture, we have begun to move away from the world of facts. 3.Fact. This statement can be easily verified in any number of reference or history books. In addition, the author’s language suggests no personal reaction to the event. Nor does the author try to affect the reader’s reactions. 4. Fact. This statement can be easily verified in any number of reference or history books. In addition, the author’s language suggests no personal reaction to the event. Nor does the author try to affect the reader’s reactions. 5. Blends of fact and opinion. It’s possible to verify that a turn-of-the-century hurricane left Galveston in ruins and thousands dead. That means this part of the statement can be classified as a fact. However, the author’s decision to label the newly-formed weather service "incompetent" is pure opinion. It cannot be verified. After all, there are bound to be people who would disagree with that position, particularly if they had relatives who were members of the weather service when the hurricane hit. 6. Blends of fact and opinion. While we can certainly verify whether or not Pierce offered to buy Cuba, we can never accurately determine if greed was his motive. Consequently, it’s safe to say that this statement blends fact and opinion. 7. Blends of fact and opinion. Much of the statement qualifies as a fact. We can verify, for example, the date of Vesey’s capture, who arrested him and why. But we can never satisfyingly document his brilliance. This is the part of the statement that reflects the author’s opinion of her subject and makes the statement a blend of fact and opinion. 8. Opinion. People are bound to remember and evaluate Rachel Carson from different personal perspectives. Those uninterested in ecology might not even know who she is, while those who favor the use of chemicals in agriculture might see her in a more negative light than the author of this statement does. Because any person’s attitude toward Rachel Carson and her legacy has to be affected by his or her background and training, we cannot call this statement, at least not as a whole, a fact. 9. Fact. This statement can be easily verified and the language makes no value judgments. In other words, it meets the main requirements of a fact.

PART IV Key to Exercises
I.
1. A 6. D 2. D 7. D 3. C 8. D 4. C 9. A 5. B 10. B

Vocabulary II.
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1. landmarks 6. appealing 11. ignorant

2. halt 7. image 12. work wonders

3. originate 8. do justice to 13. enhanced

4. reference 9. luxury

5. strike 10. illuminated

III.
1. encompass 5. touched down 2. vanish 6. out of reach 3. intact 7. missing 4. regarding 8. mysterious

IV.
1. fraction 5. unprepared 2. fragrant 6. veil 3. preserve 7. tourism 4. suffice 9. exotic

PART III Translation 中国——梦想中的国度
1 我还是个孩子的时候, 中国就深深地吸引了我。 我喜欢的每样东西好像都来自那里: 象棋、中国功夫、炒饭。然而真实的中国却是那样地遥不可及,对外旅游不开放,一层神 秘的面纱笼罩着它,这更增添了它异域风情的魅力。 三十年之后,神秘的面纱被揭开了。但是对很多人来说,中国仍然是个谜;以往的 印象或许会激起人们对它的向往,但是并不能向我们展现中国真正的风貌。真实的中国, 它到底是什么样子呢?在一个发生了如此翻天覆地的变化的国家里, 我们还能指望它保留 下什么呢? 在我们的“尝试之旅”中,我们去了四个很不一样的地方,从北京开始,到 上海结束。我女儿阿努什卡,今年十三岁。跟我一样,她喜欢所有中国的东西。她以前从 未到过如此遥远的地方旅游。 我对中国的印象主要来自电影以及世界各地的中国城。 女儿 对中国的了解则是源自于历史课和明信片:诸如万里长城、兵马俑等。 在北京一落地,我们既兴奋又有些许不安。我们俩对中国知之甚少,也不懂汉语。 幸运的是,导游的英文很棒。她开车穿过熙攘忙碌而又热闹非凡的市区,把我们送到了宾 馆。出租车、小轿车和自行车行驶在拥挤的马路上。古代建筑和现代建筑融合在一起,建 筑物表面随处可见熠熠发光的汉字招牌;头戴草帽的清洁工人把大街小巷清扫得干干净 净。 当时正好是八月中旬,天气炎热——气温高达 38 摄氏度(100 华氏度)——像土耳 其蒸汽浴似的闷热潮湿。到达有空调的香格里拉饭店之后,为了放松一下,我们先订了一 个中式按摩。放松效果非常明显。两个小时后,我们又感觉精神抖擞了,并跃跃欲试开始 北京的发现之旅。 北京是个古老的城市,甚至比伦敦更古老。几千年的历史长河中有朝代的更迭、革 命的浪潮,又有文化的变迁。我们英国人向来以古老的民族自居,事实上当我们的祖先还 住在小泥屋的时候,中国就已经有了诗歌、丝绸、火药及高深的文学作品和哲学理论了。 第一站是紫禁城。这里曾经是古代帝王和他的家族成员们享受奢华生活的地方。现 在,每年有数百万的中国游客来这里参观,瞻仰古代帝王们的生活遗迹。 给我们印象最深的是这里明亮的色彩:由红、蓝、绿和金色装点的塔楼,楼顶精雕

2

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6 7

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细刻,镶嵌着龙形瓦饰。颜色已经不再是禁用的奢侈品了。一千年前,只有皇帝才能穿黄 色的衣服;三十年前,中国最时兴的是蓝色;现在,一切都已经改变了。游客们(大部分 是中国人)的衣着亮丽,与过去的帝王们一样;而这些古代建筑物看上去也跟新建的时候 一样色彩鲜亮。 8 在接下来的两天里,我们游览了颐和园,那里有特别漂亮的湖泊。我们还去了天坛, 许多退休老人早起在那里锻炼:跳舞,打麻将,听音乐。我们看到了天安门广场;还去了 卖绸缎和茶叶的地方。但是我总觉得少了点儿什么。我无法打消自己的想法: “真正的” 中国不复存在了, 因为到处都是些没有什么吸引力的西方的东西——肯德基连锁店、 西式 的穿着打扮?? 9 但是出了市区,在去长城的路上,我们去看了我们想象中的中国。单单郊外的景色就 值得我们离开北京的这两个小时的旅程了。 虽然以前在明信片上见过长城, 可是等亲眼见 到它的时候,它还是大大超出了我们的想象。 10 许多的名胜都令人失望, 但是长城绝不在此之列。 任何照片都不能全面而真实地反映 出它的美丽和壮美; 也不能传达出千年古石中蕴含的那分神奇和岁月沧桑。 从最高处观望, 风景令人赞叹;长城犹如悬崖峭壁没入浓密的森林;连绵的山峦犹如明代戴进的山水画; 盘子大小的蝴蝶翩翩飞舞;城墙蜿蜒如巨龙,消逝在远处的薄雾中。 11 第二天,我们坐飞机去西安看那里的兵马俑。像长城一样,我们以前也只是见过它的 照片,但是实物比任何图片更吸引人。长长的坑中,成千上万的战士,形态各异,排成战 斗的队形。它的规模之大令人惊奇——特别是当我们意识到挖掘出的只是地下的一小部 分,我们更加惊叹不已。而那些尚未出土的部分,像秦始皇陵一样,里面究竟埋藏了什么 神秘的宝藏,仍有待挖掘。没有人知道那里会发现什么。但是中国人不会急于挖掘。气候 已经对兵马俑造成损坏,由此而产生的担心阻止了挖掘。他们打算等等再挖,如果需要的 话也许要等上几十年,目的就是确保遗物完好无损得以保存。 12 下一站我们飞往杭州。这个城市以丝绸、茶叶、灵隐寺、西湖上众多的岛屿和湖畔 的宝塔而闻名。俗话说“上有天堂,下有苏杭” ,我对此也深信不疑。就连这里的名字都 富有诗情画意:断桥残雪,花港观鱼??这里的生活节奏更轻松,我和阿努什卡享受着湖 边散步和湖上泛舟。 13 此行的最后一站是上海。这里太让人震惊了——也是欣喜!阿努什卡以前没去过纽 约,没有可对照的城市。所以在她看来这是一个充满摩天大楼和霓虹闪烁的神奇地方。我 倒觉得它很像一些美国的大城市, 但是却没有西方城市那样盛气凌人。 这里的一切都是崭 新的,看上去明亮整洁。人们的穿着打扮像任何一个巴黎人或米兰人一样,特别时髦。我 们入住的香格里拉大饭店,简直跟西方最豪华的大饭店不相上下。位于 36 层的翡翠餐厅 是来自纽约的设计师设计的, 这里还有法国厨师和美不胜收的窗外景色, 天使也会为之倾 倒一一至少是饭菜上来之前,尝了第一口,我就敢说,如果让我选择在这个世上的最后一 餐的话,只有翡翠餐厅粉色菜单上的菜才能满足我的心愿了。 14 河对岸的老上海,也同样迷人。最后一个晚上我们鼓起勇气独自外出。搭出租车走 进了位于豫园后面的曲曲折折的街道。在这儿,我们最后一次体验到了中国的传统风俗, 尽情地享受热闹的气氛,品尝各种味道香甜(和不太香的)的小吃。 15 我们计划有机会再到中国来旅游,以便更多地了解中国。中国精神的魅力真是无法 抵挡。

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Unit Six
Tourist Destinations

Section C
Cold Comfort in the Arctic
PART I Translation Techniques

Affirmative vs. Negation (2)
III. Some English words, with either affirmative or negative equivalents in Chinese
In English, some words can be translated with either affirmative or negative equivalents in Chinese. For example: “She carelessly glanced through the letter and then left.” In this sentence, the word “carelessly” means that the way or the manner when one does things without paying enough attention (不仔细地 in Chinese). If we translate literally, the Chinese version goes like this: “她不仔细地看了看那封信就走了”.Or, the sentence can also be rendered into an affirmative expression as such: “她马马虎虎地看了看那封信就走了”, which is more in conformity with the Chinese expression. The decision to use negative or affirmative expression will lie in the context of the original text. Any method that can help the translator to represent the original thought adequately is a better method. There are more examples: Example 1: Why don’t you ask your classmates for help? Negative: 你为什么不请同学帮忙呢? Affirmative: 还是请同学们帮忙吧。 Example 2: Nothing escapes our headmaster! Negative: 什么也逃不过我们校长的眼睛。 Affirmative: 我们校长真细心! Example 3: Few officials in the government do not have the degree of Master of Arts. Negative: 政府官员中几乎没有没硕士学位的 。 Affirmative: 政府官员中几乎人人都有硕士学位。 Example 4:The film “Kung Fu Dunk” will be shown in no time. Negative: 电影《大灌篮》不久就要上映了。 Affirmative: 电影《大灌篮》马上就要上映了。 Example 5: My boss has always been confronted with no end of trouble. Negative: 我的老板一直麻烦不断。 Affirmative: 我的老板一直面临着好多麻烦。 Example 6: Optimism doesn’t need to be naive. You can be an optimist and still recognize that problems exist and that some of them are not dealt with easily. Negative: 乐观并不意味着幼稚。在保持乐观的同时,你仍然可以意识到问题的 存在,意识到有些问题不好解决。 Affirmative: 乐观并不意味着幼稚。 在保持乐观的同时, 你仍然可以意识到问题

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的存在,意识到有些问题非常棘手。

IV. Double negative for emphasis

强调性的双重否定

In English, double negative expressions are often used for emphasis. When translated into Chinese, the technique of negation (affirmative in Chinese) can be employed or the double negative form be kept. Example 1: It is not impossible to learn two foreign languages at the same time. 同时学习两门外语是完全可能的。 同时学习两门外语不是不可能的。 Example 2: A student cannot obtain knowledge without studying hard. 学生只有努力学习才能获得知识。 学生不努力学习就不能获得知识。 Example 3: There is no one in the West who doesn’t know the Bible. 在西方人人都知道《圣经》这本书的。 在西方没有人不知道《圣经》这本书的。 Example 4: Nothing can be wholly beautiful that is not useful. 只有有用的东西才能达到完美。 凡是没有用的东西都不可能达到完美。 Example 5: There are no problems in the production of such a domestic robot to which we do not have already the glimmering of a solution. 要生产这样的家用机器人存在着各种各样的问题, 而我们解决这些问题的可能均 已显端倪。 要生产这样的家用机器人还没有哪个问题是我们还没有希望解决的。

Key to Translation Techniques
Exercise
1. 我不记得今天早上带字典了。 我忘记今天早上带字典了。 2. 这世上没有这个孩子不感兴趣的事情。 这孩子对世间的任何事情都感兴趣。 3. 任何人如果不努力地学习,就不能取得明显的进步。 任何人只有努力地学习,才能取得明显的进步。 4. 对这个问题这两个政治组织之间一直政见不统一。 对这个问题这两个政治组织之间一直有着严重的分歧。 5. 外交部的官员机会没有人不会说一种外语的。 外交部的官员几乎人人都会说一种外语。 6. 我们不否认我们的改革中存在着困难。 我们承认我们的改革中存在着困难。 7. 学生不学习就不能获得知识,就像农民不耕种就不能收获一样。 学生只有学习才能获得知识,就像农民只有耕种才能收获一样。 8. 他没有一次看到这张照片而不想起二十年前去世的母亲。 他每次看到这张照片都会想起二十年前去世的母亲。 9. 没有哪种材料在力的作用下不多少有些变形的。

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各种材料在力的作用下都会有些变形。 10. 他弟弟病得很严重,没有人扶着就走不了路。 他弟弟病得很严重,得由人扶着才能走路。

PART II Key to Exercises
I.
1. N 2. Y 6. Y 7. NG 3. N 8. Y 4. N 5. N 9. Y 10. N

II.
1. We must plan our work in terms of the new situation and its needs. 2. In China, acupuncture dates back to ancient times. More and more people in the western world have come to believe in its therapy. 3. Before the storm came, they brought the boat into the harbor and dropped (the) anchor. 4. The mountain peak,enveloped in mist and clouds, formed a magnificent picture, like a scroll of Chinese landscape painting. 5. When night came, the captain steered the ship carefully between the rocks. 6. All the tourists were deeply attracted by the beautiful sunsets in the desert. 7. The wind was so big that the boat was thrown up and down on the water. 8. The job is interesting but low paid. At times I feel that I want to leave this job. 9. His comforting words helped to sustain me in my faith during those dark days. 10. It is reported that drinking is a principal cause of highway deaths.

PART III Translation 北极区冰冷的舒服感
1 我虽然不喜欢寒冷,却经常身处寒冷的环境。今年秋天当航行在格陵兰海上的时候, 我开始思索自己究竟到那里去做什么。 2 大概是一年前,慈善组织“费尔威尔角”的创始人兼经营者大卫·巴克兰问我是否想 和一些艺术家和科学家一起去格陵兰,因为对这个想法很感兴趣,我便接受了邀请。大卫是 职业艺术家,他在几年前成立了这个组织,那时他为我们人类对地球造成的伤害感到困扰, 并且也意识到几乎没有人打算对此做点什么。 并不是科学证据不确凿, 而是这个事实并没有 被世人所了解。 3 今年 9 月末, 我们 25 人从伦敦飞到斯瓦尔巴特群岛, 也就是在北纬 78 度的北极圈内。 我们在这片群岛不大的首府待了几个小时之后,又登上了 120 英尺长、1910 年造的一艘荷 兰船上。 4 那天晚上我们停泊在一个海湾里。第二天早上我们冒着严寒,顶着湿气,乘坐气垫船 分组上岸。科是我们的向导,他扛着猎枪为的是把北极熊吓跑。北极熊对于置身于新环境当 中、粗心大意的人们来说是一个很大的威胁。我们在海湾的入口下船,这里正好是冰川的尽

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头,景色优美,白、棕、黑、灰和蓝等几种色彩交织在一起。科告诉我们跟他 20 多年前第 一次来这里相比,冰川已经消融了几公里。 5 午后, 我们在海面上朝着格陵兰岛驶去, 大约保持在北纬 78 度一线上。 天空是灰色的, 我们看不见太阳,看不见星星,看不见满月,也看不见北极光。几天以来大家都在晕船。我 服了生姜和一些药, 但是根本就不起任何作用。 由于我在靠近船头的一个狭小船舱里的上铺 上,大海不但使我左右翻滚,还令我上下颠簸。有时,我甚至被抛到空中。只有床边的一块 木板保护我不会从床上掉下去。一天晚上,由于我们没有把船舱顶盖盖好,一个大浪袭来, 我们的毯子和床垫都湿透了。 6 浮冰不停地擦着破旧的铁船帮,在黑暗中,我们透过大雪仔细观察,防止撞到冰山上。 尽管大风肆虐,浮冰涌动,波涛汹涌,但无论什么时候我站在甲板上都有一种莫名的静谧的 感觉包围着我。我们有时依靠风向行驶,有时依靠指南针,当天空晴朗的时候我们依靠星星 判别方向, 但是所有这一切都增加了陌生感。 猎户座和熊星座的角度很陌生, 银河也是如此。 终于,灿烂的北极光从船的桅杆处出现了。 7 在海上航行大约 10 天之后,这比我们想象的时间要长得多,我们到达了格陵兰岛,但 这里并不是我们计划下船的地方。 我们无法拜访当地只有 500 人的聚居地, 因为积冰挡住了 我们。这些积冰沿着东海岸一直向南延伸,这对于每年这个时候来说是不同寻常的。在全球 变暖的情况下, 我们普通人会认为在某种程度上这可能是个好消息, 但专家指出这并非如此。 我们看到的冰是在遥远的北部断裂的, 是由来自东格陵兰岛的冷水流向南推过来的。 随着它 不断流入暖水流中,冰会慢慢融化。 8 北极地区的冰在融化,规模前所未有,速度也在加快,比先前预测的速度快得多。更 多的地面从可以反射热量的白色变成了吸收热量的蓝色或黑色。 我们释放到空气中的二氧化 碳导致了气温升高,而气温升高也在加速。 9 绕过积冰之后我们在斯科斯比镇南面的数个小海湾里停靠过。这里的一些地方已经有 几十年没有人来过了。有时,冰山在我们周围触手可及。有时一层薄冰在我们周围形成。这 是一个由水、冰、雪和岩石构成的世界,几乎没有北极动植物的痕迹。我们在警惕的向导的 陪伴下每天都能登陆几个小时。一天晚上,我甚至不小心落入水中,因为日落太美了,空气 中没有一丝风,这诱惑难以抗拒。 10 第二天早上一只北极熊和她的两个宝宝游过这个水湾。 我们从船上可以看到它们爬上 远处的海岸,朝着白色的高坡移去,这花了它们一个多小时的时间,然后那只个头小的熊远 远地落在了后面。 尽管沿途看到很多海鸟和海豚, 但几乎没有看到北极熊的主要食物——海 豹。 它们的栖息地发生了变化。 北极熊母子和这个星球上的许多其他居民一样将会面临一个 艰难的时期。 11 继续航行两天之后我们到达了冰岛北部,依依不舍地与这条船和船上热情的船员道 别。这时已经开始怀念这一切:午夜的观测、提神汤、海鸟的叫声、从结了冰的船帆上落下 碎冰雨。这个一切都令人陌生的小镇阿库雷里,这里的人、温室、街道、交通、移动电话信 号、酒吧、明信片,甚至印度餐馆的外卖,太令人感到惊奇了。 12 上岸很久之后我才会走路。 许多天来脚下的路好像一直在移动, 给人一种奇怪和不安 的感觉。所有的一切终于都过去了。但是当我想起船上为数不多的几个人,或者穿越荒芜的 东格陵兰岛寻找食物的那几只北极熊,或者想想他们的未来的时候,我觉得更加困惑不安。 显而易见我们必须做些什么, 而且要立即去做, 但是考虑到我们的看法不同和各自利益不同, 人类是否会及时采取任何行动还不得而知。

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