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高中英语语法之英语八大时态及练习题


一般现在时
1.表经常发生的事情、存在的动作或状态 eg She sings with the band Crazy Boy. 2.表内心活动感情等 eg I don't think you are right. 3.描述客观真理 eg Birds fly in the sky. 4.表预定的行为 eg The train leaves at 9.

[基本结构]一般现在时的基本结构
一般现在时除主语是第三人称单数时谓语动词要加 s 外,一律用动词原形。 例句: ① I go to school at 6 every morning. 每天早上我七点去上学。 ② Summer follows spring. 春天之后是夏天。 ③ The sun rises in the east. 太阳从东方升起。 ④ I learned that the earth goes around the sun when I was in primary school. 我在小学就学 过地球是围绕太阳转的。 ⑤ Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

[时态详解]一般现在时最详细解析
主要用于下面几情况: 1) 描述当前时间内经常出现、反复发生的动作或存在的状态。 在这种情景中, 句子常带有表示频率的时间状语: always , everyday , often , once a week (month , year , etc.) , sometimes , seldom , usually 等等,以表示句中的动作或状态 是习惯性的、经常性的。例如: ① They raise ducks as a sideline .他们以养鸭为副业。 ② She doesn't often write to her family, only once a month. 她不常给家里写信, 仅一月一封而已。 ③ I cycle to work every day .我每天骑自行车上班。 ④ It seldom rains here .这儿很少下雨。 2)仅为了描述状态、性质、特征、能力等等。 这里的目的是为了"描述现阶段的动作或状态", 其重点"不是强调动作发生的时 间、或进行的状态"。例如: ① He can speak five foreign languages .他能说五种外语。 ② That is a beautiful city .那是座美丽的城市。 ③ Changjiang River is one of the longest rivers in the world. 长江是世界上最长的 河流之一。 ④ She majors in music .她主修音乐。 ⑤ All my family love football .我全家人都喜欢足球。

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⑥ My sister is always ready to help others . 我妹妹总是乐于助人。 3) 陈述客观事实、客观真理。 顾名思义,客观的情况是"没有时间概念"的;也"不会在意动作进行的状态"。 例如: ① The sun rises in the east .日出东方。 ② The earth goes around the sun .地球绕着太阳转。 ③ Ten minus two is eight.十减二等于八。 ④ Light travels faster than sound .光的速度比声音的速度快。 ⑤ The United States lies by the west coast of the Pacific Ocean. 美国位于太平洋 西岸。 4) 根据英文语法规定,当主句的谓语动词是一般将来时,那么时间或条件状语从句的 谓语动词只能用一般现在时来表示将来要发生的动作。例如: ①I'll tell him the news when he comes back. 他回来时,我将告诉他这个消息 ②If you take the job , they will talk with you in greater details. ③如果你接受这份工作,他们将和你谈谈细节。 用于一般现在时的副词,除了上面提到的一些表示频率的以外,常见的还有:now, today , nowadays 等等。

[特殊用法]一般现在时表示过去
1. 用于某些动词(tell, say, hear, learn, gather 等)表示不确定的过去时间。如: ① I hear that he got married last month. 我听说他上个月结婚了。 ② Mary says you told her to come over here. 玛丽说是你让她到这儿来的。 2. 当要陈述一个客观事实时,有时即使有过去时间状语也可用一般现在时。如: ① The story is set in the summer of 1937. 故事的背景是 1937 年夏天。 ② The story begins in the year 1937. 故事开始于 1937 年。

一般过去时
1.表过去发生的事情或存在的状态 eg Suddenly,the clouds cleared and the rain stopped. 2.表过去经常发生的事情 eg I was very thin in my childhood. 3.带有确定的过去的时间状语 eg Did you meet yesterday? He left just now.

[基本结构]一般过去时的基本结构
? 一般过去时用动词的过去式构成,即在动词原形后加 ed。 例句: ① He was here just now. 他刚才还在这里。 ② What did you do yesterday? 你昨天做了什么事? ③ We often played together when we were children. 我们小时候常在一起玩。

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④ He used to smoke a lot, but he doesn’t now. 他过去经常抽烟,但现在不抽了。 ⑤ Whenever we were in trouble, he would help us. 每当我们遇到困难,他都会 帮助我们。 ⑥ At that time she was very good at English. 那时她英语学得很好。 ⑦ He said he would wait until they came back.

[时态详解]一般过去时最详细解析
主要是用来描述在过去某个时候发生的动作或存在的状态。它也可以用来表示在过 去某段时间里经常发生的习惯性动作。这一点在表达意义上与一般现在时相同,只是所 在的时间区域不同而已。由于它的主要作用如此,所以在使用一般过去时的句子里常常 有一个意义较具体的过去时间状语。这也是它与现在完成时的最大区别之一。 一般过去时由谓语动词的过去式表示, 也就是说动词词末要加-ed (除不规则动词外) 。 常和一般过去时连用的过去时间状语有:last night (week ,month , year , century , etc.) , yesterday , the day before yesterday , yesterday morning ( afternoon , evening ) , in 1999 , two hours ago ( one week ago , tree years ago , …)等等。 使用一般过去时, 在某种意义上说就是要强调动作或状态发生或存在于过去的某个 时候。 "过去"的时间概念有两层意思: 一是指"现在某个时间"以前的时间; 二是指"说话、 写文章的那个时间点"以前的时间,在这个意义上,"现在的那个时间点"是很小很小的, 甚至于小到无法量化的程度。例如: He got his driving license last month. 他上个月拿到了驾照。 --Where's Jim? 吉姆在哪里? --He just went out.他刚刚出去。

[特殊用法]一般过去时表示现在
(1) 在宾语从句中,由于时态呼应的关系,可用一般过去时表示现在: I didn’t know you were here. 我不知道你在这儿。(were 实际上指现在) I didn’t know you were so busy.我没想到你这么忙。(were 实际上指现在) (2) 表示客气委婉的现在: I wondered if you were free this evening. 不知您今晚是否有空。 I thought you might like some flowers. 我想您也许想要些花。 【注】能这样有的动词主要限于 want, wonder, think, hope, intend 等少数动词。 (3) 用于某些特殊结构中表示现在: It’s time we started. 我们该动身了。 I wish I knew his name. 要是我知道他的名字就好了。 I’d rather you lived closer to us. 我希望你能住得离我们近点。 【注】该用法主要用于 it’s time, I wish, I’d rather, if only, as if, as though 等少数 结构后接从句的情形,其中有些结构后面的句子还可用一般过去时表示将来: I’d rather you came next Monday. 我宁愿你下周星期一来。 另外表主观想法的虚拟条件句也用一般过去时表示现在: If I had the money now I’d buy a car. 假若我现在有钱,我就买辆小汽车。

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一般将来时
? 1 要在将来的某个时间内发生,是“纯粹的将来动作”。 eg I shall / will not be free tomorrow. ? 2.表说话人的意图、打算或某种可能性 eg Who is going to speak first? ? 3.按计划要发生的动作或命令他人做某事 eg The new bridge is to open to traffic in 3 days.

[基本结构]一般将来时的基本结构
? 由 will 加动词原形构成,当主语是第一人称时,也可以用 shall 加动词原形。 例如: Telephone me this evening. I’ll be at home. 今晚给我打电话,我会在家。 I’ll (shall/will) do a better job next time. 下次我要干得好些。 The car won’t start. 车开不了啦。 Oil and water will not mix. 油和水没法混在一起。

[时态详解]一般将来时最详细解析
? 主要用来描述将要发生的动作或存在于未来的情况。 这里所说的“将来时间”是指“说 话、写文章那一刻以后的时间”。它的表示方法主要有如下几种: ? 1)shall / will + 动词原形这种表示方法是说,动作在现在或目前还未发生,要在将 来的某个时间内发生;它没有主观性,是“纯粹的将来动作”。例如: I shall / will not be free tomorrow .我明天没空。 He will arrive here this evening .他今晚抵达这里。 ? 2) be( am / is / are ) + going +不定式 这种表示方法主要是说明 A)“说话人的意图、打算”;B)“某种可能性”。例 如: A) He is going to spend his holidays in London . 他打算在伦敦度假。 Who is going to speak first? 谁先发言? B) It is going to rain soon .马上要下雨了。 Is he going to collect any data for us? 他会帮我们收集资料吗? If you go to New Zealand, you are going to like the place. 如果你去新西兰,你会 喜欢上那个地方的。 ? 3) be( am / is / are ) + 不定式表示方法描述两钟情况: 按计划安排要发生的动作,这个动作发生的时间一般不会很远; 要求或命令 他人做某事。例如: A) The new bridge is to open to traffic in three days. 新桥三天后通车。 The factory is to go into production before National Day. 这家工厂国庆节前投产。 B) You are not to bring any mobile communication means into the exam-room . 任 何移动通讯工具都不得带入考场。 You are to stay home until your mother comes back. 你妈回来之前你不要出去。

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4) 用一般现在时或现在进行时(限于某些动词)表示按计划安排要发生的事。主要 强调“按计划安排要发生的事”。例如: Do you get off at the next stop? 你下一站下车吗? The plane takes off at 11:00 a.m. 那架飞机上午十一点起飞。 Mr. Reider is leaving for New York next week. 里德先生下周动身去纽约。

[特殊用法]表示将来的五种常用非时态方式
? 1、“be+不定式”:表示命令、安排、倾向或必须、义务等。如: She is to play Juliet. 她扮演朱丽叶。 You are to make the necessary changes. 你要做出必要的改变。 2. “be about to + 不定式”:表示即将发生的动作,有“即将”的意思,但不能和具体 的时间状语连用。如: The package is about to come unwrapped. 那个包快散开了。 3. “be going + 不定式”:表示按计划或安排打算去做某事,或表示有迹象表明要发 生某事。如: We are going to call her this evening. 我们打算今晚给她打电话。 My sister’s going to have a baby this summer. 我姐姐今年夏天要生孩子。 4. 用现在进行时表示将来:主要表示按规定或时间预计要发生的事。如: The students are leaving on Sunday. 学生们星期日出发。 We’re having a party next week. 我们下星期将开一个晚会。 5. 用一般现在时表示将来:表示按规定或时间预计要发生的事。如: We have a holiday tomorrow. 我们明天放假。 The train leaves at 10:04 this evening. 火车今晚 10:04 分开。

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现在进行时
? 1、说话、写文章的当刻正在发生的动作 eg They are having a football match. ? 2.现阶段一直在进行的动作 eg He is preparing for CET Band Six. ? 3.表示说话人的情感,如赞许、批评等 eg She is often doing well at school. ? 4.表示在近期按计划或安排要发生的动作 eg Are you staying here till next week?

[基本结构]现在进行时的基本结构
? 现在进行时由 am/is/are 加现在分词构成。 例句: They’re having a meeting. 他们在开会。 I’m studying at an evening school. 我在上夜校。 Mike is coming home on Thursday. 迈克星期四回来。 They’re having a party next week. 下星期他们将开一个晚会。

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You’re always interrupting me! 你老打断我的话!(抱怨) My father is always losing his car keys. 我爸老丢车钥匙。(不满) She’s always helping people. 她老是帮助别人。(赞扬)

[时态详解]现在进行时最详细解析
主要用来描述“说话、写文章的当刻”正在发生的动作,或是“现阶段”一直在进行的 动作。它适用于下面的情况: 1)“说话、写文章的当刻”正在发生的动作。例如: They are having a football match .他们正在赛足球。 She is writing her term paper. 她正在写学期论文。 Someone is asking for you on the phone. 有人找你听电话。 2)“现阶段”一直在进行的动作。这种情况并不是说某个动作在说话的那会儿 正在发生, 而是说某个动作在当前一段时间内一直在进行着, 或是重复地发生着。 例如: He is preparing for CET Band Six. 他在为大学英语六级考试作准备。 How are you getting along with your new job? 你那份新工作干得怎么样? 3)表示说话人的情感,如:赞许、批评;喜欢、厌恶等。这时的动作并不是 正在发生或进行,而是表示经常性,相当于“一般现在时”所描述的情况。例如: He is always thinking of others , not of himself .(表示赞许) 他总是为他人着想, 而不为自己。 She is often doing well at school. (表示满意)她在学校学习挺不错的。 Are you feeling better today? (表示亲切)你今天觉得好一些吗? One of my roommates is constantly leaving things about.(表示不满)我的一个室 友老是乱扔东西。 Some sellers are often knocking at our door and promoting their products to us .(表 示不喜欢) 有些推销员老是敲我家的门,向我们推销他们的产品。 4)表示在近期按计划或安排要发生的动作,用于这种情况仅限于少量的动词, 如: go , come , leave ,arrive , see , have , lunch( 吃午饭 ) , return, dine ( 进餐, 尤指晚餐 ) , work , sleep , stay , play , do , wear( 穿,戴 ) 等。例如: I'm dinning out with my friends this evening. 今晚我将和朋友在外面吃饭。 An American professor is giving a lecture this afternoon. 今天下午一位美国教授 要来作报告。 We are having a holiday next Wednesday. 下周三我们放假。 Are you staying here till next week? 你要在这儿呆到下星期吗?

[特殊用法]现在进行时表示将来
? 现在进行时表将来,主要表示按计划或安排要发生的动作: I’m leaving tomorrow. 我明天走。 They’re getting married next month. 他们下个月结婚。 现在进行时与一般现在时均可表示将来,区别是:用现在进行时表示将来,其计划 性较强,并往往暗示一种意图;而一般现在时表示将来,则其客观性较强,即通常 被视为客观事实,多指按时刻表或规定要发生的情况: I’m not going out this evening. 今晚我不准备出去。 What time does the train leave? 火车什么时候开?

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过去进行时
? 1、表示在过去某时刻正在进行的动作 eg At this moment yesterday, I was packing for camp. ? 2.用于故事的开头,交代故事发生的背景情况 eg One night, he was typing in his study . Suddenly , a man broke … ? 3.表示在过去的未来时间要发生的动作 eg We left there when it's getting dark.

[基本结构]过去进行时的基本结构

[时态详解]过去进行时最详细解析
? 主要表示在过去的某个时间点上正在发生、进行的动作。由于它的定义是表示在过 去的某个时间点上正在发生、进行的动作,所以,句子常带有一个表示“过去某个 时间点”的状语。这个状语可能是短语,词组,或是一个从句。也可能是通过上下 文来表达这层意思。过去进行时主要用于下面的情景中: ? 表示在过去某时刻正在进行的动作,例如: At this moment yesterday, I was packing for camp.昨天这个时候,我正在收拾东 西去露营。 When I came to see her last time, she was writing an article. 上次我来看她的时候, 她正在写一篇文章。 What were you doing at eight last night ? 昨晚八点钟你在做什么? ? 2)用于故事的开头,交代故事发生的背景情况。 过去进行时所描述的动作是“正在进行”,所以,在这种情景中用“过去进行时” 可以给读者一种“动感”,从而能使文章更加生动活泼。例如: One night, he was typing in his study . Suddenly , a man broke into his house and cut off the electricity … .一天晚上,他正在书房里打字。突然,一个人闯进屋来,切断了 电源…… ? 3)(仅限少数动词)表示在过去的未来时间要发生的动作。例如: When National Day was coming near , they began to make a plan for the holiday . 国庆节即将来临的时候,他们开始制订度假计划。 She told me that she was going to Hainan for her holiday. 她告诉我她将去海南度 假。 My friend said to me that he was lunching with one of his customers that day .我朋 友对我说,他今天要与他的一位客户一块儿吃午饭。 We left there when it's getting dark. 天快黑的时候,我们离开了那儿。

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[特殊用法]过去进行时表示现在
? 用过去进行时表示现在,主要是为了使语气委婉、客气。如: I was wondering if you could give me a lift. 我不知你能否让我搭一下车。 We were hoping you would stay with us. 我们很希望你能跟我们住在一起。 How much did you want to spend, sir? 先生,您打算花多少钱? 注: 一般过去时也有类似用法, 但比较而言, 用过去进行时显得更客气, 更不肯定。

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过去完成时
? 1、发生在“过去的过去” eg When I woke up, it had stopped raining. ? 2.与一个表示过去的时间状语连用 eg Peter had collected more than 300 Chinese stamps by the time he was ten. ? 3.在过去某时之前开始一直延续到这一时间 eg By the end of last year, he had worked in the factory for twenty years.

[基本结构]过去完成时的基本结构
? 由 had 加动词的过去分词构成。 例句: She said she had never been to Paris. 她说她从未去过巴黎。 When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 警察到达时, 小偷们早就跑了。 By the time he was twelve, Edison had begun to make a living by himself. 到了十 二岁那年,爱迪生开始自己谋生。

[时态详解]过去完成时最详细解析
? 一、过去完成时的概念与结构特点 概念:过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作, 即"过去的过去( past-in-the-past )"。 ----|-------------------------- |-------------------------------|----------------------------> 那时以前 那时 现在 ? 构成:过去完成时由"助动词 had + 过去分词"构成,其中 had 通用于各种人称。 They had already had breakfast before they arrived at the hotel. She had finished writing the composition by 10 :00 this morning. ? 二、过去完成时的判断依据 1. 由时间状语来判定 一般说来,各种时态都有特定的时间状语。与过去完成时连用的时间状语有: ( 1 ) by + 过去的时间点。 如: I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night. ( 2 ) by the end of + 过去的时间点。 如: We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term. ( 3 ) before + 过去的时间点。

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如: They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday. 2. 由"过去的过去"来判定。 过去完成时表示"过去的过去", 是指过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作, 即动作有先后关系,动作在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时。这种用法常出现 在: ( 1 )宾语从句中 当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的动作先于主句的动作时,从句要用 过去完成时。在 told, said, knew, heard, thought 等动词后的宾语从句。如: She said that she had seen the film before. ( 2 )状语从句中 在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中,主、从句的动作发生有先后关系, 动作在前的,要用过去完成时,动作在后的要用一般过去时。如: When I got to the station, the train had already left. After he had finished his homework, he went to bed. 注意: before, after 引导的时间状语从句中, 由于 before 和 after 本身已表达 了动作的先后关系, 若主、 从句表示的动作紧密相连, 则主、 从句都用一般过去时。 如: Where did you study before you came here? After he closed the door, he left the classroom. ( 3 )表示意向的动词,如 hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose 等, 用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…" We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 3. 根据上、下文来判定。 I met Wang Tao in the street yesterday. We hadn't seen each other since he went to Beijing. ? 三、过去完成时的主要用法 1. 过去完成时表示一个动作或状态在过去某一时间或动作之前已经完成或结 束,即发生在"过去的过去"。如: When I woke up, it had stopped raining. 我醒来时,雨已经停了。(主句的动作发生在"过去的过去") 2. 过去完成时是一个相对的时态,表示的是"过去的过去",只有和过去某一时 间或某一动作相比较时才使用它。如: He told me that he had written a new book. (had written 发生在 told 之前 ) 3. 过去完成时需要与一个表示过去的时间状语连用, 它不能离开过去时间而独 立存在。 此时多与 already , yet , still , just , before , never 等时间副词及 by , before , until 等引导的短语或从句连用。 如:Before she came to China, Grace had taught English in a middle school for about five years. Peter had collected more than 300 Chinese stamps by the time he was ten. 4. 过去完成时表示某一动作或状态在过去某时之前已经开始, 一直延续到这一 过去时间,而且动作尚未结束,仍然有继续下去的可能。 如: By the end of last year, he had worked in the factory for twenty years. ( had worked 已有了 20 年,还有继续进行下去的可能) ?
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四、过去完成时与现在完成时的区别 现在完成时表示的动作发生在过去,但侧重对现在产生的结果或造成的影响, 与现在有关,其结构为"助动词 have (has) + 过去分词";过去完成时则是一个相对的时 态,它所表示的动作不仅发生在过去,更强调"过去的过去",只有和过去某时或某动作 相比较时,才用到它。试比较: I have learned 1000 English words so far. 到目前为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。 I had learned 1000 English words till then. 到那时为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。 - I'm sorry to keep you waiting. 对不起,让你久等了。 - Oh, not at all. I have been here only a few minutes. 没什么,我只等了几分钟。("等"的动作从过去某一时间点持续到现在) - John returned home yesterday. 约翰昨天回到家的。 - Where had he been? 他去哪儿了?(答语中使用过去完成时是指约翰在 returned home 之前去了哪 些地方,即"过去的过去") ? 五、过去完成时与一般过去时的区别 虽然这两种时态都表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,但在使用时应注意以下 几点: 1. 时间状语不同:过去完成时在时间上强调"过去的过去";而一般过去时只强 调过去某一特定的时间。试比较: They had arrived at the station by ten yesterday. They arrived at the station at ten yesterday. 2. 在没有明确的过去时间状语作标志时, 谓语动词动作发生的时间先后须依据 上下文来判断:先发生的用过去完成时,后发生的则用一般过去时。如: She was very happy. Her whole family were pleased with her, too. She had just won the first in the composition competition. 3. 当两个或两个以上接连发生的动作用 and 或 but 连接时,按时间顺序,只 需用一般过去时来代替过去完成时;另外,在 before , after , as soon as 引导的从 句中,由于这些连词本身已经表示出时间的先后,因此也可以用过去时来代替过去完成 时。如: He entered the room, turned on the light and read an evening paper. I (had) called her before I left the office. ?[特殊用法]过去完成时表示未曾实现的想法 过去完成时可表示过去未曾实现的想法和打算,通常连用的动词是 want, think, hope, plan, mean, expect, intend, suppose 等: I had meant to come, but something happened. 我本想来,但有事就没有来。 I had intended to speak, but time did not permit. 我本想发言,但时间不允许。 We had hoped that you would come to see us, but you didn’t. 我们本想你来看我 们的,但你没有来。

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现在完成时
? 1、表示截止现在业已完成的动作 eg By now, I have collected all the data that I need. ? 2.表示发生在过去而对现在产生影响、带来结果的动作 eg She has been to the United States. ? 3.表示过去发生的动作持续到现在,并可能还要延续 eg I have learned English for 8 years.

[基本结构]现在完成时的基本结构
? 由 have 加动词的过去分词构成,主语是第三人称单数时,要将 have 改为 has。 例句: I have seen the film already. 我已经看过那部电影了。(现在我知道电影的内容 了。) Have you seen my bag? 你看到我的手提包了吗? (你知道它在哪里? ) She has been a dancer for ten years. 她已当了十年的舞蹈演员了。 We’ve planted thousands of trees in the past few years. 过去几年我们种了成千上 万棵树。

[时态详解]现在完成时最详细解析
? 对于初接触现在完成时的人来说,往往会产生一种茫然,因为它似乎与一般过去时 相似。那就是,这两种时态描述的动作都始于过去。其实不然,现在完成时主要表 示,发生在过去的动作延续到现在刚刚完成、或许还要延续;侧重于这个动作对现 在带来的结果、产生的影响、积累的总和等等。而一般过去时则只不过是表示动作 发生在过去的什么时候。弄清了这一区别,就很容易理解现在完成时了。它主要适 用于下面的几种情况: 1)表示截止现在业已完成的动作 By now, I have collected all the data that I need .到现在为止,我已收集到了我所 需的全部资料。 She has read 150 pages today .她今天已看了 150 页。 We haven't met for many years .我们已多年没见了。 They have developed a new product .他们研制成功了一种新产品。 2)表示发生在过去而对现在产生影响、带来结果的动作 Have you had your dinner? 你吃晚饭了吗? She has been to the United States. 她已去美国了。 You have grown much taller.你长高了许多。 3)表示过去发生的动作持续到现在,并可能还要延续 It has been five years since he joined the army .他参军五年了。 They have learned English for eight years .他们已学了八年的英语了。 So far we've only discussed the first five chapters.至今我们还只讨论了前五章。 ? 几点注意

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1)一个句子应该用什么时态只能取决于它需要表达的意思,以及它所处的语言环境。例 如: He speaks English .(一般现在时,说明动作发生的经常性。) He spoke English when he was in New Zealand .(一般过去时,说明动作发生的 时间。) He is speaking English.(现在进行时,说明动作正在进行。) He has spoken English for three years since he came to the USA.(现在完成时,这 里说明动作的总和。) He has been speaking English since he came to the USA. (现在完成进行时,强 调动作的连续性。) 2)在含有时间状语从句或条件状语从句的主从复合句中,如果主句的谓语动词是一般 将来时,那么从句的谓语动词就只能用一般现在时来表示将来时;如果主句的谓语动词 是过去将来时,那么从句的谓语动词就只能用一般过去时来表示过去将来时。 例如:I will not play tennis if it rains tomorrow. I would not play tennis if it rained the next day. 3) 有些动词表示无法持续的动作, 它们一般不宜用于进行时态中。 这类动词常见的有: be , believe , consist , find , forget , hate , have , hope , hear , know , like , love , notice , prefer , remember , see , seem , smell , suggest , taste , understand , want , wish , sit down , stand up 等等。 Be 动词若是用于进行时态,可表示暂时、短暂的情况或表现。例如: Tom is being a good boy today .汤姆今天很乖。 He is being childish .他这样做是耍孩子气。 You are not being modest .你这样说不太谦虚。 4)关于现在完成时的时间状语问题 A. 凡是"完成时态"都表示,不知道也不管动作发生的具体时间, 所以在使用现 在完成时的句子里,不可以带有表示具体过去时间的状语,如:yesterday , last week ( month , year , etc. ) , two weeks ago , in 1999 等; 但常和有些副词连用, 如: just , before , already , often , never , ever , not…yet , always 等等。 B. 在以 when 提问的特殊疑问中不能用现在完成时。另外,ago 不能用于现在 完成时的句子里,因为它表示从现在算起的以前某个时间,属于表示具体过去时间的状 语。但是可以用 before 来表示"以前"的意义,因为它只表示"以前",而不知什么时候的 以前。 C. 如果是不表示连续性的动词用于现在完成时的句子, 不可以和以 for 表示的 "一段时间"的状语连用。 在这种情况下, 应该用"It has been … ; since…"的句式来表达。 如: He has joined the army for five years. (错误) It has been five years since he joined the army.(正确)

[特殊用法]让现在完成时一目了然的词语
? 能与现在完成时连用词语很多,如副词 just, already, yet, before, ever, recently 等, 但下面是一些典型而且重要的例子: (1) since(自从): 不管用作介词、 连词还是副词, 句子(主句)谓语通常都用现在完成时: I haven’t seen her since last week. 自上周以来我一直未见过她。 Where have you been since I last saw? 自我上次见到你之后你到哪里去了?
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【注】有时可用其他时态的情况,但须注意: ① 对于某些表示状态的动词(如 seem 等),或因语义等方面的原因,有时可能 用一般现在时比较现在完成时更合适: It seems like years since we last met. 我们似乎几年未见面了。 Since when does the $42 plus $5 service charge come to $48? 从什么什候开始 42 元加 5 元的服务费等于 48 元了? ② 若不是指从过去持续到现在,而是指从较远的过去持续到在一个较近的过 去,则用过去完成时: Yesterday he told me that he hadn’t eaten anything since Tuesday. 他昨天告诉我 自星期二以来他一直未吃任何东西。(指从星期二至昨天未吃东西) ③ 表示时间长度时,通常用一般现在时代替现在完成时: It’s ten years since he left here. 他离开这儿已 10 年了。 (2) so far(到目前为止): So far there has been no bad news. 到现在为止还没有什么坏消息。 We haven’t had any trouble so far. 到目前为止,我们还没有遇到任何麻烦。 (3) in [for, during] the past [last] … years(在过去…年中): In the past two years I’ve seen him little. 过去两年我很少见到他。 I have been here (for) the last [past] month. 最近一个月里我都在这儿。 【注】在一定的上下文里,若是以过去时间为起点,也可用过去完成时。 (4) up to [until] now(到现在为止): Up to now, the work has been easy. 到现在为止这工作还算容易。 I have heard nothing from him up to now. 到现在为止我还没有听到他一点音信。 (5) It’s [will be] the first time that…(第一次…): It’s the first time I’ve come here. 这是我第一次来这儿。 Don’t forget, it’ll be the first time I’ve spoken in public. 别忘了,这是我第一次在 公共场合发言。

过去将来时
? 1.宾语从句或间接引语中 eg He didn't expect that we would all be there. ? 2.表示过去习惯性的动作 eg During that period, he would do this every day. ? 3.表示过去的愿望、倾向,多用于否定句 eg They knew that we would never permit such a thing.

[基本结构]过去将来时的基本结构
? 过去将来时由 would, was/were going to, was/were to was/were about to 等加动词原形 构成, 也可由 was/were on the point of 加动名词构成。 例句:

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I knew you would agree. 我知道你会同意的。 I said I would arrange everything. 我说我来安排一切。

[时态详解]过去将来时最详细解析
? 表示过去的某时以后将要发生的动作。但这个"将来"时间绝不会延伸到“现在”;而 仅限于“过去时间区域内”。 由此可以看出, 含这个时态的句子常带一个表示“过去某 个时间点”的状语。这个状语或是一个短语,或是一个句子。这个时态常用于: A)宾语从句或间接引语中;B)表示过去习惯性的动作;C)表示过去情况中 的“愿望”、“倾向”,多用于否定句。例如: A) When I thought about it , I wondered what their reaction would be . 当我考虑这 件事时,我想知道他们的反应是什么。 She told me that she would go on trip to Europe the next day. 她告诉我, 她第二天 要去欧洲旅行。 He didn't expect that we would all be there. 他没料到我们会全在那儿。 B) During that period , he would do morning-exercises every day. 在那段时间,他 每天早锻炼。 Whenever he had time, he would help his mother with some housework. 无论他什 么时间有空,他总是帮他妈妈干点家务活。 C) No matter how difficult the work was , he would keep on doing it until he accomplished it . 不管工作有多难,他总会坚持不懈地把它干完。 They knew that we would never permit such a thing. 他们知道我们绝不会允许发 生这样的事。 Even after the lecture ended, the audience would not leave . 甚至在讲座结束之后, 听众仍不肯离去。

[特殊用法]几种结构表未曾实现的意图
? was / were going to + 动词原形;was / were to + 动词原形;was / were about to + 动 词原形等结构都可表达当时一种未曾实现的意图或打算。如: The conference was going to be held the next month. 会议下个月开。 We were to have our class at eight. 八点我们该上课了。 I was about to tell him about it when Wu Dong got in. 就在我要告诉他时, 吴东进 来了。

练习一
1. Sales of CDs have greatly increased since the early 1990s, when people ________ to enjoy the advantages of this new technology. A. begin B. began C. have begun D. had begun 2. Turn on the television or open a magazine and you ________ advertisements showing happy families. A. will often see B. often see C. are often seeing D. have often seen
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3. —I hear Jane has gone to the Holy Island for her holiday. —Oh, how nice! Do you know when she ________? A. was leaving B. had left C. has left D. left 4. —What were you doing when Tony phoned you? —I had just finished my work and________ to take a shower. A. had started B. started C. have started D. was starting 5. I ________ you not to move my dictionary—now I can’t find it. A. asked B. ask C. was asking D. had asked 6. —Has Sam finished his homework today? —I have no idea. He ________ it this morning. A. did B. has done C. was doing D. had done 7. —What’s that terrible noise? —The neighbors ________ for a party. A. have prepared B. are preparing C. prepare D. will prepare 8. Now that she is out of a job, Lucy ________ going back to school, but she hasn’t decided yet. A. had considered B. has been considering C. considered D. is going to consider 9. The teacher, with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, ________ visiting a museum when the earthquake struck. A. was B. were C. had been D. would be 10. The discussion ________ alive when an interesting topic was brought in. A. was coming B. had come C. has come D. came 11. Because the shop ________ , all the T-shirts are sold at half price. A. has closed down B. closed down C. is closing down D. had closed down 12. Let’s keep to the point or we ________ any decisions. A. will never reach B. have never reached C. never reach D. never reached 13. My mind wasn’t on what he was saying so I’m afraid I ________ half of it. A. was missing B. had missed C. will miss D. missed 14. It is said in the book that Thomas Edison (1847—1931) ________ the world-leading inventor for sixty years. A. would be B. has been C. had been D. was 15. —You were out when I dropped in at your house. —Oh, I ________ for a friend from England at the airport. A. was waiting B. had waited C. am waiting D. has waited

练习二
1. She has set a new record, that is, the sales of her latest book ________ 50 million. A. have reached B. has reached C. are reaching D. had reached 2. He kept looking at her, wondering whether he ________ her somewhere. A. saw B. has seen C. sees D. had seen
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3. The crazy fans ________ patiently for two hours and they would wait till the movie star arrived. A. were waiting B. had been waiting C. had waited D. would wait 4. She ________ her hairstyle in her hometown before she came to Chongqing for a better job. A. would change B. has changed C. changed D. was changing 5. The first use of atomic weapons was in 1945, and their power ________ increased enormously ever since. A. is B. was C. has been D. had been 6. —You haven’t said a word about my new coat, Brenda. Do you like it? —I’m sorry I ________ anything about it sooner. I certainly think it’s pretty on you. A. wasn’t saying B. don’t say C. won’t say D. didn’t say 7. All morning as she waited for the medical report from the doctor, her nervousness ________. A. has grown B. is growing C. grew D. had grown 8. Why don’t you put the meat in the fridge? It will ________ fresh for several days. A. be stayed B. stay C. be staying D. have stayed 9. How can you possibly miss the news? It ________ on TV all day long. A. has been B. had been C. was D. will be 10. -Sorry to have interrupted you. Please go on. -Where was I? -You ________ you didn’t like your father’s job. A. had said B. said C. were saying D. had been saying 11. I arrived late; I ________ the road to be so icy. A. wouldn’t expect B. haven’t expected C. hadn’t expected D. wasn’t expecting 12. I ________ while reading the English textbook. Luckily, my roommate woke me up in time! A. had fallen asleep B. have fallen asleep C. fell asleep D. fall asleep 13. Although he has lived with us for years, he _______ us much impression. A. hadn’t left B. didn’t leave C. doesn’t leave D. hasn’t left 14. I ________ ping-pong quite well, but I haven’t had time to play since the new year. A. will play B. have played C. played D. play 15. I wonder why Jenny ________ us recently. We should have heard from her by now. A. hasn’t written B. doesn’t write C. won’t write D. hadn’t written

练习三
1. A short time before she ________ , the old lady ________ a will, leaving all her money to her brother. A. died; has written B. has died; wrote C. had died; wrote D. died; had written
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2. — Kate doesn’t look very well. What’s wrong with her? — She has a headache because she ________ too long; she ought to stop work. A. has been reading B. had read C. is reading D. was reading 3. As time ________ on, Sally began to wonder if Bruce ________ Bilks’new poem called Tabled’Hute. A. has gone; had read B. went; has read C. goes; has read D. went; had read 4. —Mike, do you know who wanted me on the phone? —Sorry. I don’t know. I ________ a bath in the bathroom. A. have had B. was having C. had D. am having 5. —Could you tell me how your father usually goes to work? —Yes. If it is fine, he ________ to his office. A. will walk B. will go on foot C. walks D. would go on foot 6. — I called you at ten, but there was no reply. —Oh, that was probably when I ________ a shower. A. am taking B. took C. were to take D. was taking 7. — Have you ever worked with a tape recorder? — I ________ it a lot when I was studying French in school. A. used B. was used C. have used D. had used 8. —You must have met him the other day. —Oh, no, I ________ . A. hadn’t B. mustn’t C. haven’t D. didn’t 9. —Which flight ________ ? —I want to catch the 13:00. A. you are to catch B. are you catching C. do you catch D. have you caught 10. —Excuse me, sir. Would you do me a favor? —Of course. What is it? —I ________ if you could tell me how to fill out this form. A. had wondered B. was wondering C. would wonder D. did wonder 11. How can I ever concentrate (集中精力) if you ________ continually ________ me with silly questions? A. have…interrupted B. had interrupted C. are interrupting D. were interrupting 12. —I bought this shirt for 35 yuan yesterday. —It’s on sale today for only 29. You should have waited. —Oh, really? But how ________ I know? A. would B. can C. did D. do 13. —Will you go now? —Not until I ________ my experiments. A. will finish B. have finished C. will have finished D. had finished 14. —Look! Someone has spilt coffee on the carpet. —Well, it ________ me. A. isn’t B. hasn’t been C. hadn’t been D. wasn’t 15. —Did you enjoy your holiday?
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—Yes, it’s the best holiday I ________ these years. A. had B. have had C. had had D. would have

练习四
1. I don’t understand how you got a ticket. I always ________ you ________ a careful driver. A. think; are B. am thinking; are C. thought; were D. think; were 2. I really ought to go on a diet。I ________ on so much weight since I gave up jogging. A. put B. am putting C. have put D. had put 3. We ________ to go skiing tomorrow,but there’s no snow,so we’ll just stay home instead。 A. are going B. were going C. will go D. would go 4. At the time of the earthquake Jeff was still in his office. He ________ to finish a project before he left for the day. A. has tried B. had tried C. has been trying D. had been trying 5. The student didn’t pay any attention to the lecture; he ________ of something else. A. thought B. had thought C. would think D. was thinking 6. —Such a mistake could have been avoided. —Unfortunately, he ________ the mistake again and again. A. repeated B. would repeat C. had repeated D. would have repeated 7. —Did you find the missing couple in the mountain yesterday? —No, but we ________ to get in touch with them ever since. A. have tried B. have been trying C. had tried D. had been trying 8. I would have come sooner but I ________ that they were waiting. A. haven’t known B. hadn’t known C. don’t know D. didn’t know 9. -Oh, it’s you, Steve! I ________ you. -No surprising. I’ve just had my hair cut. A. don’t recognize B. haven’t recognized C. didn’t recognize D. hadn’t recognized 10. I’m glad to see that you ________ a lot of progress since I ________ you last. A. will make; have met B. have been making; met C. had made; met D. have made; meeting 11. -Have you finished your composition already? -Yes. I ________ it in twenty minutes. A. have finished B. finished C. will finish D. had finished 12. Once a programme ________ put into a computer, it ________ accordingly. A. is; acts B. is being; is acting C. has been; will act D. will be; acts 13. —What place is it? —Haven’t you seen that we ________ back where we ________ ? A. were;had been B. are;were C. were;have been D. are;had been
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14. —Didn’t the guard see him breaking into the bank? —No, he ________ in the other direction. A. was looking B. had looked C. looked D. is looking 15. —Have you persuaded him? —Yes. After some hours of discussion, I ________ to reason him in accepting the new plan. A. had managed B. would manage C. have managed D. managed 16. —I suppose the young beautiful actress is about 20 years old. — ________ ! She is still a college student. A. You guess it B. You guessed it C. You have it guessed D. You’re guessing it 17. -The enemy spy was found at last. -Really? Where ________ himself? A. had he hidden B. did he hide C. has he hidden D. was he hidden

练习五
1. —Your phone number again? I _______ quite catch it. —It’s 9568442. A. didn’t B. couldn’t C. don’t D. can’t 2. —Can I help you, sir? —Yes. I bought this radio here yesterday, but it _______. A. didn’t work B. won’t work C. can’t work D. doesn’t work 3. Helen _______ her keys in the office so she had to wait until her husband _______ home. A. has left; comes B. left; had come C. had left; came D. had left; would come 4. —_______ my glasses? —Yes, I saw them on your bed a minute ago. A. Do you see B. Had you see C. Would you see D. Have you seen 5. I first met Lisa three years ago. She _______ at a radio shop at that time. A. has worked B. was working C. had been working D. had worked 6. —Is this raincoat yours? —No, mine _______ there behind the door. A. is hanging B. has hung C. hangs D. hung 7. —Alice, why didn’t you come yesterday? —I _______, but I had an unexpected visitor. A. had B. would C. was going to D. did 8. —Who is Jerry Cooper? —_______? I saw you shaking hands with him at the meeting. A. Don’t you meet him yet B. Hadn’t you met him yet C. Didn’t you meet him yet D. Haven’t you met him yet
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9. —Hi, Tracy, you look tired. —I am tired. I _______ the living room all day. A. painted B. had painted C. have been painting D. have painted 10. —Nancy is not coming tonight. —But she _______! A. promises B. promised C. will promise D. had promised 11. Shirley _______ a book about China last year but I don’t know whether she has finished it. A. has written B. wrote C. had written D. was writing 12. —Hey, look where you are going! —Oh, I’m terribly sorry. _______. A. I’m not noticing B. I wasn’t noticing C. I haven’t noticed D. I don’t notice 13. The price _______ but I doubt whether it will remain so. A. went down B. will go down C. has gone down D. was going down 14. The reporter said that the UFO _______ east to west when he saw it. A. was traveling B. traveled C. had been traveling D. was to travel 15. —You’ve left the light on. —Oh, so I have. _______ and turn it off. A. I’ll go B. I’ve gone C. I go D. I’m going

练习六
1. Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology _______ so rapidly. A. is changing B. has changed C. will have changed D. will change 2. I _______ ping-pong quite well, but I haven’t had time to play since the new year. A. will play B. have played C. played D. play 3. I wonder why Jenny _______ us recently. We should have heard from her by now. A. hasn’t written B. doesn’t write C. won’t write D. hadn’t written 4. —You haven’t said a word about my new coat, Brenda. Do you like it? —I’m sorry I _______ anything about it sooner. I certainly think it’s pretty on you. A. wasn’t saying B. don’t say C. won’t say D. didn’t say 5. All morning as she waited for the medical report from the doctor, her nervousness _______. A. has grown B. is growing C. grew D. had grown 6. I thought Jim would say something about his school report, but he _______ it. A. doesn’t mention B. hadn’t mentioned C. didn’t mention D. hasn’t mentioned 7. —You’re drinking too much. —Only at home. No one _______ me but you. A. is seeing B. had seen C. sees D. saw
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8. I’ve won a holiday for two weeks to Florida. I _______ my mum. A. am taking B. have taken C. take D. will have taken 9. The little girl _______ her heart out because she _______ her toy bear and believed she wasn’t going to find it. A. had cried; lost B. cried; had lost C. has cried; has lost D. cries; has lost 10. John and I _______ friends for eight years. We first got to know each other at a Christmas party. But we _______ each other a couple of times before that. A. had been; has seen B. have been; have seen C. had been; had seen D. have been; had seen 11. It _______ long before we _______ the result of the experiment. A. will not be; will know B. is; will know C. will not be; know D. is; know 12. —How long _______ David and Vicky _______ married? —For about four years. A. were; being B. have; got C. have; been D. did; get 13. How can you possibly miss the news? It _______ on TV all day long. A. has been B. had been C. was D. will be 14.-Sorry to have interrupted you. Please go on. -Where was I? -You ______ you didn't like your father's job. A. had said B. said C. were saying D. had been saying 15. I arrived late; I _____ the road to be so icy. A. wouldn't expect B. haven't expected C. hadn't expected D. wasn't expecting

练习七
1. Dear me! Just _____ at the time! I _____ no idea it was so late. A. look, have B. looking, had C. look, had D. looking, have 2. “What’s his name?” “I _____.” A. forget B. forgot C. had forgotten D. am forgetting 3. Your mother _____, however, say that to us that day. A. does B. did C. is doing D. was doing 4. New medicines and instruments ______ every day to extend life. A. develop B. are being developed C. are developing D. have developed 5. I _____ your last point — could you say it again? A. didn’t quite catch B. don’t quite catch C. hadn’t quite caught D. can’t quite catch 6. I feel sure I _____ her before somewhere. A. was to meet B. have met C. had met D. would meet 7. They haven’t arrived yet but we _____ them at any moment.
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A. are expected B. have expected C. are expecting D. will expect 8. “I suppose you _____ that report yet?” “I finished it yesterday, as a matter of fact.” A. didn’t finish B. haven’t finished C. hadn’t finished D. wasn’t finishing 9. “When he _____ is not known yet.” “But when he ____, he will be warmly welcomed.” A. comes, comes B. will come, will come C. comes, will come D. will come, comes 10. The bridge, which _____ 1688, needs repairing. A. is dated from B. was dated from C. dates from D. dated from 11. I had hoped to see her off at the station, but I _____ too busy. A. was B. had been C. would be D. would have been 12. You _____ your turn so you’ll have to wait. A. will miss B. have missed C. are missing D. had missed 13. I left my pen on the desk and now it’s gone; who _____ it? A. took B. has taken C. will take D. had taken 14. You’ll never guess who I met today — my old teacher! We _____ for 20 years. A. don’t meet B. haven’t met C. hadn’t met D. couldn’t meet 15. I think you must be mistaken about seeing him at the theatre; I’m sure he _____ abroad all week. A. is B. was C. has been D. had been 16. —Don’t put the waste on the ground. —Oh, I’m very sorry. I _____the dustbin there. A. don’t see B. isn’t seeing C. didn’t see D. haven’t see 17. —How is the weather in your country this summer? —It _____as much as it does now for a long time. A. hasn’t rained B. doesn’t rain C. wasn’t raining D. didn’t rain 18. —Does Liu Hui serve in the army? —No, but he _____in the army for three years. A. served B. has served C. is serving D. would serve 19. —Sorry. I _____to post the letter for you. —Never mind. _____it myself after school. A. forget; I’d rather post B. forgot; I’ll post C. forgot; I’m going to post D. forget; I’d better post 20. Unfortunately, when I dropped in, Professor Smith _____, so we only had time for a few words. A. has just left B. had just left C. just left D. was just leaving 21. —What were you doing when I phoned you last night? —I _____my painting and was starting to take a bath. A. have already finished B. was finishing
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C. had just finished D. was going to finish 22. You _____television. Why not do something more active? A. always watch B. are always watching C. have always watched D. have always been watching 23. I have been studying computer for several years and I still _____. A. have B. do C. have been D. am 24. Jane was disappointed that most of the guests________ when she ________at the party. A. left; had arrived B. left; arrived C. had left; had arrived D. had left; arrived 25. The pen I ________ I ________ is on my desk, right under my nose. A. think; lost B. thought; had lost C. think; had lost D. thought; have lost

练习八
1. We ________ to move but are still considering where to go to. A. are deciding B. decided C. have decided D. had decided 2. I left my pen on the desk and now it’s gone; who ________ it? A. took B. has taken C. will take D. had taken 3. They won’t buy any new clothes because they ________ money to buy a new car. A. save B. were saving C. have saved D. are saving 4. I ________ your last point — could you say it again? A. didn’t quite catch B. don’t quite catch C. hadn’t quite catch D. can’t quite catch 5. —Are you a teacher? —I ________, but now I am working in a company. A. is B. am C. was D. had 6. I feel sure I ________ her somewhere before. A. was to meet B. have met C. had met D. would meet 7. —Does Liu Hui serve in the army? —No, but he ________ in the army for three years. A. served B. has served C. is serving D. would serve 8. —Tom came back home yesterday. —Really? Where ________ at all? A. had he been B. has he been C. had he gone D. has he gone 9. Unfortunately, when I dropped in, Professor Smith ________, so we only had time for a few words. A. has just left B. had just left C. just left D. was just leaving 10. —I’m sorry; I shouldn’t have been so rude to you. —You ________ your temper but that’s OK. A. have lost B. had lost C. did lose D. were losing 11. —You must have met him the other day.
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—Oh, no, I ________. A. hadn’t B. mustn’t C. haven’t D. didn’t 12. —Will you go to the park now? —Not until I ________ my physics exercises. A. will finish B. have finished C. will have finished D. had finished 13. —Did you enjoy the film? —Yes, it’s the best one I ________ these years. A. had B. have had C. had had D. would have 14. —Did Alan enjoy seeing his old friends yesterday? —Yes, he did. He ________ his old friends for a long time. A. didn’t see B. wouldn’t see C. hasn’t seen D. hadn’t seen 15. When I called you this morning, nobody answered the phone. Where ________? A. did you go B. have you gone C. were you D. had you been 16. She ought to stop working; she has a headache because she ________ too long. A. has been reading B. had read C. is reading D. read 17. —Why do you look worried? —Fred left the company half an hour ago. His work ________ unfinished since. A. left B. was left C. has left D. has been left 18. —You could have asked Mr Johnson for help. He is kind-hearted. —I ________ that. A whole day ________. A. forget; wastes B. forgot; was wasted C. forgot; had wasted D. forget; was wasted 19. You’d better not phone the manager between 7 and 8 tomorrow evening; he ________ an important meeting then. A. will have B. would have C. will be having D. will have had 20. —I’m sorry, but the boss isn’t here yet. Shall I have him call you when he comes back? —No, I’ll call him back. If I call again in half an hour, do you think she ________ ? A. had arrived B. has arrived C. will arrive D. will have arrived 21. —What’s wrong with your coat? —Just now when I wanted to get off the bus, the man next to me ________on it. A. sat B. had sat C. had been sitting D. was sitting 22. —Why weren’t you at the meeting? —I ________ for a long-distance call from my aunt in America. A. waited B. was waiting C. had been waiting D. had waited 23.—Will you attend the meeting this evening?
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—But I ________ told anything about it. A. wasn’t B. am not C. haven’t been D. won’t be 24. — What did you think of Act I of the play last night? — I’m sorry. The play ________ when I got there. A. had been started B. had been on for half an hour C. was to start D. had begun for half an hour 25. —Why did you come by bus? —My car broke down yesterday evening and I ________ it repaired. A. didn’t have B. don’t have C. won’t have D. haven’t had

练习一答案
1. B. when 引导的是一个非限制性定语从句,when 指 20 世纪 90 年代初,当然用一般过 去时。 2. A. 这是“祈使句+and +陈述句”句型,祈使句相当于一个条件状语从句,and 后的 陈述句的谓语用一般将来时,这是一个较为固定的句型。 3. D. 因为 Jane 已经度假去了,“离开”此地就当然是在此之前的过去某个时间了, 所以用一般过去时,选 D。另外,when 通常都不与完成时连用,排除 B 和 C,A 也与 语境不符。 4. D. 过去进行时在此表示过去准备要做的事。句意为:(Tony 给我打电话时)我刚 好做完工作,准备去冲凉。 5. A. 由 now 可知前句的意思是: 我曾经叫你不要搬动我的词典的 (你偏不听)。 “叫” 是在过去发生的动作,用一般过去时。 6. C. 根据句意“我不知道 Sam 现在是否已经做完了作业,(但是我知道)他今天早上 一直在做作业”,可知要用过去进行时。 7. B. 由 What’s=What is 可知,现在在出声音;进而知道“邻居们正在为一个晚会作 准备”,所以用现在进行时态。再说,已经准备好了或者将作准备,我们不可能听得到 声音,问句也就不成立了,排除 A 和 D。 8. B. 根据 but she hasn’t decided yet (尚未决定) 可知,从开始失业时起一直在考虑 再去上学,现在还在考虑。表示从过去某一时刻开始一直到现在,并且现在依然在发生 的动作,用现在完成进行时,现在完成进行时由“have/has been doing”构成,所以选 B。 9. A. 由 when the earthquake struck 可知,要用一般过去时,排除 C 和 D;又因为主 语是单数 the teacher,所以只有 A 正确。 10. D. 由 when…was brought in 可知,come 也是过去发生的事,用一般过去时。句 意是:当引入一个有趣的话题时,那场讨论又变得活跃起来。 11. C. 由 all the T-shirts are sold at half price 可知,这家商店还没有关闭,但准备将 要关闭,所以选 C,用现在进行时表示最近的打算。 12. A. “祈使句+or+陈述句”句型中,陈述句的谓语用“will+动词原形”,几乎是固定 的。句意是:让我们扣住主题吧,否则,我们就作不了决定。 13. D. 因为 was saying 表明“他说”发生在过去,“没听到”应该是“他说”的时候没听 到,所以 miss 也是发生在过去,而 miss 作“未听见、未理解”解时,一般没有进行时,

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因此,只有 D 正确。句意是:我的注意力当时并没有集中在他所说的内容上,所以恐怕 有一半我都没听到。 14. D. 根据括号内的 1847—1931 可知,此处应填过去时态;另外,由于没有另一 个过去的时间或动作与之比较,故不能用过去完成时,即只能选 D。 15. A. 句意是:(你来我家时) 我正在机场等候一位从 England 来的朋友。表示在过 去某一时刻或在过去某一段时间内正在发生的事,用过去进行时,所以选 A。

练习二答案
1. A. 因为 that is 意为“换句话说,即 (=in other words, which means)”,而前句中的谓语 has set 是现在完成时, 后一句的谓语动词也应用现在完成时, 排除 C 和 D; 又因主语 the sales 是复数,选出正确答案 A。 2. D. 因为由语境可知,see 应当发生在 kept looking 之前,即过去的过去,所以用 过去完成时,只有 D 正确。 3. B. 因为 would wait 是过去将来时,可见此事发生在过去,再结合 for two hours 可知,wait 这个动作是从过去某一时刻开始一直延续到另一个过去时刻,并且还在等, 一直要等到那位影星到来,所以用过去完成进行时:had been doing,因此选 B。 4. C. 由 came 可知,她已来重庆了,而改变发型是在来重庆之前,即过去的过去, 按理要用过去完成时,但 before 已经表明紧接着发生的先后两个动作,所以也可用一般 过去时,所以选 C。 5. C. 句中的 since 为副词,表示“从过去某时起一直到现在”,它通常要与现在完成 时连用。 6. D。由句中的 sooner(意为“早点儿”)可知用一般过去时。句意为“对不起,我没 有早点儿说。我确实认为你穿很好看” 。 7. C。her nervousness(紧张)伴随 waited(等)的过程而产生,因此 grow 与 waited 同时发生,时态一致,都用一般过去时。 8. B。stay 是系动词不能用被动语态,故排除 A;系动词一般不用于进行时(feel 除 外),故排除 C;stay 为非延续性动词,不能与表示一段时间的状语连用,故排除 D。句 意为“你为什么不把肉放在冰箱里呢?那样会保质好几天”。 9. A。根据句中 all day long 来判断,此句是强调播放新闻对现在的影响,故用现在 完成时。意为“你怎么可能没看到新闻?整天都在播放”。 10. C。用过去进行时态表示过去某一特定时刻正在进行的动作。此处是指“我”的话 在被打断前正在谈论的情况。句意为“对不起打断你的话,请继续”。“我说哪儿了?”“你 在说你不喜欢你父亲的工作”。 11. C。由 I arrived late 可知是过去的情况。I haddn’t expected 表示过去没有料到。 句意为“我迟到了。我没料到路面结冰”。 12. C。while 从句用过去进行时,主句用过去时,表示在某个动作的持续过程中, 发生过某事。句意为“我在读英语课本时睡着了。幸亏我的室友及时叫醒了我”。 13. C。句意为“尽管他和我们生活了好多年,但没给我们留下多少印象”。根据前句 中的现在完成时可知,下句是强调的现在的状态,因此用一般现在时。 14. D。“我的乒乓球打得好”是现在具有的技能,故用一般现在时。下句“但自新年 以来还一直没有时间去打”。与前句谓语动词的时态无关。 15. A。由句中的 recently 和 by now 两个提示可知此句用现在完成时

练习三答案
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1. D. “死”与“写(遗书)”都发生在过去,显然“写”应发生在“死”之前,即:过去的过去。 因此,die 用一般过去时,write 用过去完成时。 2. A. 根据后文可知,“她现在依然在工作”,表示从过去某一时刻开始,一直延续 到现在, 并且现在仍然在进行的动作或存在的状态, 就用现在完成进行时, 即: have been doing 3. D. 从 began 是一般过去时可知,go 也用一般过去时,read 应发生在 began to wonder 之前,所以要用过去完成时。 4. B. 从 wanted 是过去式,可知打电话发生在过去,“我”现在不知道,因为当有人 打电话来时, “我”正在冲凉。 表示在过去某一时刻正在发生的动作, 当然用过去进行时。 5. C. 从问句中 usually goes to work 来看, 是问通常的情况, 其回答也应该是指通常 的情况,因此要用一般现在时,即:“如果天气好,他通常是步行上班的”。注意:千万 不要认为条件句中的谓语动词用一般现在时,而主句中的谓语动词就用一般将来时,而 错选 A 或 C。 6. D. 意为:“你打电话来时,我可能正在洗淋浴”。指在过去某个时候正在发生的 动作,用过去进行时。 7. A. 句意为:“我在学校学法语期间,经常使用录音机”。 指过去经常发生的动作, 当然用 3 一般过去时。 8. D. 问句是对过去情况猜测,答句 I didn’t 的完整句子是 I didn’t meet him the other day. (几天前我没有见到他。) 9. B. 从语境来看,显然指将来:“你打算坐哪趟班机?”表示最近打算或安排要做 的事,可以用进行式或“be to do”来表示,因此,可选出 A 和 B,而答案 A 的语序不对, 所以只有 B 对(from www.yygrammar.com)。 10. B. 表示刚才想叫你帮忙,就是“我在想你可不可以帮我填这个表格”,所以用过 去进行时。 11. C. 因为从 can 和句意可知,是指目前正在发生的事。句意是“如果你 (象现在这 样) 不断地用一些无聊问题来妨碍我,我又怎能集中精力呢?” 12. C. 因为意思是“我当时 (昨天) 怎么知道呢?”。 13. B. 因为在时间状语从句中要用一般现在时代替一般将来时;若强调从句动作发 生在主句动作之前时,用现在完成时代替将来完成时,本题属后一种情况。 14. D. 从上文可知,已经将 coffee 溅在地毯上了,spilt 已经在过去发生了,所以用 一般过去时,wasn’t。 15. B. 因为 these years 是包括现在在内的,通常与现在完成时连用。

练习四答案
1. C. 因为指 you got a ticket 之前,“我原来一直认为你是位非常小心的司机”,所以用过 去时。 2. C. 因为与表示“自…以来”的 since 从句或短语连用的通常是现在完成时态;再说 前面的“我应当节食了”,也说明现在“我已经增肥”了。 3. B. were going to do sth. 指“原打算做…”。 4. D. 指从发生地震之前的某一时候开始到发生地震时一直在努力完成一项计划, 并且在发生地震时依然在办公室努力完成这一计划,所以要用过去完成进行时。 5. D. 指这位学生在没有注意听课的同时“正在想着别的事情”。 6. A. 因为 could have done 是对过去发生的事表示遗憾,所以答语也应该是指他在 过去一再犯这样的错误。
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7. B. 因为 ever since 是“自那以后(直到现在)”之意, 常与完成时连用, 又根据 but 可 知,现在也还在设法与他们取得联系,所以用现在完成进行时。 8. D. 因为 would have come 是表示与过去事实相反的虚拟语态,所以是“我当时不 知道他们在等”。 9. C. 因为说话时已经认出来了,指在说话之前“刚才我没有认出你来”,所以用一 般过去时。 10. B. 因为是“上次见你”, 所以 since 从句的谓语动词用一般过去时, 排除 A 和 D; 又表示从上次见你以来一直到现在并且现在依然在不断取得进步, 所以用现在完成进行 时。 11. B. 由答语 Yes 可知,现在已经做完了,后文强调的是完成的时间,要用一般过 去时。 12. C. 因为时间状语从句或者条件状语从句中用一般现在时或现在完成时,主句用 一般将来时。 13. B. 句意是“难道你没有看到我们现在又回到了我们原来所在的地方吗?” 14. A. 指他闯入银行那个时候,the guard 正在朝别的方向看。 15. D. 由 Yes 知道已经劝服,After 短语是说明劝服的时间,所以用一般过去时。 此题与 26 题类似。 16. B. 意思是你刚才猜对了,所以用一般过去时。 17. A. 因为 hide 是指在被找到之前,即过去的过去,所以用过去完成时。

练习五答案
1. A。句意为“我刚才没有听清楚”。 2. D。“昨天在这买的收音机,现在坏了。”work 指机器设备的运作。 3. C。 leave 应发生在 had to wait 这个过去动作之前, “过去的过去”用过去完成时; 后一空用一般过去时表示过去将来。 4. D。现在完成时表示过去发生的动作对现在的影响:问话人的目的是想知道眼镜 在哪里。 5. B。在三年前见到她时,她当时正在一家 radio shop 工作。 6. A。hang 表示某物“悬挂”在某处,是不及物动词;is hanging 正悬挂在。 7. C。was going to do 表示未完成的意愿:本打算做(但却没有做成)。would 无此用 法。 8. D。由 I saw...可知 meet 发生在过去,且强调对现在的影响:你不是已经和他见 过面了吗? 9. C。表示从过去某个时间开始一直延续到现在的动作,要用现在完成进行时。all day 是关键词。 10. B。“但她曾经答应要来的”,过去的许诺,故用一般过去时。 11. D。由“我不知道她是否已经写完了”推知,她去年“正在写”。 12. B。你提醒之前我没注意,即“我刚才没有注意”。 13. C。后文(will remain so)暗示物价已经降下来了。 14. A。过去进行时表示报告人当时所看到的情景。 15. A。从语境很容易判断用将来时。表示临时的决定只能用 will;再说,going 也不能 与 turn 并列。

练习六答案
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1. A。选择移动电话不容易,因为科学技术正在迅速发展。 2. D。“我的乒乓球是打得相当好的,但自新年以来还一直没有时间去打。”球打得 好是现在已有的技能,故用一般现在时。 3. A。由 recently 和 by now 可知用现在完成时。 4. D。用一般过去时是指“我刚才没急于说”。 5. C。紧张伴随等的过程而产生,应同时发生,waited 是一般过去时,grow 也用 一般过去时。 6. C。只描述过去所发生的情况,但没有强调对现在的影响,用一般过去时。 7. C。由 only at home 可知“我”只在家里喝得多,除你之外,没有人看见。谈的是 现在一般性情况,故用一般现在时。 8. A。现在进行时表示按计划或安排将要发生的动作。 9. B。 由 believed 知 cry 和 lose 都发生在过去; 显然先丢后哭, 丢是过去的过去。 另外,cried 与 believed 为并列谓语,同为过去式。 10. D。到目前为止成为朋友八年,用现在完成时;在那次晚会相识成为朋友之前已 经见过几次面,用过去完成时。 11. C。句意为:不久之后我们就会知道实验结果。在句型 It is not long before?不久 之后就…)中,before 引导的是时间状语从句,用一般现在时表将来。 12. C。由 For about four years 可知,要用现在完成时,排除 A 和 D;与时间段连 用,不可用 get married, 要用 be married。 13. A。信息句为一般现在时,根据后句中 all day long 判断,这显然是强调播放新 闻对现在的影响,故选现在完成时。 14. C。此处指“我”的话在被打断前正在谈论的情况。表示过去某一特定的时刻在进 行的动作用过去进行时态。 15. C。“迟到”用的是过去时,“没想到路面结冰”应是过去的过去。

练习七答案
1. C。第一空填 look, 因为这是祈使句的谓语;第二空填 had,因为前一句说“看看时 间吧”,这一看当然知道了现在很迟的情形,“不知道这么迟了”显然应是“过去”的事,故 应用一般过去时态。 2. A。从语境上看,“忘记”的时间应是现在,即指现在不记得了。 3. B。其中的 did 为强调用法。 4. B。从语境上看,develop 不仅要用被动语态,而且要用进行时态。 5. A。从下文的语境看,既然现在叫对方重复一遍,说明“没听清对方的最后一点” 应发生在过去(即说此话之前)。 6. B。before 用作副词时不与具体时间连用,泛指“以前”,通常与一般过去时或现 在完成时连用。 7. C。表示目前的一种状态。 8. B,注意下文语境:事实上,我昨天就做完了。从该回答的语气上推测,填空处 应填现在完成时态。 9. D。第一个 when 引导的是主语从句,用一般将来时表示将来;第二个 when 引 导的是时间状语从句,用一般现在时表示将来。 10. C。因为 date from 的意思是“自某时起存在至今”(=have existed since),它通常 用于一般现在时,而不用过去时态(尽管其后接的总是表示过去的时间),除非所谈论的 东西现在已不复存在,如:The church, which dated from the 13th century, was destroyed in
29

an earthquake two years ago ( 那座教堂是 13 世纪建成的,两年前在一次地震中被毁了)。 (注:与 date from 同义的 date back to 也有类似用法。) 11. A。 前一句谓语用 had hoped, 表示的是过去未曾实现的想法或打算, 可以译为“本 想”,而后一句说“我太忙”,这是陈述过去的一个事实,所以要用一般过去时。 12. B。用现在完成时表示结果,即你已经错过了机会,其结果是:你只能等。 13. B。用现在完成时表示影响或结果,即现在笔不见了,是由于某人已经把它拿走 了的结果。 14. B,用现在完成时表示从过去持续到现在的一段时间。 15. C,用现在完成时表示影响或结果,即他整个星期都在国外,所以你说你在剧院 见过他,你一定是搞错了。 16. C。指刚才对方提醒之前没看到垃圾箱,用过去式。 17. A。由 now 和 for a long time 可知“很长时间都没有像现在这样下雨这么多”,用 现在完成时。 18. A。由 no 是对前句的否定可知现在不在部队服役,是以前“服过役”,故用一般 过去时。 19. B。从语境看“忘记”应为过去;“放学后自己去记”是临时的决定,不能用表示计 划或打算的 be going to。 20. D。从“我们只谈了几句话”可知,当我们去拜访时,Professor Smith“正要”离开 了,D 是过去进行时表示过去将来时。 21. C。由“我正要去洗澡”可知昨天你打电话时“我刚刚画完”,“画完”在“打电话前” 之前,即过去的过去,故用过去完成时。 22. B。always 有时可与进行时态连用,但含有某些感情色彩,如报怨、厌恶、赞美 等。此句表示的是报怨。 23. D。句意为“我已学电脑几年了,我现在还在学。”am 后省略了 studying。 24. D. 在她 arrived 之前就已离开;即过去的过去,用 had left. 25. B. 语境为:原以为(thought)丢了的(had lost)确在鼻子底下。

练习八答案
1. C。用现在完成时表示影响,即指现在已经作出决定。 2. B。用现在完成时表示影响或结果,即现在笔不见了,是由于某人已经把它拿走 了的结果。 3. D。用现在进行时表示现在正在进行的动作。 4. A。从下文的语境看,既然现在叫对方重复一遍,说明“没听清对方的最后一点” 应发生在过去(即说此话之前)。 5. C。这时用一般过去时表示过去曾经是老师,但现在不是了。 6. B。before 用作副词时不与具体时间连用,泛指“以前”,通常与一般过去时或现 在完成时连用。 7. A。由 no 是对前句的否定可知现在不在部队服役,是以前“服过役”,故用一般过 去时。 8. A。have been to…去过某地(已回来),have gone to…到某地去了(没回来);又因为 问的是 Tom 回来之前到去过某地,故用过去完成时态。 9. D。 从“我们只谈了几句话”可知, 当我们去拜访时, Professor Smith“正要”离开了, D 是过去进行时表示过去将来意义。

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10. C。上句“我本不该对你那么无礼”是对过去情况的自责,答语“你当时的确很生 气”,用一般过去时,did 在 lose 前表示强调。 11. D。问句是对过去情况的猜测,所以答句用一般过去时。I didn’t 是 I didn’t meet him the other day 的省略。 12. B。 因为在时间状语从句中要用一般现在时代替一般将来时。 若强调从句动作发 生在主句动作之前时,用现在完成时代替将来完成时,本题属后一种情况。 13. B。因为 these years 是包括现在在内的,故用现在完成时。 14. D。由于见朋友发生在过去(即昨天),而很久没有见到朋友自然是昨天的见面之 前,即属于过去的过去,故用过去完成时。 15. C。 句子的前半句说上午打电话时没有人接电话, 而后半句问对方当时在什么地 方。显然,句子前后两部分的时间应一致,即用一般过去时。 16. A。从第一句话 She ought to stop working 可知“他仍然在学习”,故后面用现在 完成进行时态。 17. D。受前一句 left 的影响,易误选 B。题干中的 since 说明此处应用现在完成时 态。从问句中也可看出来,此处强调动作对现在的影响,故要用现在完成时的被动式。 18. B。说话之前“忘了”,故用一般过去时态;第二空应用一般过去时的被动语态形 式。 19. C。指将来某时或某段时间正发生的事用将来进行时。 20. D。 一般将来时表示将要发生的动作, 而将来完成时表示将来某个时间之前已经 发生或完成的动作。根据语境可知是强调将来的结果,应用将来完成时。 21. C。意思是:刚才我想下公共汽车时,(我才发现)靠近我坐的那个人一直坐在我 的外衣上。 表示从过去某一时刻开始一直延续到另一过去时间仍在进行的动作或状态用 过去完成进行时。 22. B。该题考查根据语境选用正确时态题。上句说“你为什么没去参加会议”,据此 回答“我当时正在等我姑姑从美国打来的长途电话”,说的是“你们开会时”我正在等一个 电话。 23. C。指到目前为止还没有人把这件事通知我。相当于在后面省略了 so far。 24. B。句意:戏剧在我到达之前就已上演了半小时,即表示“过去的过去”,且短暂 性动词不与持续性时间连用,故须将 start→be on 才可与持续性时间连用。 25. D。 从昨天坏了一直到今天来时还没有修好, 表示从过去某一时刻开始一直延缓 到现在的动作或状态要作现在完成时态。

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