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2013年东西海朝二模CD篇阅读教师版


2013 年海淀二模 C The early lack of exposure to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) can be harmful to achieving gender (性别) balance in these fields. It begins when we are young and continues throughout our time in high school. While at home, girls generally don't get to experience the level of exposure or encouragement in STEM fields that their male counterparts do. It is often subtle, but it’s the first hurdle that faces and confuses so many women. Boys, on the other hand, get on their path, and are encouraged to do so, generally earlier than girls. For example, boys are more often given science sets as toys, which spark an interest in these subjects. In school, boys are often pushed to take the more challenging math and science classes. So if we want to attract the best and brightest minds into the fields that will advance us as a people, a country, and a planet, we can no longer look to only half of the population. Young girls cannot possibly consider opportunities they do not know exist. If girls are not exposed to certain subject and career paths, they are highly unlikely to choose to follow them in college. Our bias (偏见) toward girls, either from families or from schools,

is so rooted in our culture that we often don’t even recognize it. Although the situation has changed greatly in the past 20 or 30 years, there is still a sense that girls aren’t as good at math, for instance, even though there is almost no evidence to support such a belief. It is important that as a society we deal with gender stereotypes long before young people are faced with a decision to declare or choose a major in college. Without making efforts to break them, we are limiting the potential of our youth, both male and female. Providing the necessary resources, exposure, and encouragement would help young women understand that their gender shouldn’t determine the career path they choose, and that pursuing a STEM career does not make them less feminine.

63. According to the passage, not many girls grow to enter STEM fields because __________. A. girls are not as good at STEM as boys B. girls do not like to take science classes C. girls get fewer chances to know about STEM D. girls seldom survive the high pressure positions

64. The underlined word ―it‖ in Para. 4 refers to __________.

A. our bias B. our culture C. the situation D. a sense

65. The main purpose of the passage is to __________. A. show women’s potentials in STEM fields B. praise women’s contributions to STEM fields C. describe the present gender bias in STEM fields D. call for more involvement of women in STEM fields

66. Which of the following shows the structure of the passage?

CP: Central Point (一)【词汇扫描】 exposure

P: Point

SP: Sub-point (次要点)

C: Conclusion

n. 暴露;曝光;揭露;陈列

be harmful to 对…有害 counterpart subtle hurdle n. 副本;配对物;极相似的人或物 adj. 微妙的;精细的;敏感的;狡猾的;稀薄的 n. 障碍;栏;跳栏;vt.克服;vi. 克服;跳过

spark

n. 火花;朝气;闪光;vt.发动;鼓舞;求婚; vi. 闪烁;求 look to;v. 注意;指望;照看

stereotypevt.使用铅版;套用老套,使一成不变; n. 陈腔滥调,老套;铅版 feminine adj. 女性的;妇女(似)的;阴性的;娇柔的

(二)【长难句分析】 1. While at home, girls generally don't get to experience the level of exposure or encouragement in STEM fields that their male counterparts do. 解析:while 表时间;that 引导定语从句,修饰 fields。 翻译:在家的时候,女孩们通常不会接触或被鼓励进入男孩们会进入 的 STEM 领域。 2. So if we want to attract the best and brightest minds into the fields that will advance us as a people, a country, and a planet, we can no longer look to only half of the population. 解析:if 引导的条件状语从句;that 引导的定语从句,修饰 fields。 翻译:所以,如果我们想要吸引最好的、最聪明的人进入会领导作为 一个民族、一个国家、一个地球上的我们的领域,我们就可以不再只 指望半数人了。 3. Although the situation has changed greatly in the past 20 or 30 years, there is still a sense that girls aren’t as good at math, for

instance, even though there is almost no evidence to support such a belief. 解析:although 引导的让步状语从句;that 引导的同位语从句。 翻译:尽管在过去的二三十年里,情况已发生巨大变化,人们仍有一 种意识,比如,女孩不擅长数学,尽管没有证据能支撑这一观点。 4. Providing the necessary resources, exposure, and

encouragement would help young women understand that their gender shouldn’t determine the career path they choose, and that pursuing a STEM career does not make them less feminine. 解析:providing 非谓语作主语;that 引导的宾语从句并列。 翻译:为年轻的女性提供必要的资源、机会、和鼓励既会帮助她们明 白,她们的性别不应该决定她们选择的职业道路;也会帮助他们明白 追求一份 STEM 领域的职业不会让她们缺乏女性气质。 (三)【重点段落大意归纳】 Paragraph 1:早期对科学、技术、工程和数学的接触的缺乏使得在这 些领域出现了性别歧视现象。 Paragraph 2: 在家里,女孩往往没有机会接触男孩子接触的科学、 技术、工程和数学。 Paragraph 3: 在学校,男孩子们也会上更具挑战性的数学、科学等 课程,而女孩子却不会参加。 Paragraph 4: 我们对女孩子的偏见根植于我们的文化中,虽有好转, 却仍存在。

Paragraph 5: 我们应该给女孩提供更多科学、技术、工程和数学方 面的的资源、接触机会和鼓励。 (四)【选项分析】 63. 【标准答案】C 【试题分析】从第二段的句子:While at home,girls generally don’t get to experience the level of exposure or encouragement in STEM fields that their male counterparts do.可知没有很多女性进入 STEM 领域工作,是因为她们没有什么机会接触这方面的知识。选 C 【高考考点】细节题 【错误选项】A 项偷换概念,文中只说女孩接触 STEM 的机会少, 从而会远离这一领域,而不是不如男孩擅长。 B 项无中生有, 文中只说了男孩会被逼着选择更具有挑 战性的数学和科学课程,没说女孩儿。 D 项无中生有。 64. 【标准答案】A 【试题分析】我们的偏见扎根于文化,以至于我们都没有意识到这种 偏见。选 A 【高考考点】猜词题 【错误选项】it 一般是回指。B 项指代错误;C 项出现在下文,不可 能被指代;D 项也出现在下文,不可能被指代。

65. 【标准答案】D 【试题分析】 从最后一段的句子: Providing the necessary resources, exposure, and encouragement would help young women

understand that their gender shouldn’t determine the career path they choose, and that pursuing a STEM career does not make them less feminine.可知文章呼吁在 STEM 领域多一些女性。选 D 【高考考点】推理题 【错误选项】A 项以偏概全,文中虽有涉及女性在 STEM 领域可能 会有潜力,但这不是本文要表达的重点。 B 项无中生有,文中根本没有提到女性在 STEM 领域 的贡献。 C 项以偏概全, 目前的性别歧视只是文中描述的一小部 分,是为了说明 STEM 领域女性不多的原因的,并非本文重点。 66. 【标准答案】D 【试题分析】文章第一段提出话题:现在女性在 STEM 领域的很少 是因为早年没有接触到这方面的知识。第二段讲的是在家里的情况, 第三段是在学校的情况,第四段把上两段总结起来说,第五段是这篇 文章的总结。选 D 【高考考点】文章结构题 【错误选项】第二段和第三段是并列结构,均为性别不平衡的例子。

A 项结构混乱;B 项和 C 项都是未成功理解第二段和第三段的内容、 结构和作用。 【解析】本文介绍了没有很多女性进入 STEM 领域工作,是因为她 们没有什么机会接触这方面的知识。 是由于我们的文化导致对女性的 偏见,呼吁多一些女性参与 STEM 领域的工作。 【知识点】考查社会现象类短文 【举一反三】本文介绍了没有很多女性进入 STEM 领域工作,是因 为她们没有什么机会接触这方面的知识。 是由于我们的文化导致对女 性的偏见,呼吁多一些女性参与 STEM 领域的工作。这类文章结构 清晰易懂,集中考查了句意理解题和细节题,要求考生有较强的细节 理解能力。做题时也可以结合自己的生活常识和经验,再通过逻辑推 理和判断。文章结构图的解答关键是弄清每段的大意。 D Online shoppers would rather receive an offer for a product or service than make their own offer, according to a study led by a Michigan State University scholar that has implications for the fast-growing e-commerce industry. The findings may come as a surprise given that shopping online is an anonymous ( 匿名的 ) process that seemingly can give consumers more confidence to drive a hard bargain, said Don Conlon, Professor of Management in MSU’s Broad College of Business. But the study found that participants who made their own offers

were less successful in sealing the deal and, when they were successful, worried they overpaid. Many shoppers found the process of researching an offer to be a hassle. ―Americans are very busy, and it’s less time-consuming to be the one receiving the offer rather than the one proposing the offer,‖ Conlon said. ―People tend to be happier when they’re in the receiver role.‖ Online spending in the United States is expected to jump 45 percent in the next four years, from $226 billion this year to $327 billion in 2017, according to Forrester Research Inc. Nevertheless, researches into this prosperous market remain largely focused on the strategies of companies, rather than those of shoppers. Conlon’s study is, obviously, a rare exception. Conlon got the idea for the study after considering the difference between two popular sites for hotels and airline flights: priceline.com, which takes bids, and hotwire.com, which provides offers. Using these two models, Conlon and his fellow researchers conducted a series of experiments with more than 850 people who were charged with booking a fictional hotel room and acquiring a fictional antique car. Not only did participants prefer to receive bids, Conlon said, but they also made more deals in that receiver role. Further, when they had to make the bids, they were left more mentally taxed and regretful.

From an industry perspective, putting customers in the receiver role may help fill more hotel rooms and airplane seats. ―If you’re a business with a lot of product,‖ Conlon said, ―you may want to be the one making the offers.‖ However, when selling single items, such as an antique car, accepting bids may be a better option since that typically drives up the price, he said.

67. What can we learn from Para. 1? A. The result of the study gives customers more confidence. B. Scholars aren’t surprised at the findings of the study. C. Online shoppers don’t bargain as much as expected. D. E-commerce industry drives more hard bargains.

68. It

can

be

concluded

from

Conlon’s

experiment

that

__________. A. online shopping is time-consuming B. given prices help promote online sales C. online businesses provide a lot of products D. receiving offers makes online shoppers regretful

69. The underlined word ―taxed‖ in Para. 4 probably means __________.

A. burdened B. numbed C. relieved D. challenged

70. The passage is mainly about __________. A. the big advantages of online shopping B. the rapid development of online shopping C. online shoppers’ preference for taking offers D. online companies’ strategies to improve service (一)【词汇扫描】 would rather 宁愿,宁可 implicationn. 含义;暗示;牵连,卷入;可能的结果,影响 fast-growingadj. 高速发展的,高速成长的 e-commercen. 电子商务 bargainn. 交易;便宜货;契约; v. 讨价还价;议价;(谈价钱后)卖 hard bargain 艰苦的谈判;吃亏的买卖

participantadj. 参与的;有关系的;n. 参与者;关系者 sealn. 密封;印章;海豹;封条;标志; vt.密封;盖章 overpaidadj. 多付款的,付得过多

hasslevt.找麻烦,搅扰;与…争辩;使…烦恼; vi. 争论,争辩 n. 困难,麻烦;激战 time-consumingadj. 耗时的;旷日持久的 prosperousadj. 繁荣的;兴旺的 rareadj. 稀有的;半熟的;稀薄的;adv. 非常;极其 vi. 用后腿站起;渴望 bidvt.投标;出价;表示;吩咐;vi. 投标;吩咐 n. 出价;叫牌;努力争取 antiqueadj. 古老的,年代久远的;过时的,古董的;古 风的,古式的 n. 古董,古玩;古风,古希腊和古罗马艺术风格 vi. 觅购古玩 drive up 抬高;开车赶到;迫使…上升 (二)【长难句分析】 1. Online shoppers would rather receive an offer for a product or service than make their own offer, according to a study led by a Michigan State University scholar that has implications for the fast-growing e-commerce industry. 解析:would rather…than…‖宁愿……‖;according to 作状语; that 引导的定语从句,修饰 scholar。 翻译: 根据一项由密歇根州立大学对于快速发展的电子商务产业有研

究的一位学者研究发现,网购者更愿意接受一件产品或服务的价格, 而不愿意自己出价。 2. The findings may come as a surprise given that shopping online is an anonymous ( 匿 名 的 ) process that seemingly can give consumers more confidence to drive a hard bargain, said Don Conlon, Professor of Management in MSU’s Broad College of Business. 解析:given 引导条件状语从句;that 引导 given 的宾语从句;第二 个 that 引导定语从句,修饰 process。 翻译: 密歇根州立大学商业学院董事会的管理学教授 Don Conlon 说, 考虑到网购是一个匿名的、 似乎可以给消费者更多的信心进行艰难的 讨价还价的过程,这个发现也许是令人惊讶的。 3. But the study found that participants who made their own offers were less successful in sealing the deal and, when they were successful, worried they overpaid. 解析:that 引导宾语从句;who 引导定语从句,修饰 participants; when 引导时间状语从句。 翻译:但是研究发现,自己提供价格的参与者能成功谈妥交易的可能 性很小。而且,他们成功了以后,也会担心自己多付了钱。 4. Using these two models, Conlon and his fellow researchers conducted a series of experiments with more than 850 people who were charged with booking a fictional hotel room and acquiring a

fictional antique car. 解析:非谓语动词作状语;who 引导的定语从句,修饰 people;两 个并列的非谓语结构 booking 和 acquiring 作介词 with 的宾语。 翻译: Conlon 教授和他的研究人员用这两种模式进行了一系列实验。 实验有 850 名志愿者,他们要么承担预定虚假酒店房间的费用,要 么承担得到虚假古董车的费用。 (三)【重点段落大意归纳】 Paragraph 1: 研究发现,网购者更愿意接受价格而不是提出价格。 Paragraph 2: 自己提供价格的网购者更难达成一桩生意,接受价格 反而更方便,更省时。 Paragraph 3: 现在网购的花费越来越多,相比于其他研究人员只专 注于对公司策略的研究, Conlon 团队的研究是一个例外。 Paragraph 4: 介绍了 Conlon 想到做这个实验的出发点和实验过程。 Paragraph 5: 不同的生意采取不同的价格处理方式会更好。 (四)【选项分析】 67. 【标准答案】C 【 试 题 分 析 】 从 第 一 段 的 句 子 : Online shoppers would rather receive an offer for a product or service than make their own offer 可知网上购物的人并不像预料的那样讨价还价。选 C 【高考考点】细节题 【错误选项】A 项理解错误。这是实验前人们普遍的想法。

B 项与文中信息不吻合。文中说结果很惊讶。 D 项无中生有。. 68. 【标准答案】B 【试题分析】从文章最后一段的句子: when selling single items, such as an antique car, accepting bids may be a better option since that typically drives up the price, he said. 可知顾客给出价格可以帮 助促进网络销售。选 B 【高考考点】推理题 【错误选项】A 项无中生有。 C 项无中生有。 D 项与文中信息颠倒。 69. 【标准答案】A 【试题分析】从并列的形容词:regretful 可知这个单词是有负担的。 选A 【高考考点】猜词题 【错误选项】 根据并列连词 and, 其他三项都不与 regretful 意义相近。 70. 【标准答案】C 【 试 题 分 析 】 从 第 一 段 的 句 子 : Online shoppers would rather receive an offer for a product or service than make their own offer

可知这篇文章讲的是网络购物者更喜欢接受价格。选 C 【高考考点】主旨题 【错误选项】A 项文中没有提及。 B 项只是文中一个小细节,不能概括整篇文章主旨。 D 项文中没有提及。 【试题分析】这篇文章讲的是网络购物者更喜欢接受价格。但研究人 员指出:顾客给出价格可以帮助促进网络销售。 【考点】考查日常生活类短文 【点评】这篇文章讲的是网络购物者更喜欢接受价格。但研究人员指 出:顾客给出价格可以帮助促进网络销售。要求考生在仔细审题和研 读选项的基础之上, 到文章中寻找对应的语群, 合理推断, 作出选择。 2013 年西城二模 C Many factories and businesses around the globe have been struggling to deal with the severe economic realities of the recession ( 衰 退 ), so they are having their employees take compulsory unpaid leave to save money. For some workers, their salaries have been cut by 20 percent, forced to stay home one out of every five working days. For some businesses, though, the economic downturn is actually a goldmine. Instead of going out to fancy restaurants to dine with the whole

family, many choose to stay at home. ―People are eating out less and staying home more, which is driving our sales,‖ reports Domino’s Pizza chief manager Chris Moore. Pizza is very popular, and it is also very affordable for a family that has little extra money to spare. Domino’s business in England rose 15 percent in the first six weeks this year compared with the previous year. More believes that the customers now will remain loyal when the financial situation rights itself. ―By exceeding (超越) their expectations in terms of product quality and speed of delivery… these customers will stay with Domino’s when the economy becomes better.‖ said Moore. Delivered pizza is not the only winner in the stay-at-home economy. Almost all online games have been reporting record-high income since the middle of 2008. Online games are designed to enable players to let off steam by interacting with each other socially in the comfort of their own homes. A Shanghai-based online game producer recently joked, ―The game businesses are worried about economic recovery.‖ Another business that has boomed during the recession is camping equipment. Luxury vacations for families are down, but people still want to get away from their dull lives. This means that sales of tents, sleeping bags, and other outdoor equipment has

gone up as families are trying to still have fun even though their bank accounts aren’t as good as they once were. There have been reports that sales of fishing equipment are on the rise because many people believe this can help lower their grocery bills.

63. What is true about Domino’s in economic hard times? A. It is giving its employees a 20 percent cut. B. It has added four or five new cheaper pizzas. C. It has to close 15 percent of its stores. D. Its business is increasing quite rapidly.

64. What does the phrase ―let off steam‖ mean in the third paragraph? A. Save money. B. Free one’s feelings. C. Kill another player online. D. Make money from an online game.

65. How does the author present his point? A. By giving examples. B. By showing a sequence. C. By explaining causes and effects.

D. By making comparisons and contrasts.

66. Which is the best title for the passage? A. Domino’s Pizza B. In-house Economy C. Booming Businesses D. Economic Recession (一)【词汇扫描】 severe compulsory adj. 严峻的;严厉的;剧烈的;苛刻的 adj. 义务的;必修的;被强制的 n. (花样滑冰、竞技体操等的)规定动作 downturn goldmine fancy n. 衰退(经济方面) ;低迷时期 n. 金矿;大财源;宝库 n. 幻想;想像力;爱好;adj. 想象的;奇特的;昂 贵的;精选的 vt.想象;喜爱;设想;自负;vi. 幻想;想象 dine with 和…吃饭,和…进餐: affordable adj. 负担得起的

interactvt.互相影响;互相作用;vi. 互相影响;互相作用 n. 幕间剧;幕间休息 boomvt.使兴旺;发隆隆声;vi. 急速发展;发隆隆声 n. 繁荣;吊杆;隆隆声

luxury tent

n. 奢侈,奢华;奢侈品;享受;adj. 奢侈的 n. 帐篷;住处;帷幕 vt.用帐篷遮盖;使在帐篷里住宿; vi. 住帐蓬;暂时居住

grocery

n. 食品杂货店;食品杂货

(二)【长难句分析】 1. Pizza is very popular, and it is also very affordable for a family that has little extra money to spare. 解析:and 连接两个并列句;that 引导定语从句,修饰 family。 翻译: 披萨很受欢迎, 同时对于资金有限的家庭来说人们也付得起它。 2. More believes that the customers now will remain loyal when the financial situation rights itself. 解析:that 引导宾语从句;when 引导时间状语从句。 翻译: 更多人相信经济状况恢复的时候, 现在的顾客依旧会很忠诚 (成 为披萨店的忠实顾客) 。 3. This means that sales of tents, sleeping bags, and other outdoor equipment has gone up as families are trying to still have fun even though their bank accounts aren’t as good as they once were. 解析:that 引导宾语从句;as 引导原因状语从句。 翻译:这意味着帐篷、睡袋、和其他户外设备的销售持续上涨。因为 尽管人们的银行存款不如以前多,他们仍试图寻找乐趣。 (三)【重点段落大意归纳】

Paragraph 1: 由于严重的经济衰退,一些公司和生意迫使自己的员 工无薪休假,而对于另一些生意来说,经济衰退是一个 大财源。 Paragraph 2: 休假在家的员工会选择呆在家里而不是和家人出去吃 饭,这使得披萨店的生意越来越好。 Paragraph 3: 除了披萨店,网络游戏的生意也因为经济衰退变得更 好。 Paragraph 4: 经济衰退期间,经营野营设备的公司生意也越来越好。 (四)【选项分析】 63. 【标准答案】D 【试题分析】根据第二段第二、三行 People are eating out less and staying home more, which is driving our sales 可知选项 D 正确。 【高考考点】细节题 【错误选项】A 项细节错位。与第一段细节混淆。 B 项无中生有。 C 项细节错位。 64. 【标准答案】B 【试题分析】根据词组所在句子 ―Online games are designed to enable players to let off steam by interacting with each other socially in the comfort of their own homes.‖―网络游戏是设计出来让

玩家能够通过在自己家中和对方互动……‖,根据句意及语境,可知 选项 B 最符合。 【高考考点】词意猜测题 【错误选项】根据句意和语境,其他三个选项放在语境中都不合适。 65. 【标准答案】A 【试题分析】作者在第一段说明经济衰退期间有些企业损失惨重,而 其他企业却得到了很好的发展, 接下来三段均为经济衰退期间受益的 例子。故作者是通过举例子来呈现自己的观点的。 【高考考点】推理题 【错误选项】文章并不是按某个顺序进行,B 项错误。 文章没有解释因果,C 项错误。 文章没有对比,只是在列举例子,D 项错误。 66. 【标准答案】B 【试题分析】本文主要介绍了经济衰退期间一些室内生意不断变好, 故 B 项最符合。 【高考考点】主旨题。 【错误选项】A 项太小,C 项和 D 项太大。

D All around the world, shoppers flock to Wal-Mart to buy

everything. In Texas, they come for another reason: to see the wind turbine ( 涡轮机), which supplies 5% of the store’s electricity. It along with other facilities, such as exterior walls coated with heat-reflective paint, makes this Wal-Mart a green giant. The laws of economics suggest that Wal-Mart, with 5,200 stores worldwide, influences everything from the price of all kinds of goods. It throws its weight behind environmental responsibility, and the impact could be amazing. ―One little change in product packaging could save 1,500 trees,‖ says Wal-Mart CEO Lee Scott. ―If everybody saves 1,500 trees or 50 barrels of oil, at the end of the day you have made a huge difference.‖ Scott wants Wal-Mart to do its part too. He has promised to cut the existing greenhouse-gas emissions (排放) over the next few years and promised to construct new stores that are more efficient. He wants Wal-Mart’s fleet (车队) of more than 7,000 trucks to get twice as many miles per gallon by 2015. Factories that show Wal-Mart they’re cutting air pollution will get preferential treatment in the supply chain. Wal-Mart says it’s working with

consumer-product manufacturers to reduce their packaging and will reward them if they do so. Some people may doubt it is a bid to attract attention from Wal-Mart’s controversial labor and health-insurance practices. But

it’s not just window dressing, because Wal-Mart sees profit in going green. Scott says, ―This is a business philosophy, not a social philosophy. We don’t go where we don’t think there’s a great interest in change.‖ Like Bill Gates, who started his charitable foundation, Scott happens to be promoting Wal-Mart’s image at a time when his company’s reputation is declining. He acknowledges that he launched the plan partly to shield (保护、庇护) Wal-Mart from bad press about its contribution to global warming. ―By doing what we’re doing today, we avoid the headline risks that are going to come for people who did not do anything,‖ he says. ―At some point businesses will be held responsible for the actions they take.‖ Meanwhile, should Wal-Mart succeed at shrinking its environmental footprint and lowering prices for green products, both the planet and the company will profit.

67. We can infer from the passage that __________. A. Lee Scott is Wal-Mart’s CEO B. there are 5,200 stores in the world C. Wal-Mart has a great influence on the world market D. Wal-Mart has more than 7,000 trucks all over the world

68. What does the underlined sentence ―This is a business philosophy, not a social philosophy.‖ mean in the fourth paragraph? A. Wal-Mart predicts huge profits in its green activity. B. Wal-Mart’s green activity is just window dressing. C. Wal-Mart aims to solve its health-insurance practices. D. Wal-Mart doesn’t have any social responsibility at all.

69. What will Wal-Mart probably do in the future? A. Reduce air pollution in its present stores. B. Give favorable treatment to its customers. C. Ask the factories to reduce their packaging. D. Demand the fleet of trucks to use more fuel than before.

70. What is the main idea of the last paragraph? A. Provide the background of the green plan. B. Stress the purpose of Wal-Mart’s green plan. C. Present the risk that Wal-Mart is facing nowadays. D. Analyze the similarity between Bill Gates and Scott. (一)【词汇扫描】 flockn. 群;棉束;vt.用棉束填满;vi. 聚集;成群而行 exterioradj. 外部的;表面的;外在的;

n. 外部;表面;外型;外貌 coatn. 外套;vt.覆盖…的表面 heat-reflective 热反射的,

giantn. 巨人;伟人;[动] 巨大的动物; adj. 巨大的;巨人般的 barrel vt.把……装入桶内;vi. 快速移动; n. 桶;枪管,炮管 greenhouse-gas gallon preferential manufacturer controversial charitable reputation n. 二氧化碳、甲烷等导致温室效应的气体 n. 加仑(容量单位) adj. 优先的;选择的;特惠的;先取的 n. 制造商;[经] 厂商 adj. 有争议的;有争论的 adj. 慈善事业的;慷慨的,仁慈的;宽恕的 n. 名声,名誉;声望

launchvt.发射(导弹、火箭等) ;发起,发动;使…下水 vi. 开始;下水;起飞 n. 发射;发行,投放市场;下水;汽艇 shrink n. 收缩;畏缩;<俚>精神病学家 vt.使缩小,使收缩;vi. .收缩;畏缩 (二)【长难句分析】 1. Factories that show Wal-Mart they’re cutting air pollution will get preferential treatment in the supply chain.

解析: that 引导的定语从句,修饰 factories ; they’re cutting air pollution 作 show 的宾语。 翻译: 向沃尔玛公司表明他们正在减少空气污染的工厂会在供应链上 得到优待。 2. Like Bill Gates, who started his charitable foundation, Scott happens to be promoting Wal-Mart’s image at a time when his company’s reputation is declining. 解析:who 引导的非限制性定语从句修饰 Bill Gates;when 引导时 间状语从句。 翻译:像创立了自己的慈善基金的比尔盖茨一样,Scott 碰巧在沃尔 玛公司的声誉下滑时提升公司形象。 3. By doing what we’re doing today, we avoid the headline risks that are going to come for people who did not do anything. 解析:by 引导方式状语;what 引导宾语从句;that 引导定语从句, 修饰 risks;who 引导定语从句,修饰 people。 翻译:通过做我们现在在做的事情,我们避免了登上无所事事的人所 面临的头条危险。 (三)【重点段落大意归纳】 Paragraph 1:提出本文的主题:沃尔玛在为环保贡献自己的一份力量。 Paragraph 2: 沃尔玛公司全球有 5200 家连锁店, 一个小小的举动都 会产生很大的影响。 Paragraph 3: 沃尔玛计划为环保采取的措施。

Paragraph 4: 沃尔玛这一举动是有利可图的。 Paragraph 5: 沃尔玛这一举动是一个双赢的举措。 (四)【选项分析】 67. 【标准答案】C 【试题分析】根据文章第二段:The laws of economics suggest that Wal-Mart, with 5,200 stores worldwide, influences everything from the price of all kinds of goods.可知沃尔玛对世界有很大的影响,因 为它的分店分布在世界各地。故 C 正确。 【高考考点】推理题 【错误选项】A、B、D 均为文中给出信息,不是推断出来的。 68. 【标准答案】A 【试题分析】 根据本句前一句: because Wal-Mart sees profit in going green.可知沃尔玛在绿色环保方面看到了新的利润所在,也就是说进 行绿色环保方面的行动可以在利润方面得到补充。故 A 正确。 【高考考点】推理题 【错误选项】 B 项颠倒信息。 前文说这不仅是一个―window dressing‖。 C 项无中生有,solve its health-insurance practices 只 是人们认为的目标,不是沃尔玛的实际目标。 D 项无中生有。 69.

【标准答案】A 【试题分析】根据文章最后一段 : Meanwhile, should Wal-Mart succeed at shrinking its environmental footprint and lowering prices for green products, both the planet and the company will profit.可知 沃尔玛要在绿色环保方面做出更多的努力。四个选项中只有 A 项是 与环保有关的内容。故 A 正确。 【高考考点】推理题 【错误选项】B 项无中生有。 C 项与文章基调不符。 D 项颠倒细节信息。 70. 【标准答案】B 【试题分析】根据文章最后一段:Scott happens to be promoting Wal-Mart’s image at a time when his company’s reputation is declining. He acknowledges that he launched the plan partly to shield (保护、庇护) Wal-Mart from bad press about its contribution to global warming. ―By doing what we’re doing today, we avoid the headline risks that are going to come for people who did not do anything,‖ he says.可知沃尔玛这样做是为了维护公司形象,最终的 目的还是为了获得利润。故本段是为了说明沃尔玛这一计划的目的。 故 B 正确。 【高考考点】段落大意题

【错误选项】A、C、D 均为细节信息,不足以概括文章主旨。 【试题分析】 本文讲述了沃尔玛公司将在环保方面做出的一系列的行 动,并具体解释了沃尔玛公司这样做的原因。 【考点】考查环境保护类短文阅读

2013 年东城二模 C What is the senior project? The Senior Project at Clark Magnet High School is a program that shows aSenior’s ability to apply knowledge and skills, speak, write, solve problems and practice the life skills of time management, organization and risk-taking. Clark teaching staff, community members and school district staff act as advisers, evaluators during the research, project and presentation stages. The key parts of the Senior Project are: (1) A research paper A six to eight page persuasive research paper on a topic chosen by the students. The research paper strengthens effective writing skills learned in English class. Because the paper is persuasive, students should choose a topic about which they have a strong opinion. They should use elements learned when debating to

convince the reader of the strong opinion stated in the paper, and prove it through research. (2) A physical product and fieldwork A physical product and fieldwork (15-hour minimum requirement) related to some aspect of the paper. The 15 hours can be obtained through community service, job shadowing, or making an actual project. Students explore topics that are academic in nature, a hobby, a passion, or a possible future career. (3) Data collection Data collection that combines the first two parts and records hours spent on the fieldwork. The collection contains evidence of the fieldwork presented through letters from the students’ advisors, pictures showing the process of the project or anything else that would show proof of the work completed. (4) Speech presentation A fifteen minute speech presented before a review board composed of school staff, district representatives, former students, and community representatives. The speech is a chance to show the students’ senior project. Students are to dress professionally and summarize their senior project journey. Students will talk briefly about their research paper, their project, and what they learned.

The speech should include visual aids. If the presentation includes performing, the students must speak for at least five minutes. The Senior Project is a vehicle that allows students to use the knowledge and skills they have acquired in a ―real-world‖ application. It has the potential to motivate the students, connect the school with the community, and create pathways from school to career.

64. What is the main purpose of the project? A. To offer students chances to apply their learning to practice. B. To strengthen students’ writing and speaking abilities. C. To encourage students to carry on scientific research. D. To help students find some part-time jobs.

65. The underlined part ―A physical product and fieldwork‖ means __________. A. the information gathered in communities B. the discussion held in the classroom C. the project done in a real situation D. the research made in a laboratory

66. What must the students do when they present their final project? A. Give a performance. B. Make a formal speech. C. Introduce some video aids. D. Report the details of the process. (一)【词汇扫描】 risk-taking district persuasive n. 冒险;承担风险;adj. 冒险的 n. 区域;地方;行政区 adj. 有说服力的;劝诱的,劝说的

strengthenvt.加强;巩固;vi. 变强;变坚挺 shadowing vehicle n. 遮蔽;v. 遮蔽;尾随(shadow 的 ing 形式) n. [车辆] 车辆;工具;交通工具;运载工具;传播 媒介;媒介物 motivatevt.刺激;使有动机;激发…的积极性 pathway n. 路,道;途径,路径

(二)【长难句分析】 1. The Senior Project at Clark Magnet High School is a program that shows a Senior’s ability to apply knowledge and skills, speak, write, solve problems and practice the life skills of time management, organization and risk-taking.

解析:that 引导的定语从句修饰 program;apply, speak, write, solve 和 practice 是并列;time management, organization 和 risk-taking 是并列词。 翻译:Clark Magnet 高中的高级项目是展示一个高中生应用知识和 技能、说、写、解决问题、和练习时间管理、组织、和冒险的生活技 能的能力的项目。 2. The Senior Project is a vehicle that allows students to use the knowledge and skills they have acquired in a ―real-world‖ application. 解析:that 引导定语从句,修饰 vehicle;they have acquired…是定 语从句,修饰 skills。 翻译: 这项高级项目是一个允许学生应用他们在真实世界中学到的知 识和技能的媒介。 (三)【重点段落大意归纳】 Paragraph 1: 介绍 Clark Magnet 高中的高级项目及指导老师和评估 员的构成。 Paragraph 2: 承上启下。 Paragraph 3: 介绍这次项目需要做的调查报告。 Paragraph 4: 介绍这次项目需要做的实践。 Paragraph 5: 介绍需要做的数据收集工作。 Paragraph 6: 介绍项目最后需要做的演讲。 Paragraph 7: 总结这次项目给学生带来的益处。

(四)【选项分析】 64. 【标准答案】A 【试题分析】根据第一段前三句 The Senior Project at Clark Magnet High School is a program that shows a Senior’s ability to apply knowledge and skills, speak, write, solve problems and practice the life skills of time management, organization and risk-taking.可知选 项 A 正确。 【高考考点】细节题。 【错误选项】B 项细节错位,B 项出现在第三段,是 research paper 的目的。 C 项无中生有。 D 项无中生有。 65. 【标准答案】C 【试题分析】根据后文的介绍尤其是本段第二、三行 The 15 hours can be obtained through community service, job shadowing, or making an actual project.可知选项 C 最符合。 【高考考点】细节理解题 【错误选项】A 项无中生有。 B 项无中生有。 D 项无中生有。

66. 【标准答案】B 【试题分析】根据(4)下面的介绍可知,项目最后学生需要做一个 很正式的演讲,总结他们的项目过程。故只有 B 项正确。 【高考考点】推断题 【错误选项】A、D 均为无中生有,C 项偏离中心,C 项属于 speech 中的一个步骤。

D Masses of floating ice are so large that they dwarf your ship, making you question whether your ship still can be spotted among such floating mountains. They are so improbable looking that you simply look in wonder. It seems that nothing that large could be natural – and then it strikes you that something so large could only be natural. Now, people realize that as climate change is raising global temperatures, more icebergs are being born. Antarctica generates far more of them than Greenland, the source of bergs in Arctic waters. Antarctica’s are also much larger, sometimes reaching the size of small countries. Recent data show the average atmospheric temperature has increased about 4.5?F in the western Antarctic Peninsula since the 1940s, making the region among the fastest

warming on earth. This jump has been shown in the recent breaking of major ice shelves along the Antarctic Peninsula. As a result, thousands of new icebergs have broken off, from ice shelves into the Southern Ocean at an accelerated rate. Even as more icebergs are being created, scientists are learning that they are far from inactive masses of ice. In fact, they strikingly alter their environments biologically, chemically, and physically, making them islands of life in the open sea. Observers at sea have long remarked that they attract seals, and seabirds, and divers had noticed that fish are more numerous near them than in the surrounding sea. Now scientists are learning just what the attraction is all about. Depending on their size, location, and the season, icebergs can be nurturers or destroyers. During their existence – typically years from breaking off from an Antarctic or Greenlandic glacier to their gradual melting as they float into lower latitudes, they support animals on, around, even inside their splendid ice castle. They fertilize the ocean with nutrients, increasing sea creature production. Grounded bergs can shelter areas of the seafloor, protecting bottom-living creatures from free-floating icebergs. However, large bergs can also trap sea ice, preventing its annual

breakup and thus stopping phytoplankton (浮游植物) from getting life-giving sunlight, breaking the food chain at its first link. Icebergs will continue to astonish and attract visitors to the polar regions. But now these large frozen masses are taking on a new dimension of wonder as we uncover their vital role in the environment of polar seas. No longer can we look at icebergs as mere passive white mountains floating in the sea. They are active agents of change, each one an icy oasis with a wake of life as it floats on its unstoppable oceanic journey to melting.

67. Why does the author mention ―dwarf your ship‖ in the first paragraph? A. To explain how natural icebergs are. B. To show how powerful icebergs are. C. To describe icebergs as floating ships. D. To tell the unbelievable size of icebergs.

68. What can we learn from the passage? A. The temperature in Arctic is rising faster than that in Antarctica. B. The ocean food chain breaks due to the melting of icebergs. C. Floating icebergs help shelter bottom-living ocean creatures.

D. Global warming has kept bringing icebergs into being.

69. From the passage we can conclude that icebergs can __________. A. preserve ocean creatures B. carry ocean nutrients away C. create a warm polar environment D. keep sea animals away from polar seas

70. What is the author’s attitude towards icebergs? A. Cautious. B. Objective. C. Doubtful. D. Disapproving. (一)【词汇扫描】 improbable adj. 不大可能的,未必确实的;不可信的;未必会 发生的 berg atmospheric n. 冰山 adj. 大气的,大气层的

break off 折断;突然停止,暂停 shelvevt.将 (书等) 放臵在架子上; 搁臵, 将某事放到一旁不予考虑; 将…搁在一边;装搁架于;罢免

vi. (陆地)逐渐倾斜 accelerated adj. 加速的;加快的; v. 加速;促进(accelerate 的变形) inactive adj. 不活跃的;不活动的;怠惰的;闲臵的

altervt.改变,更改;vi. 改变;修改 nurturer 养育者,营养物 glacier n. 冰河,冰川

fertilizevt.使受精;使肥沃 nutrient seafloor n. 营养物;滋养物;adj. 营养的;滋养的 n. 海底

astonishvt.使惊讶 polar adj. 极地的;两极的;正好相反的;n. 极面;极线

uncovervt.发现;揭开;揭露;vi. 发现;揭示;揭去盖子 agent n. 代理人,代理商;药剂;特工; vt.由…作中介;由…代理 adj. 代理的 oasis n. 绿洲;舒适的地方;令人宽慰的事物

unstoppable adj. 无法阻碍的;无法停止的(副词 unstoppably) oceanic adj. 海洋的;海洋产出的;在海洋中生活的;广阔无 垠的 (二)【长难句分析】 1. It seems that nothing that large could be natural – and then it

strikes you that something so large could only be natural. 解析:that large 作定语修饰 nothing;that 引导主语从句,说明形式 主语 it 的内容。 翻译:似乎没有这么大的事物可能是天然的。然后你忽然想到如此大 的事物只可能是天然的。 2. Recent data show the average atmospheric temperature has increased about 4.5?F in the western Antarctic Peninsula since the 1940s, making the region among the fastest warming on earth. 解析:show 后面的句子是一个宾语从句,省略引导词 that;making 是非谓语作状语。 翻译:最新的数据显示字 20 世纪 40 年代以来,南极半岛西部的大 气平均温度已经增长了 4.5 华氏摄氏度, 这使得这个地区成为地球上 变暖速度最快的地区。 3. Observers at sea have long remarked that they attract seals, and seabirds, and divers had noticed that fish are more numerous near them than in the surrounding sea. 解析:两个 that 均引导宾语从句;and 连接两个并列句。 翻译:海边的观察员长久以来发现它们(冰山)吸引着海豹和海鸟, 同时潜水员注意到它们 (冰山) 附近的鱼群数量要比周围区域多很多。 4. During their existence – typically years from breaking off from an Antarctic or Greenlandic glacier to their gradual melting as they float into lower latitudes, they support animals on, around, even

inside their splendid ice castle. 解析:破折号解释说明 existence 的时间段。 翻译:在它们(冰山)形成期间,尤其是从它们从南极或格陵兰冰川 分裂出来到当它们漂浮到更低的纬度时它们逐渐融化这些年间, 它们 哺育着它们壮观的冰川城堡上、周围、甚至内部的动物。 5. However, large bergs can also trap sea ice, preventing its annual breakup and thus stopping phytoplankton (浮游植物) from getting life-giving sunlight, breaking the food chain at its first link. 解析:preventing 非谓语作状语;breaking 非谓语作状语。 翻译:然而,大冰山也可以限制海上的冰山,阻止它每年分裂,这样 就阻止了浮游植物沐浴到维持生命的阳光, 这样就破坏了食物链的第 一层。 6. They are active agents of change, each one an icy oasis with a wake of life as it floats on its unstoppable oceanic journey to melting. 解析:as 引导时间状语从句。 翻译: 它们都是产生变化时活跃的催化剂, 每一座冰山都是一座绿洲, 当它漂浮在海洋上,进行不能阻止的海上融化旅行时,它们都会使海 上的一些生命苏醒。 (三)【重点段落大意归纳】 Paragraph 1: 给出信息说明冰山的体积庞大。 Paragraph 2: 随着气候的变化,越来越多的冰山形成了。

Paragraph 3: 冰山在生物、化学、物理角度改变着它们的环境。 Paragraph 4: 冰山既可能是滋养品,也可能是毁坏者。 Paragraph 5: 冰山不只是漂在海上的巨大白山,它们对于海洋上生 命的苏醒有着巨大的作用。 (四)【选项分析】 67. 【标准答案】D 【试题分析】根据第一段第一句 Masses of floating ice are so large that they dwarf your ship,making you question...such floating mountains.可知作者是想表达冰山难以臵信得大。 【高考考点】推理判断题 【做题技巧】根据词组后面的句子可以推断出词组的意思。从而排除 其他选项。 68. 【标准答案】D 【试题分析】根据第二段第一句可知 D 项正确。 【高考考点】细节理解题 【 错 误 选 项 】 根 据 第 二 段 第 四 句 . ..the average atmospheric temperature...among the fastest warming on earth.可知 A 项错误; 根据第四段第四句 Grounded bergs can...from free floating icebergs 可知 C 项错误; 根据第四段第五句 However, large bergs...at its first link.可知 B 项不正确。

69. 【标准答案】A 【 试 题 分 析 】 根据 第 四 段 第 三句 They fertilize the ocean with nutrients,increasing sea creature production.可知 A 项正确。 【高考考点】细节理解题 【错误选项】B 项颠倒细节,根据第四段可知 B 项错误。 C 项无中生有。 D 项无中生有。 70. 【标准答案】B 【试题分析】通读全文可知作者只是在客观描述事实,并未表达任何 个人观点,因此 B 项正确。cautious 意为―谨慎的‖;doubtful 意为―怀 疑的‖;disapproving 意为―不赞成的‖。 【高考考点】推理判断题 【做题技巧】判断体裁,本文是一篇说明文,说明文不涉及作者态度 的变化,作者始终是客观陈述事实。 解析【语篇解读】本文为说明文,介绍了随着全球气温不断上升,冰 山数量不断增多。冰山的增多从生物、化学、物理等多个方面改变着 环境,对海洋既有利也有弊。

2013 年朝阳二模 C

It often happens that a number of applicants with almost identical qualifications and experience all apply for the same position. In their educational background, special skills and work experience, there is little, if anything, to choose between half a dozen candidates. How then does the employer make a choice? Usually on the basis of an interview. There are many arguments about the interview as a selection procedure. The main argument against it is that it results in a wholly subjective decision. As often as not, employers do not choose the best candidate, but the one who makes a good first impression on them. Some employers, of course, reply to this argument by saying that they have become so experienced in interviewing staff that they are able to make a sound assessment of each candidate’s likely performance. Unfortunately, both for the employers and applicants, there are many people of great ability who simply do not interview well. There are also, of course, people who interview extremely well, but are later found to be very unsatisfactory employees. Those in favor of the interview insist that the well-structured procedure is valid in assessing a candidate’s ability, an essential guarantee for the future job. They also argue that an employer is concerned not only with a candidate’s ability, but with the suitability

of his or her personality for the particular work situation. Many employers, for example, will overlook occasional inefficiencies from their secretary so long as she has a pleasant personality. Perhaps the real purpose of an interview is not to assess the assessable aspects of each candidate but to make a guess at the more intangible things, such as personality, character and social ability. Today, interview is still the key section of the entire selection procedure, though different employers have different standards for competence. Generally speaking, candidates who interview well tend to be quietly confident, but never boastful; direct and straightforward in their questions and answers; cheerful and friendly, but never over-familiar; and sincerely enthusiastic and optimistic. Candidates who interview badly tend to be at either end of the spectrum of human behaviour. They are either very shy or over-confident. They show either a lack of enthusiasm or an excess of it. They either talk too little or never stop talking. They are either over-polite or rudely abrupt.

63. We can infer from the passage that an employer might tolerate his secretary’s occasional mistakes if the latter is __________. A. direct B. shy

C. cheerful D. competent

64. What is the author’s attitude towards the interview as a selection procedure? A. Supportive B. Negative C. Objective D. Unconcerned

65. The last paragraph indicates __________. A. a link between success in interview and personality B. connections between work abilities and personality C. differences in interview experience D. differences in personal behavior

66. Which of the following shows the structure of the passage?

CP: Central Point Conclusion

P: Point

SP: Sub-point (次要点)

C:

(一)【词汇扫描】 wholly subjective unsatisfactory adv. 完全地;全部;统统 adj. 主观的;个人的;自觉的 adj. 不令人满意的;不满足的;不符合要求的

well-structured 结构良好的 valid suitability adj. 有效的;有根据的;合法的;正当的 n. 适合;适当;相配

overlookvt.忽略;俯瞰;远眺;检查;高耸于…之上 n. 忽视;眺望 inefficiency n. 效率低;无效率;无能

assessableadj. 可估价的;可评价的;可征收的;可征税的 intangible boastful spectrum abrupt (二)【长难句分析】 1. In their educational background, special skills and work experience, there is little, if anything, to choose between half a dozen candidates. 解析:in 介词短语作状语。 翻译:在他们(应聘者)的教育背景下,几乎没有,如果有也很少的 特殊技能和工作经验可以用来让面试官在众多应聘者中作出选择。 adj. 无形的,触摸不到的;难以理解的 adj. 自夸的;自负的;喜夸耀的 n. 光谱;频谱;范围;余象 adj. 生硬的;突然的;唐突的;陡峭的

2. Some employers, of course, reply to this argument by saying that they have become so experienced in interviewing staff that they are able to make a sound assessment of each candidate’s likely performance. 解析:that 引导宾语从句;第二个 that 引导结果状语从句。 翻译: 当然, 一些雇主用―他们在面试员工方面已经如此经验丰富了, 所以他们能够针对每一位应聘者可能的表现作出一个合理的评估‖来 回应这个言论。 3. Generally speaking, candidates who interview well tend to be quietly confident, but never boastful; direct and straightforward in their questions and answers; cheerful and friendly, but never over-familiar; and sincerely enthusiastic and optimistic. 解析:who 引导定语从句,修饰 candidates。 翻译:通常情况下,面试时表现良好的应聘者往往相当自信,但从不 自大;对于自己的问题和答案很直接;性格开朗友好,但从不过于熟 络;而且他们非常热情乐观。 (三)【重点段落大意归纳】 Paragraph 1: 引出本文要介绍的主题——雇主选拔雇员的方式:面 试。 Paragraph 2: 分析人们通过面试选拔雇员的不同意之处。 Paragraph 3: 陈述支持面试方式的人们的理由。 Paragraph 4: 描述了面试成功和失败人的不同性格。

(四)【选项分析】 63. 【标准答案】C 【试题分析】 根据第三段 Many employers, for example, will overlook occasional inefficiencies from their secretary so long as she has a pleasant personality.可知本题应选择一个―pleasant‖的近义词,故选 C。 【高考考点】细节题。 【错误选项】其他选项都不是―pleasant‖的近义词。 64. 【标准答案】C 【试题分析】本篇文章作者陈述了不同人对于面试的不同态度,作者 对于这些态度一直是保持中立位臵。故选 C。 【高考考点】推断题 【错误选项】 A、 B 项均以偏概全, 根据第二段最后 Unfortunately, both for the employers and applicants, there are many people of great ability who simply do not interview well. There are also, of course, people who interview extremely well, but are later found to be very unsatisfactory employees.可判断 A 错误;根据第四段第一句 Today, interview is still the key section of the entire selection procedure, though different employers have different standards for

competence.可知 B 错误。文中体现了作者的观点,故 D 错误。

65. 【标准答案】A 【试题分析】第四段介绍了面试成功和面试失败的人的不同性格,故 A 项最符合。 【高考考点】推断题 【错误选项】B 项无中生有,文中没有提到工作能力。 C 项无中生有,文中没有提到面试经验。 D 项无中生有,文中没有提到个人行为。 66. 【标准答案】B 【试题分析】文章第一段引出文章主题,第二段介绍了有些人对于面 试持负面态度,第三段介绍了支持者认为面试方式的两种作用。最后 一段介绍了面试成功与否跟人物性格的关系。 【高考考点】结构题 【做题技巧】排除首尾段,只分析剩余段落,然后先从段落之间找层 次,再从段落内部找层次。

D Birds Can “Read” Human Gaze We all know that people sometimes change their behavior when someone is looking their way. Now, a new study reported online on April 2nd in Current Biology shows that jackdaws – birds related to

crows with eyes that appear similar to human eyes – can do the same. ―Jackdaws seem to recognize the eye’s role in visual perception, or at the very least they are extremely sensitive to the way that human eyes are oriented ( 朝 向 ),‖ said Auguste von Bayern, formerly of the University of Cambridge and now at the University of Oxford. When presented with a preferred food, hand-raised jackdaws took significantly longer to get the reward when a person was directing his eyes towards the food than when he was looking away, according to the research team led by Nathan Emery of the University of Cambridge and Queen Mary University of London. The birds hesitated only when the person was unfamiliar and thus potentially threatening. In addition, the birds were able to interpret human

communicative gestures, such as gaze alternation and pointing, to help them find hidden food, they found. The birds were unsuccessful in using unmoving cues, including eye gaze or head orientation. Unlike most birds, jackdaws’ eyes have a dark pupil surrounded by a silvery white iris. The researchers said they believe jackdaws are probably sensitive to human eyes because, as in humans, eyes

are an important means of communication for them. The hand-raised birds examined in the study may be even better than wild jackdaws at attending to human gaze and responding to the gestures of the people who have raised them. The findings are particularly notable given that most other species investigated so far, including our closest relatives the chimpanzee and ―man’s best friend,‖ the dog, are not particularly sensitive to eye orientation and eye gaze, von Bayern said. Rather, she continued, chimps and dogs seem to rely on other cues such as head or body orientation in determining the looking direction of others. The results suggest that birds may deserve more respect for their mental abilities. ―We may have understated the psychological world of birds,‖ von Bayern said. ―Jackdaws, among many other birds, form pair ties for life and need to have much in common and work together with their partner, which requires an efficient way of communicating and sensitivity to their partner’s viewpoint.‖

67. A hand-raised jackdaw hesitates to take a preferred food when the feeder __________. A. is looking away from the food B. holds the food in his hand

C. is looking at the food D. is unfamiliar to the bird

68. According to the researchers, jackdaws can notice human eye orientation probably because __________, A. like humans, they also use eyes to communicate B. they are far more intelligent than other birds C. they are mostly hand-raised by humans D. their eyes also have a dark pupil

69. Why does the author refer to chimpanzees and dogs? A. To suggest that they are much better at interpreting gaze alternation. B. To reflect how unique jackdaws are in being able to notice gaze orientation. C. To make clear that they rely on other means in determining people’s intention. D. To show that they communicate more frequently with humans than jackdaws.

70. What does the research finding suggest? A. Not all jackdaws are good at attending to human gaze.

B. We may have understated jackdaws’ mental abilities. C. We know embarrassingly less about birds than we assume. D. The closer we communicate with animals, the better we understand them. (一)【词汇扫描】 jackdaw crow n. 寒鸦;穴鸟 n. 群众,一伙;一堆,许多,大众 vt.挤满,将...塞进;催促,催逼;vi. 挤,拥挤,聚集 perception n. 知觉;[生理] 感觉;看法;洞察力;获取

hand-raised 人工饲养的 interpretvt.说明;口译;vi. 解释;翻译 gaze cue pupil iris chimpanzee chimp vi. 凝视;注视;n. 凝视;注视 n. 提示,暗示;线索;vt.给…暗示 n. 学生;[解剖] 瞳孔;未成年人 n. [解剖] 虹膜;鸢尾属植物;adj. 鸢尾属植物的 n. [脊椎] 黑猩猩 n. (非洲的)黑猩猩

rely on 依靠,依赖 deserve (二)【长难句分析】 1. Now, a new study reported online on April 2nd in Current Biology shows that jackdaws – birds related to crows with eyes that appear vi. 应受,应得;vt.应受,应得

similar to human eyes – can do the same. 解析:that 引导宾语从句;破折号接受 jackdaws;that 引导定语从 句,修饰 eyes。 翻译:现在,一项 4 月 2 号在《当代生物学》网络期刊上发表的新的 研究报告显示, 寒鸦——眼睛外观和人类眼睛类似的和乌鸦有关的一 种鸟——可以做一样的事情。 2. When presented with a preferred food, hand-raised jackdaws took significantly longer to get the reward when a person was directing his eyes towards the food than when he was looking away, according to the research team led by Nathan Emery of the University of Cambridge and Queen Mary University of London. 解析:when 引导时间状语从句。 翻译: 根据剑桥大学和伦敦大学玛丽皇后学院的 Nathan Emery 领导 的研究团队的研究, 当饲养员提供给人工饲养的寒鸦它喜欢的食物时, 比起看向别处, 饲养员直盯着食物时寒鸦会花费相当长的时间吃到食 物。 3. In addition, the birds were able to interpret human

communicative gestures, such as gaze alternation and pointing, to help them find hidden food, they found. 解析:they found 位于句尾,前面均为 found 的内容。 翻译:他们(研究人员)发现,除此之外,寒鸦能够通过理解人类的 交流姿势,比如目光的转换和指示,来帮助它们找到隐藏的食物。

4. The findings are particularly notable given that most other species investigated so far, including our closest relatives the chimpanzee and ―man’s best friend,‖ the dog, are not particularly sensitive to eye orientation and eye gaze, von Bayern said. 解析:given 引导条件状语从句;that 引导宾语从句。 翻译:von Bayern 说,考虑到目前对其他物种——包括我们最亲近 的亲戚黑猩猩和人类最好的朋友狗——的观察发现, 它们对眼睛的朝 向和凝视不是特别敏感,这一发现尤其突出。 (三)【重点段落大意归纳】 Paragraph 1: 引出本文主题:寒鸦的眼睛和人类的眼睛类似,会做 人类眼睛做的动作。 Paragraph 2: 介绍寒鸦对于人类眼睛的朝向十分敏感。 Paragraph 3: 介绍人工饲养的寒鸦对于自己喜欢的食物会犹豫,如 果它们不熟悉喂食者的话。 Paragraph 4: 介绍寒鸦能懂得并利用人类交流时的肢体语言、却不 能利用不移动的线索帮自己找到隐藏的食物。 Paragraph 5: 研究者解释寒鸦对人类眼睛敏感的原因。 Paragraph 6: 用黑猩猩和狗对眼睛不敏感而对身体其他部位敏感作 为对比例子,说明寒鸦更有智力。 Paragraph 7: 陈述了寒鸦一声和同伴紧密相连,这需要它们有有效 的交流和对于同伴视角的敏感。 (四)【选项分析】

67. 【标准答案】D 【试题分析】 根据第三段最后一句 The birds hesitated only when the person was unfamiliar and thus potentially threatening.可知选项 D 正确。 【高考考点】细节题 【错误选项】A 项颠倒细节,与文中信息相反。 B 项无中生有。 C 项理解偏差,这句话只说明寒鸦得到事物花费的时间长,没有解释 犹豫的原因。 68. 【标准答案】A 【试题分析】根据第五段第二、三、四行 The researchers said they believe jackdaws are probably sensitive to human eyes because, as in humans, eyes are an important means of communication for them.可知选项 A 正确。 【高考考点】细节题 【错误选项】B 项无中生有。 C 项无中生有。 D 项理解偏差,这句话只是说明寒鸦和其他鸟的差别。 69. 【标准答案】B

【试题分析】 根据第六段可知作者这里提到黑猩猩和狗的例子是为了 说明寒鸦能够注意人们凝视的方向的独特之处。选 B。 【高考考点】细节题 【错误选项】A 项错误地描述了细节。 C 项对细节的作用理解偏差。 D 项无中生有。 70. 【标准答案】B 【试题分析】根据第六段最后一句 The results suggest that birds may deserve more respect for their mental abilities.和第七段第一句 We may have understated the psychological world of birds 可以得 知选项 B 正确。 【高考考点】推断题 【错误选项】A 项无中生有。 C 项无中生有。 D 项无中生有。


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