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数学符号及表达式英语读法

17.2.1999/H. V¨ aliaho

Pronunciation of mathematical expressions
The pronunciations of the most common mathematical expressions are given in the list below. In general, the shortest versions are preferred (unless greater precision is necessary). 1. Logic ? ? p?q p?q 2. Sets x∈A x∈ /A A?B A?B A∩B A∪B A\B A×B x belongs to A / x is an element (or a member) of A x does not belong to A / x is not an element (or a member) of A A is contained in B / A is a subset of B A contains B / B is a subset of A A cap B / A meet B / A intersection B A cup B / A join B / A union B A minus B / the di?erence between A and B A cross B / the cartesian product of A and B there exists for all p implies q / if p, then q p if and only if q /p is equivalent to q / p and q are equivalent

3. Real numbers x+1 x?1 x±1 xy (x ? y )(x + y ) x y = x=5 x=5 x plus one x minus one x plus or minus one xy / x multiplied by y x minus y , x plus y x over y the equals sign x equals 5 / x is equal to 5 x (is) not equal to 5 1

x≡y x≡y x>y x≥y x<y x≤y 0<x<1 0≤x≤1 |x| x2 x3 x4 xn x √ x √ 3 x √ 4 x √ n x x y n! x ? x ? x ? xi
n ?n

x is equivalent to (or identical with) y x is not equivalent to (or identical with) y x is greater than y x is greater than or equal to y x is less than y x is less than or equal to y zero is less than x is less than 1 zero is less than or equal to x is less than or equal to 1 mod x / modulus x x squared / x (raised) to the power 2 x cubed x to the fourth / x to the power four x to the nth / x to the power n x to the (power) minus n (square) root x / the square root of x cube root (of) x fourth root (of) x nth root (of) x x plus y all squared x over y all squared n factorial x hat x bar x tilde xi / x subscript i / x su?x i / x sub i

(x + y )2
2

ai
i=1

the sum from i equals one to n ai / the sum as i runs from 1 to n of the ai

4. Linear algebra x ? ? → OA OA AT A?1 the norm (or modulus) of x OA / vector OA OA / the length of the segment OA A transpose / the transpose of A A inverse / the inverse of A 2

5. Functions f (x) f :S→T x→y f (x) f (x) f (x) f (4) (x) ?f ?x1 ?2f ?x2 1
∞ 0 x→0 x→+0 x→?0

f x / f of x / the function f of x a function f from S to T x maps to y / x is sent (or mapped) to y f prime x / f dash x / the (?rst) derivative of f with respect to x f double–prime x / f double–dash x / the second derivative of f with respect to x f triple–prime x / f triple–dash x / the third derivative of f with respect to x f four x / the fourth derivative of f with respect to x the partial (derivative) of f with respect to x1 the second partial (derivative) of f with respect to x1 the integral from zero to in?nity

lim

the limit as x approaches zero the limit as x approaches zero from above the limit as x approaches zero from below log y to the base e / log to the base e of y / natural log (of) y log y to the base e / log to the base e of y / natural log (of) y

lim

lim

loge y ln y

Individual mathematicians often have their own way of pronouncing mathematical expressions and in many cases there is no generally accepted “correct” pronunciation. Distinctions made in writing are often not made explicit in speech; thus the sounds f x may ? ? → be interpreted as any of: f x, f (x), fx , F X , F X , F X . The di?erence is usually made clear by the context; it is only when confusion may occur, or where he/she wishes to emphasise the point, that the mathematician will use the longer forms: f multiplied by x, the function f of x, f subscript x, line F X , the length of the segment F X , vector F X . Similarly, a mathematician is unlikely to make any distinction in speech (except sometimes a di?erence in intonation or length of pauses) between pairs such as the following: x + (y + z ) and (x + y ) + z √ √ ax + b and ax + b an ? 1 and an?1 The primary reference has been David Hall with Tim Bowyer, Nucleus, English for Science and Technology, Mathematics, Longman 1980. Glen Anderson and Matti Vuorinen have given good comments and supplements. 3

Pronunciation of Mathematical Symbols
Symbols
+ ± x / ÷ = ≈ ≡ ≠ > < ≥ ≤ ? ? ? ? ⊥ ∣∣ ? ?? ? ?
4

plus minus plus or minus multiplied by over; divided by divided equals approximately, similar equivalent to; identical not equal to greater than less than greater than or equal to less than or equal to not greater than not less than much greater than much less than perpendicular to parallel to

/'pl?s/ /'ma?n?s/ /'pl?s ?: 'ma?n?s/ /'m?lt?pla?d ba?/ /'??v?/ /d?'va?d?d/ /d?'va?d?d/ /'?:kw?lz/ /?'pr?ks?m?tl?/ /'s?m?l? t?/ /?k'w?v?l?nt t?/ /a?'dent?kl t?/ /'n?t 'i?kw?l t?/ /'gre?t? ??n/ /'les ??n/ /'gre?t? ??n ?r 'i?kw?l t?/ /'les ??n ?r' i?kw?l t?/ /'n?t 'gre?t? ??n/ /'n?t 'les ??n/ /'m?? 'gre?t? ??n/ /'m?? 'les ??n/ /p??p?n'd?kj?l? t?/ /'p?r?lel t?/

not equivalent to, not identical /'n?t ?k'w?v?l?nt t?/ /'n?t a?'dent?kl to t?/ not similar to squared cubed to the fourth; to the power four /'n?t 's?m?l? t?/ /'skwe?d/ /'kju:bd/ /t? ?? 'f??θ/ /te ?? 'pɑ?? f??/

n

to the n; to the nth; to the power n root; square root cube root fourth root factorial percent infinity varies as; proportional to dot double dot is to, ratio of f; function f dash; derivative f double-dash; second derivative f triple-dash; f treble-dash; third derivative f four; fourth derivative partial derivative, delta integral sum with respect to log log to the base 2 of x therefore because gives, leads to, approaches per

/t? ?? en; t? d? enθ; t? ?? pɑ??r en/ /ru:t/ /skwe? ru:t/ /kju:b ru:t/ /f??θ ru?t/ /f?k't??r??l/ /p?'sent/ /?n'f?n?t?/ /'v??r?z/ /pr?'p????n?l/ /d?t/ /d?bl d?t/ /re?????/ /ef/ /'f??k??n/ /d??/ /d?'r?v?t?v/ /'d?bl d??/ /'sek?nd d?'r?v?t?v/ /'tr?pl d??/ / trebl d??/ /θ?:d d?'r?v?t?v/ /f??θ d?'r?v?t?v/ /pa???l d?'r?v?t?v/ /delt?/ /'?nt?gr?l/ /s?m/ /w?? 'r?spekt/ /l?g/ /l?g t? ?? be?s tu: ?v eks/ /'???f??/ /b?'k?z/ /g?vz/ /li:dz t?/ /?pr????z/ /p?:/

√ ? ? ! % ∞ ∝ ˙ ¨ : f(x) fx f'(x) f''x f'''(x) f(4) ? ∫ ∑ w.r.t. log log?x ∴ ∵ → / ∈

belongs to; a member of; an /b?'l??z/ /'memb?/ /'el?m?nt/

element of ? does not belong to; is not a /n?t b?'l??/ /n?t ? 'memb?/ /n?t ?n member of; is not an element 'el?m?nt/ of contained in; a proper subset /k?n'te?nd ?n/ /'pr?p? 's?bset/ of contained in; subset intersection union for all cos x; cosine x sine x tangent x cosec x shine x cosh x than x mod x; modulus x degrees Centigrade degrees Fahrenheit degrees Kelvin absolute zero /'s?bset/ /'?nt?sek??n/ /'ju?n??n/ /f? r?:l/ /k?z/ /sa?n/ /tan/ /'k??sek/ /'?a?n/ /'k??/ /θ?n/ /m?d/ /'m?dj?l?s/ /d?'gri:z 'sent?gre?d/ /d?'gri:z 'f?r?nha?t/ /d?'gri:z 'kelv?n/ /abs?lu:t zi:r??/

? ? ? ? ? cos x sin x tan x cosec x sinh x cosh x tanh x |x| ℃ ℉ °K 0°K, –273.15 °C mm cm

millimetre centimetre

/'m?l?mi?t?/ /'sent?mi?t?/ /'kju?b?k 'sent?mi?t?/ /'sent?mi?t? 'kju:bd/ /'mi?t?/ /k?'l?m?t?/ '/m?l?gr?m/

cc, cm?

cubic centimetre, centimetre cubed

m km mg

metre kilometre milligram

g kg AC DC

gram kilogram A.C. D.C.

/gr?m/ /'k?l?gr?m/ /e? si:/ /di: si:/

Examples
x+1 x -1 x±1 xy (x — y)(x + y) x/y x÷y x=5 x≈y x≡y x≠y x>y x<y x≥y x≤y 0<x<1 0≤x≤1 x? x? x x x ? ?
4 n -n

x plus one x minus one x plus or minus one x y; x times y; x multiplied by y x minus y, x plus y x over y; x divided by y; x divided by y x equals 5; x is equal to 5 x is approximately equal to y x is equivalent to y; x is identical with y x is not equal to y x is greater than y x is less than y x is greater than or equal to y x is less than or equal to y zero is less than x is less than 1; x is greater than zero and less than 1 zero is less than or equal to x is less than or equal to 1; x is greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to 1 x squared x cubed x to the fourth; x to the power four x to the n; x to the nth; x to the power n x to the minus n; x to the power of minus n root x; square root x; the square root of x the cube root of x the fourth root of x



the nth root of x (x + y)? (x/y)? n! x% ∞ x ∝ y ? ? f(x) fx f'(x) f''x f'''(x) f(4) ?v ?v ?θ ??v ?θ? dv dv dθ d?v dθ? ∫ x plus y all squared x over y all squared n factorial; factorial n x percent infinity x varies as y; x is (directly) proportional to y x dot x double dot f of x; the function of x f dash x; the (first) derivative of with respect to x f double-dash x; the second derivative of f with respect to x f triple-dash x; f treble-dash x; the third derivative of f with respect to x f four x; the fourth derivative of f with respect to x the partial derivative of v delta v by delta theta, the partial derivative of v with respect to θ delta two v by delta theta squared; the second partial derivative of v with respect to θ the derivative of v d v by d theta, the derivative of v with respect to theta d 2 v by d theta squared, the second derivative of v with respect to theta, integral integral from zero to infinity ∑ sum the sum from i equals 1 to n w.r.t. logey ∴ with respect to log to the base e of y; log y to the base e; natural log (of) y therefore

x ∝ 1/y x varies as one over y; x is indirectly proportional to y

∵ → Δx → 0 lim
Δx→0

because gives, approaches delta x approaches zero the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero metres per second x belongs to A; x is a member of A; x is an element of A x does not belong to A; x is not a member of A; x is not an element of A A is contained in B; A is a proper subset of B A is contained in B; A is a subset of B A intersection B A union B cos x; cosine x sine x tangent x, tan x cosec x shine x cosh x than x mod x; modulus x eighteen degrees Centigrade seventy degrees Fahrenheit

Lt
Δx→0

m/sec x ∈ A x? A A? B A ? B A?B A?B cos x sin x tan x cosec x sinh x cosh x tanh x |x| 18 ℃ 70 ℉

Greek alphabet
Α α alpha Β β beta Δ δ delta /'?lf?/ /'bi:t?/ /'delt?/

Γ γ gamma /'g?m?/ Ε ε epsilon /'epsil?n/ Ζ ζ zeta /'zi?t?/

Η η eta Θ θ theta Ι ι iota

/'i?t?/ /'θi?t?/ /a?'??t?/ /'k?p?/ /'l?md?/ /'mju?/ /'nju?/ /'ksa?/ /'pa?/ /'r??/ /'s?gm?/ /'tɑ?/ /'fa?/ /'ka?/ /'psa?/

Κ κ kappa Λ λ lamda Μ μ mu Ν ν nu Ξ ξ xi Π π pi Ρ ρ? rho Σ σ sigma Τ τ tau

Ο ο omicron /'??m?kr?n

Υ υ upsilon /'j?ps?l?n/ Φ φ phi Χ χ chi Ψ ψ psi

? ω omega /'??m?g?

Fractions
? a half ? a quarter /? 'hɑ:f/ /? 'kw??t?/

? three quarters /θri? 'kw??t?z/ ? a third ? two thirds ? a fifth ? two fifths ? three fifths /? 'θ?:d/ /tu: 'θ?:dz/ /? 'f?fθ/ /tu: 'f?fθs/ /θri? 'f?fθs/

? four fifths ? a sixth ? five sixths ? an eighth

/f?? 'f?fθs/ /? 's?ksθ/ /fa?v 's?ksθs/ /?n 'e?tθ/

? three eighths /θri? 'e?tθs/ ? five eighths /fa?v 'e?tθs/

? seven eighths /sev?n 'e?tθs/

Decimal Fractions
0.1 0.01 0.0001 1.1 1.2 1.23 1.0123 10.01 21.57 2.6666666666.... 2.612361236123... 2.5 million nought point one nought point oh one one point one one point two one point two three ten point oh one twenty-one point five seven two point six recurring /n?:t p??nt w?n/ /n?:t p??nt ?? w?n/ /w?n p??nt w?n/ /w?n p??nt tu:/ /w?n p??nt tu: θri:/ /ten p??nt ?? w?n/ /'twent? w?n p??nt fa?v 'sev?n/ /tu: p??nt s?ks r?'k?:r??/

nought point oh oh oh one /ten p??nt ?? ?? ?? w?n/

one point oh one two three /w?n p??nt ?? w?n tu: θri:/

two point six one two three /tu: p??nt s?ks w?n tu: θri: recurring r?'k?:r??/ two point five million /tu: p??nt fa?v 'm?lj?n/

SI Units: Prefixes
10-24 yocto y /j'?kt??/ 10-21 zepto z /'zept??/ 10-18 atto 10 10 10
-15 -12 -9

a /'at??/ p /'pi:k??/

femto f /'femt??/ pico nano n /'nan??/

10-6 micro ? /'ma?kr??/ 10-3 milli 10-1 deci 103 kilo m /'m?l?/ d /'des?/ k /'k?l??/ 10-2 centi c /'sent?/

106 mega M /'meg?/ 109 giga G /'gi:g?/ 1012 tera 1018 exa T /'ter?/ E /'eks?/ 1015 peta P /'pet?/ 1021 zeta Z /'zet?/ 1024 yota Y /'j?t?/

Cardinal Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen /w?n/ /tu:/ /θri:/ /f??/ /fa?v/ /s?ks/ /'sev?n/ /e?t/ /na?n/ /ten/ /?'lev?n/ /twelv/ /θ?:'ti:n/ /f??'ti:n/ /f?f'ti:n/ /s?kst'i:n/ /seven'ti:n/ /e?'ti:n/

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 101 102 110 120 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000

nineteen twenty twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three twenty-four twenty-five twenty-six twenty-seven twenty-eight twenty-nine thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety a hundred; one hundred a hundred and one a hundred and two a hundred and ten a hundred and twenty two hundred three hundred four hundred five hundred six hundred seven hundred eight hundred nine hundred a thousand, one thousand

/na?n'ti:n/ /'twent?/ /twent?'w?n/ /twent?'tu:/ /twent?'θri:/ /twent?'f??/ /twent?'fa?v/ /twent?'s?ks/ /twent?'sev?n/ /twent?'e?t/ /twent?'na?n/ /'θ?:t?/ /'f??t?/ /'f?ft?/ /'s?kst?/ /'sevent?/ /'e?t?/ /'na?nt?/ /? 'h?ndr?d/ /w?n 'h?ndr?d/ /? 'h?ndr?d ?n w?n/ /? 'h?ndr?d ?n tu:/ /? 'h?ndr?d ?n ten/ /? 'h?ndr?d ?n 'twent?/ /tu: 'h?ndr?d/ /θri: 'h?ndr?d/ /f?? 'h?ndr?d/ /fa?v 'h?ndr?d/ /s?ks 'h?ndr?d/ /'sev?n 'h?ndr?d/ /e?t 'h?ndr?d/ /na?n 'h?ndr?d/ /? θ'ɑ?z?nd/ /w?n 'θɑ?z?nd/

1 001 1 010 1 020 1 100 1 101 1 110 9 999 10 000 15 356 100 000 100 000 000

a thousand and one a thousand and ten a thousand and twenty one thousand, one hunded one thousand, one hundred and one one thousand, one hundred and ten nine thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine ten thousand fifteen thousand, three hundred and fifty six a hundred thousand

/? 'θɑ?z?nd ?n w?n/ /? 'θɑ?z?nd ?n ten/ /? 'θɑ?z?nd ?n 'twent?/ /w?n 'θɑ?z?nd w?n 'h?ndr?d/ /w?n 'θɑ?z?nd w?n 'h?ndr?d ?n w?n/ /w?n 'θɑ?z?nd w?n 'h?ndr?d ?n ten/ /na?n 'θɑ?z?nd na?n 'h?ndr?d ?n 'na?nt? 'na?n/ /ten 'θɑ?z?nd/ /'f?fti:n 'θɑ?z?nd θri: 'h?ndr?d ?n 'f?ft? s?ks/ /? 'h?ndr?d 'θɑ?z?nd/ /? 'm?lj?n/ /? 'h?ndr?d 'm?lj?n/ /? 'b?lj?n/ /? 'h?ndr?d 'b?lj?n/ /? 'tr?lj?n/

1 000 000 a million a hundred million

1 000 000 a billion 000 100 000 000 000 a hundred billion

1 000 000 a trillion 000

Ordinal Numbers
1st 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th first third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth /f?:st/ /'sek?nd/ /θ?:d/ /f?:θ/ /f?fθ/ /s?ksθ/ /'sev?nθ/ /e?tθ/ /na?nθ/ /tenθ/

2nd second

10th tenth

11th eleventh 12th twelfth 13th thirteenth 14th fourtheenth 15th fidteenth 16th sixteenth 17th seventeenth 18th eighteenth 19th nineteenth 20th twentieth 21st twenty-first 23rd twenty-third 24th twenty-fourth 25th twenty-fifth 26th twenty-sixth 28th twenty-eighth 29th twenty-ninth 30th thirtieth 31st thirty-first

/?'lev?nθ/ /'twelfθ/ /θ?:'ti:nθ/ /f??'ti:nθ/ /f?f'ti:nθ/ /s?ks'ti:nθ/ /seven'ti:nθ/ /e?'ti:nθ/ /na?n'ti:nθ/ /'twent??θ/ /twent?'f?:st/ /twent?'θ?:d/ /twent?'f?:θ/ /twent?'f?fθ/ /twent?'s?ksθ/ /twent?'e?tθ/ /twent?'na?nθ/ /'θ??t??θ/ /θ??t?'f?:st/

22nd twenty-second /twent?'sek?nd/

27th twenty-seventh /twent?'sev?nθ/

数学符号的英语读法
1.Cardinals and Ordinals 基数和序数

(1)100 以内的数词 基数 序数 Roman Arabic Numerals Numerals 罗马数字 阿拉伯数字 读法 数码 读法 I 1 one 1st the first II 2 two 2nd the second III 3 three 3rd the third IV 4 four 4th the fourth V 5 five 5th the fifth VI 6 six 6th the sixth VII 7 seven 7th the seventh VIII 8 eight 8th the eighth IX 9 nine 9th the ninth X 10 ten 10th the tenth XI 11 eleven 11th the eleventh XII 12 twelve 12th the twelfth XIII 13 thirteen 13th the thirteenth XIV 14 fourteen 14th the fourteenth

XV 15 fifteen 15th the fifteenth XVI 16 sixteen 16th the sixteenth XVII 17 seventeen 17th the seventeenth XVIII 18 eighteen 18th the eighteenth XIX 19 nineteen 19th the nineteenth XX 20 twenty 20th the twentieth XXI 21 twenty-one 21st the twenty-first XXV 25 twenty-five 25th the twenty-fifth XXX 30 thirty 30th the thirtieth XL 40 forty 40th the fortieth L 50 fifty 50th the fiftieth LX 60 sixty 60th the sixtieth LXX 70 seventy 70th the seventieth LXXX 80 eighty 80th the eightieth XC 90 ninety 90th the ninetieth IC 99 ninety-nine 99th the ninety-ninth C 100 one hundred 100th the hundredth CII 102 a hundred 102nd the (one) hundred and two and second 246 two hundred and forty-six 751 seven hundred and fifty-one

(2)1000 以上的数词 1,000 = one thousand 一千 10,000 = ten thousand 一万 100,000 = one hundred thousand 十万 1,000,000 = one million 一百万 10,000,000 = ten million 一千万 100,000,000=one hundred million 一亿

(3)十亿以上的大数,英美有不同的读法: 英国 美国 十亿 one thousand million = one billion 百亿 ten thousand million = ten billion 千亿 one hundred thousand million = one hundred billion 万亿 one billion = one trillion

2.Fractions 分数

通常将分子读为基数,将分母读为序数。 1/2 = a (or one) half 1/3 = a (or one) third 1/4 = a quarter or one fouth 1/5 = a (or one) fifth

2/3 = two thirds 9/10 = nine tenths 53/4 = five and three quarters 15/64= fifteen over (or by) sixty-four 15% = fifteen per cent 4‰ = four per mill

3.Decimals 小数

0.4 = zero (or

nought ) point four

.01 = point (or decimal) nought one 12.34 = twelve point three four 567.809 = five hundred and sixty-seven point eight nought nine 30.45 = thirty point four five, five recurring 0.3% = decimal three percent

4.Mathematic Forms 数学式

(1) Addition 加法 1+2=3 One and two are three. 2+3=5 Two plus three equals five. 4+0=4 Four and nought is equal to four.

45+70+152=267 45,70 and 152 added are (or make) 267 the sum (or total) is 267. 演算时的读法: Three and seven are ten; I write(or I write down,or I put down)a nought and carry one. Four and one that I carry are five, and eight make thirteen,and three sixteen; I write down six and carry one. One and one (that I carry) are two; I put down two.- The sum (or total, or the result of the addition) is two hundred and sixty. 37,80 and 143 added together, and(or make) 260.

(2)Subtraction 减法 9-4=5 Nine minus four equals (or is equal to) five. 15-7=8 Seven from fifteen leaves eight. 23,654-8,175=15,479 8,175 (take or subtracted) from 23,654 leaves 15,479. The difference (or The remainder) is 15,479. Nine from five won`t go. 演 算 时 的 读 法 : Nought from nought (leaves) nought. One from one leaves nought (or nothing). Two from three (leaves) one. I can`t take (or subtract) five from four; I

must borrow ten; five from fourteen leaves nine.- The difference (or The remainder) is nine thousand one hundred. 5210 (take or substracted) from 14,310 leaves 9,100.

(3)Multiplication 乘法 1×0=0 One multiplied by nought equals nought. 1×1=1 Once one is one. 2×1=2 Twice one is two. 3×5=15 Three times five is fifteen 6×0=0 Multiply six by nothing, and the result is nothing. 演算时的读法: Five times nine (or Nine multiplied by five) are forty-five; I put down five and carry four. Five times seven are thirty-five and four (that I carry) are thirty-nine; I write down nine and carry three. Five times six make thirty and three (that I carry) thirty-three; I put down thirty-three. Eight times nine (or Eight nine) are seven two; I write two and carry seven. Eight sevens make fifty-six and seven are sixty-three. I put down three and carry six. Eight sixes make forty-eight

and six fifty-four; I write down fifty-four. I now add the partial results (or products) Five. Two and nine are eleven. Three and three are six and one are seven. Four and three make seven. Five.

(4)Division 除法 9÷3=3 Nine divided by three maks (or is equal to) three. 20÷5=4 Five into twenty goes four times. 4567÷23=198 余 13 23 into 4567 goes 198 times, and 13 remainder. The quctient is 198, and 13 remainder. 演算时的读法 : Fifteen into thirteen won`t go ; fifteen into one hundred and thirty-eight goes nine times; nine times fifteen are one hundred and threty-five; one hundred and thirty-five from one hundred and thirty-eight leaves three; I bring down seven; fifteen into thirty-seven goes twice; twice fifteen are thirty; thirty from thirty-seven leaves seven. The (exact) quotient is ninety-two, and seven remainder; 15 into 1387 goes 92 times, and 7 remainder.

5.Time 时间

(1)Hours 钟点 2h.5'8" = two hours five minutes eight seconds 2 小时 5 分 8 秒 6.18 = six eighteen 6 时 18 分 8.30 a.m.= eight thirty a.m.['ei 'em] 上午 8 时 30 分 the 6.05 p.m.train = the six (nought) five p.m.['pi:'em] train 下午 6 时零 5 分列车 又二十四小时混合制的写法和读法如下: 0900 = 0 nine hunderd (上午)9 时 0910 = 0 nine ten (上午)9 时 10 分 1300 = thirteen hundred 13 时(下午 1 时) 1525 = fifteen twenty-five 15 时 25 分(下午 3 时 25 分) 2000 = twenty hundred 20 时(下午 8 时) at 5 o'c =at five o'clock 五点钟

(2)Date 日期 Oct.1 =October first 10 月 1 日 Oct.1st = October the first 10 月 1 日 Ist Oct. 1949 = teh first of October, nineteen forty-nine 1949 年 10 月 1 日 3/5 = [英]May (the) third 5 月 3 日;[美]March fifth 3 月 5 日 [附注]联系日期前置词用 on.

(3)Year 年份

684 B.C. =Six eighty-four B.C. ['bi:'si:] 公元前 684 年 1960 = nineteen sixty; nineteen hundred and sixty 19- nineteen something 1950's nineteen fifties 二十世纪五十年代 [附注]联系年份的前置词用 in.

6.Numbers 号码

(1)Telephones Numbers 电话号码 1023 = one O two three; ten twenty-three 1227 = one double two (or two two) seven 0386 = O three eight six 0096 = double O(or O O )nine six 7000 = seven O double O = seven thousand No.26= Number 26 第 26 号 Room 201 = Room two O one 第 201 房间 10 Changan Street = Ten Changan Street 长安街 10 号

(2)Writings 书籍作品 Vol.I = Volume one (or the first volume) 卷一 Chap.II= Chapter two (or the second chapter) 第 2 章

Page 3 = page Three (or the third page) 第 3 页 See pp.5-10 = See Pages five to ten 见第 5-10 页 Act V = Act five (or the fifth act) 第 5 幕 Hamlet III 1:56 = Hamlet Act Three, Secene One.Line fifty-six 《哈姆雷 特》第 3 幕第一场第 56 行 Matt.7:12 = Matthew, Chapter Seven, Verse Twelve 《马可福音》第七 章第 12 节 Beethoven Op.49 = Beethoven Opus forty-nine 贝多芬作品第 49 号 4to = quarto 四本开 8vo = octavo 八本开

(3)Other 其他 World War I = World War One 第一次世界大战 World War II = World War Two 第二次世界大战 Charles I= Charles the First 查理一世 Henry V = Henry the Fifth 亨利五世 Mr.- = Mr. Dash; Mr. So-and-so 某某先生 Mr.B - = Mr. B -Esq.,of -= the town of Blank Esquire of Blank University 某大学某某 先生 the town of = the town of Blank 某某城 The result of the game was 3-0 比赛结果是三比零。

7.Money 货币

(1)British currency 英币 6d. = six pence 六便士 1/2d. = a halfpenny 半便士 11/2d. = a peney halfpenny or three halfpeny or three halfpence 一便士半 1/4d. = a farthing 一个铜元 33/4d.= three pence three farghings 三便士三铜元 1s.6d.(or 1/6) = one (shilling) and six (pence) 一先令六便士 £1.18 = (or£1.18s.)= one pound eighteen (shillings) 一镑十八先令 £1.3s.6d. = one pound, three shillings (and) sixpence 4/51/2(or4s.51/2d.) = four (shillings) and five pence halfpenny

(2)U.S. currency 1.20 dollar (and) twenty (cents) 美金一元二角 4.25 = four dollars twenty-five cents 美金四元二角五分

(3)Soviet currency 前苏联币 6 Rb. 15 = six roubles fifteen kopecks 六卢布十五戈比

(4) German currency 德币

1 m. 60 = one mark sixty pfennig -马克六十芬尼

(5)French currency 法国币 1 fr.30 = one franc. thirty (centimes) -法郎三十生丁 0 fr.15 = fifteen centimes 十五生丁

(6) Chinese People's Currency 人民币 1.50 = one yuan and a half 一元五角 JMP 10.35 = JMP ten yuan thirty-five (fen) 人民币十元三角五分 附注:yuan 单复数没有变化: 也可作为日本本位币“圆”的符号。

8. Weight and Measures 度量衡

(1) length, area, and volume 长度、面积和容积 3 in = three inches 三英寸 15 ft.5 in = fifteen foot five (inches) 十五英尺五英寸 [附注] 尤其在 inches 省略时, ft.读作 foot;如果 inches 也念出来,ft 可 以读作 fett. 18'6 5/1"= eighteen foot six and a fifth (inches) 10×8feet= ten by eight feet 十英尺长,八英尺宽 5"×4×31/2 = five inches by four by three and a half 长五英寸, 宽四英

寸,高三英寸半 [附注] 以上二例中,乘号×表示面积或容积。

(2)Weight 重量 12 dr. 23 gr.= Twelve drams twenty-three grains 十二打兰二十三喱 10 oz. 4 dr. = Ten ounces four drams 十盎司打兰

(3)Capacity 容量 3 gi. = three gills 三及耳 1 qt. 1 pt = one quart one pint 一夸脱一品脱 [附注] qt.,pt. 的复数是 qts.,pts.,也可以不加 s. 20 gal. 5 qt. =Twenty gallons five quarts 二十加仑五夸脱 5 bu. 3 pk. = Five bushels three pecks 五蒲式耳三配克

符号的英文读法

. period 句号 ≈ is approximately equal to 约等于号 , comma 逗号 < is less than 小于号 : colon 冒号 > is more than 大于号

; semicolon 分号 ≮ is not less than 不小于号 ! exclamation 惊叹号 ≯ is not more than 不大于号 ? question mark 问号 ≤ is less than or equal to 小于或等于号  ̄ hyphen 连字符 ≥ is more than or equal to 大于或等于号 ' apostrophe 省略号 ;所有格符号 % per cent 百分之… - dash 破折号 ‰ per mill 千分之… ' ' single quotation marks 单引号 ∞ infinity 无限大号 double quotation marks 双引号 ∝ varies as 与…成比例 ( ) parentheses 圆括号 √ (square) root 平方根 [ ] square brackets 方括号 ∵ since; because 因为 《 》 French quotes 法文引号;书名号

∴ hence 所以 ... ellipsis 省略号 ∷ equals, as (proportion) 等于,成比例 ¨ tandem colon 双点号 ∠ angle 角 ditto 双点号 ⌒ semicircle 半圆 ‖ parallel 双线号 ⊙ circle 圆 / virgule 斜线号 ○ circumference 圆周 & ampersand = and π pi 圆周率 ~ swung dash 代字号 △ triangle 三角形 § section; division 分节号 ⊥ perpendicular to 垂直于 → arrow 箭号;参见号 ∪ union of 并,合集 + plus 加号;正号 ∩ intersection of 交,通集 - minus 减号;负号

∫ the integral of …的积分 ± plus or minus 正负号 ( ∑ sigma) summation of 总和 × is multiplied by 乘号 ° degree 度 ÷ is divided by 除号 ′ minute 分 = is equal to 等于号 ″ second 秒 ≠ is not equal to 不等于号 # number …号 ≡ is equivalent to 全等于号 ℃ Celsius system 摄氏度 ≌ is equal to or approximately equal to 等于或约等于号 @ at 单价

R’ R”

R prime R double prime, R second prime

R1 R sub one 100° C one hundred degrees Centigrade + plus; positive - minus; negative

& acute; multiplied by; times & cedil; divided by ± plus or minus = is equal to; equals & ordm; is identically equal to & raquo; is approximately equal to ( ) round brackets; parentheses [ ] square brackets { } braces a>>b a is much greater than b a&sup3; b a is greater than or equal to b a&micro; b a varies directly as b lognX logX to the base n the cubic root of x the nth root of x x2 x square, x squared, the square of x Xn X to n factors; the nth power of x; x to the power n x -8 x to the minus eighth power &iuml; x&iuml; the absolute value of x the mean value of X the sum of the terms indicated; summation of D x or d x the increment of x

dx differential x dy/dx the first derivative of y with respect to x ò integral & yen; infinity 1/2 a half; one half 2/3 two thirds 5/123 five over a hundred and twenty-three eight and three over fourths; eight and three quarters 0.01 O point O one; zero point zero one; nought point nought one 6 % 6 percent 3‰ 3 per mille 2 : 3 the ratio of two to three r=xd r equals x multiplied by d 5&acute; 2=10 five times two equals ten x3/8=y2 x raised to the third power divided by eight equals y squared (a+b-c&acute; d)/e=f a plus b minus c multiplied by d, all divided by e equals f y = (Wt-W)/x y equals W sub t minus W over x