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【步步高】2015届高中英语外研版(通用)【配套WORD文档】:语法专题一 动词的时态和语态

专题一

动词的时态和语态

◆动词时态的考查要点 1.一般现在时考点分析 (1)表示客观事实或普遍真理(不受时态限制)。 Time and tide wait for no man. (2)表示现状、性质、状态时多用系动词或状态动词;表示经常或习惯性的动作,多用 动作动词,且常与表频率的时间状语连用。 They always care for each other and help each other. (3)表示知觉、态度、感情、某种抽象的关系或概念的词常用一般现在时:see,hear, smell,taste,feel,notice,agree,believe,like,hate,want,think,belong,seem 等。 Smith owns a car and a house. All the students here belong to No.1 Middle School. (4)在时间、条件状语从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。但要注意由 if 引导的条件状 语从句中可以用 shall 或 will 表“意愿”,但不表示时态。 If you will accept my invitation and come to our party,my family will be pleased. (5)少数用于表示起止的动词如 come,go,leave,arrive,fly,return,start,begin,open, close,end,stop 等常用一般现在时代替将来时,表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动 作。当 be 表示根据时间或事先安排肯定会出现的状态时,只用一般现在时。 The shop closes at 11∶00 p.m. every day. Tomorrow is Wednesday. 2.一般过去时考点分析 (1)一般过去时的基本用法:表示过去的事情、动作或状态,常与表示过去具体的时间 状语连用(或有上下文语境暗示);用于表达过去的习惯;表示说话人原来没有料到、想到或 希望的事通常用过去式。

We met her in the street yesterday. When he was young,he took cold baths regularly. (2)如果从句中有一个过去的时间状语,尽管从句中的动作先于主句发生,但从句中的 谓语动词仍用过去时。 He told me he read an interesting novel last night. (3)表示两个紧接着发生的动作,常由以下词语连接,用一般过去时。如: but,and, when,as soon as,immediately,the moment,the minute 等。 The moment she came in,she told me what had happened to her. He bought a watch but lost it. (4)常用一般过去时的句型。 Why didn’t you think of that? I didn’t notice it. I forgot to tell you I had been there with my brother before. I didn’t recognize him. 3.一般将来时考点分析 (1)表示未来的动作或状态,常用 will/shall+动词,常与表示将来的时间状语连用,如: tomorrow,next week 等。 (2)表示一种趋向或习惯动作。 We’ll die without air or water. (3)表示趋向行为的动词如 come,go,start,begin,leave 等词常用进行时的形式表示将 来时。 (4)be going to,will/shall,be to do,be about to do 的用法及区别: be going to 表示现在打算在最近或将来要做某事, 这种打算往往经过事先考虑, 甚至已 做了某种准备;shall/will do 表示未事先考虑过,即说话时临时作出的决定。 be going to 表将来,不能用在条件状语从句的主句中;而 will 则能,表意愿。 If it is fine,we’ll go fishing.[√] If it is fine,we are going to go fishing.[× ] be to do 表按计划、安排即将发生的动作,还可表示吩咐、命令、禁止、可能性等。 A meeting is to be held at 3∶00 o’clock this afternoon. be about to do 表示“即将,正要”,后面不能接时间状语或状语从句。 Autumn harvest is about to start. 4.现在进行时考点分析 (1)表示说话时正在发生着的一个动作;表示现阶段但不一定是发生在讲话时正在进行 的动作;表近期特定的安排或计划;go,come 等表示移动的动词可用进行时代替将来时;

与 always,often 等频度副词连用,表经常反复的行动或某种感情色彩。 She is teaching English and learning Chinese. He is working on a paper. I am meeting Mr. Wang tonight. We are leaving on Friday. The girl is always talking loud in public. (2)下面四类动词不宜用现在进行时。 ①表示心理状态、情感的动词:like,love,hate,care,remember,believe,want,mind, wish,agree,mean,need 等。 ②表存在状态的动词:appear,exist,lie,remain,seem,belong to 等。 ③表示行为结果的动词:allow,accept,permit,promise,admit,complete 等。 ④表示感官的动词:see,hear,notice,feel,smell,sound,taste,look 等。 5.过去完成时考点分析 (1)常用过去完成时的几种情况。 ①在 by,by the end,by the time,until,before,since 后接表示过去某一时间的短语或 从句的句子中。 By the end of last year,we had produced 20,000 cars. The train had left before we reached the station. ② 表 示 未 曾 实 现 的 希 望 、 打 算 、 意 图 、 诺 言 等 。 常 用 had hoped/planned/meant/intended/thought/wanted/expected 等或用上述动词的过去式接不定 式的完成式,即:hoped/planned...+to have done。 ③“时间名词+before”在句中作状语, 谓语动词用过去完成时; “时间名词+ago”在 句中作状语,谓语动词用一般过去时。 He said his first teacher had died at least 10 years before. Xiao Hua left school 3 years ago. ④在 hardly/scarcely...when... , no sooner than... 句式中,主句常用过去完成时,表示 “一??就??”。当 hardly,scarcely,no sooner 置于句首时,其后要用部分倒装。 We had no sooner been seated than the bus started.=No sooner had we been seated than the bus started. (2)在 before 或 after 引导的时间状语从句中用一般过去时代替过去完成时。 After he (had) left the room,the boss came in. We arrived home before it snowed. 6.过去将来时考点分析 过去将来时表示从过去的观点来预计以后要发生的动作或存在的状态, 这种时态常用于

宾语从句中,主句常是一般过去时。 He always said that he would study hard at that time. 7.过去进行时考点分析 过去进行时表示在过去某个时刻正在进行的动作或存在的状态。 He was reading an interesting book this time yesterday. 8.现在完成时考点分析 (1)现在完成时除可以和 for,since 引导的状语连用外,还可以和下面的介词短语连用: during/in/over the last(past) few years(months,weeks),in recent years,so far,up to now 等。 (2)下列句型中常用现在完成时 It is(has been)+一段时间+since 从句 This(That/It) is the first(second...) time that+现在完成时 This(That/It) is the best/finest/most interesting...+that+现在完成时 (3)在时间或条件状语从句中,现在完成时可以代替将来完成时。 I shall post the letter as soon as I have written it. If you have done the experiment,you will realize the theory better. Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped. 9.注意几组时态的区别 (1)一般过去时与现在完成时: ①时间上有差异:凡有过去时间的均用一般过去时,不能用现在完成时,如含有 ago, last year,just now,the other day 等。 ②结果上有差异: 现在完成时强调的是对“现在”的影响和结果, 动作到现在刚完成或 还在继续;一般过去时强调的是动作发生在“过去”,和现在毫无关系。 (2)过去完成时与一般过去时:过去完成时强调的是“过去的过去”;如出现同一主语 连续几个动作(“连谓”)形式则只用一般过去时即可。 题组训练 1 用所给动词的正确时态填空 1.Planning so far ahead makes(make) no sense—so many things will have changed by next year. 2.Experiments of this kind had_been_conducted(conduct) in both the U.S. and Europe well before the Second World War. 3.—Bob has gone to California. —Oh,can you tell me when he left(leave)? 4.Did you predict that many students would_sign(sign) up for the dance competition? 5.—I hear you are_working(work) in a pub. What’s it like? —Well,it’s very hard work and I’m always tired,but I don’t mind.

6.—I didn’t ask for the name list. Why has it landed(land) on my desk? —I put it there just now in case you needed it. 7. The manager was worried about the press conference his assistant was_giving(give) in his place but,luckily,everything was going on smoothly. 8.—That must have been a long trip. —Yeah,it took(take) us a whole week to get there. ◆动词被动语态的考查要点 动词的被动语态的构成方式:be+过去分词,口语中也用“get/become+过去分词”表 示。被动语态的基本用法:不知道或没必要提到动作的执行者是谁时用被动语态;强调或突 出动作的承受者常用被动语态(by 短语有时可以省略)。 1.使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题。 (1)主动变为被动时双宾语的变化。 My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday. An interesting book was given to me (by my friend) on my birthday. I was given an interesting book (by my friend) on my birthday. (2)主动变为被动时,宾语成主语;(作补语的)不定式前需加 to(位置不变)。 The boss made him work all day long. He was made to work all day long (by the boss). (3)短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉“尾巴”。 The children were taken good care of (by her). Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to. (4)情态动词,be going to,be to,be sure to,have to 等结构变为被动语态时,只需将它 们后面的动词原形变为 be+过去分词。 (5)当句子的谓语为 say,believe,expect,think,know,write,consider,report 等时, 被动语态有两种形式:①谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定式作主补。②用 it 作形式主语, 真正的主语在后面用主语从句来表示。 ?People say he is a smart boy.

? ?He is said to be a smart boy. ?It is said that he is a smart boy. ?

People know paper was made in China first. ? ? ?Paper was known to be made in China first. ? ?It is known that paper was made in China first. 类似句型有:It is said/known/suggested/believed/hoped/thought that... 题组训练 2 用所给动词的正确语态填空 1.In the near future,more advances in the robot technology will_be_made(make) by scientists.

2.In the last few years thousands of films have_been_produced(produce) all over the world. 3.All visitors to this village are_treated(treat) with kindness. 4.The computer might_be_repaired(repair) by tomorrow. 5.They can’t move into the house because it is_being_painted_(paint) now. 2.不能用被动语态的几种情况。 (1)所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于被动语态之中。 (2)表示状态的谓语动词,如:last,hold,contain,fit,cost 等。 (3)表示归属的动词,如 have,own,belong to 等。 (4)表示“希望、意图”的动词,如:wish,want,hope,like,love,hate 等。 (5)宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态。 (6)宾语是同源宾语、不定式、动名词等谓语动词不用被动语态。 3.主动形式表被动意义。 (1)当 feel,look,smell,taste,sound 等后面接形容词时;当 cut,read,sell,wear, write 等带状语修饰语时;当动词表示“开始、结束、关、停、转、启动”等意义时。 The fish smells good. This kind of cloth washes easily. These novels won’t sell well. My pen writes smoothly. The door won’t lock. (2)当 break out,take place,shut off,turn off,work out 等动词表示“发生、关闭、制 定”等意思时。 The plan worked out successfully. The lamps on the wall turn off. (3)want,require,need 后面的动名词用主动形式表示被动含义。 (4)be worth doing 用主动形式表示被动含义。 (5)在“be+形容词+to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。 This kind of water isn’t fit to drink. The girl isn’t easy to get along with. 注意:be to blame(受谴责),be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动。 4.被动形式表示主动意义的几种情况。 be seated 坐着;be hidden 躲藏;be lost 迷路;be drunk 喝醉;be dressed 穿着 5.被动语态与系表结构的区别。 此处的系表结构指“连系动词+用作表语的过去分词”结构, 它与被动语态的形式完全 一样。要注意它们的区别:

被动语态强调动作;系表结构表示主语的特点或状态。 The book was sold by a certain bookstore.(被动语态) The book is well sold.(系表结构) 题组训练 3 1.He broke the window,so he was_to_blame(该受责备). 2.The new car belongs_to(属于) his brother. 3. There is something wrong with his computer and it needs_repairing/needs_to_be_repaired(需要 修理). 4.The new novel written by Mo Yan is worth_reading(值得一读). 5.This kind of cake tastes_good(尝起来美味) and sells_well(销路好). ◆语法与写作 翻译句子 1.我将一直把交通规则记在心里。(2013· 安徽· 书面表达) I_will_keep_traffic_rules_in_mind_all_the_way. 2.我们跳起来,高兴地欢呼。(2013· 江西· 书面表达) We_jumped_and_cheered_with_joy. 3.我一直忙于学习,很少帮助我的父母做家务。(2013· 陕西· 书面表达) I_have_been_busy_with_my_study_and_seldom_helped_my_parents_with_the_housework. 4.而且,时间表一旦制定,我们应该严格遵守。(2013· 四川· 书面表达) What’s_more,once_the_timetable_is_made,we_should_follow_it_strictly. 5.据报道将在全球选择年龄至少 18 岁的 30 名志愿者,到 2015 年的时候被送到火星上去。 (2013· 广东· 基础写作) It_is_reported_that_thirty_volunteers_who_are_at_least_18_years_old_will_be_chosen_from _all_the_globe_and_sent_to_the_Mars_by_the_year_of_2015. ◆语法填空 A Imagine a password is wired to your body system and you can never forget 1.it.Taiwanese researcher Lin Chunliang says he 2.has_found (find) a way of turning a person’s hearbeats into his computer password,according to the Daily Mail. Scientists have found that electrocardiogram signals from different people’s pulses are not the same,3.meaning (mean) that heartbeats can be used in security systems to identify different people. In the study, Lin 4.took (take) a subject’s electrocardiogram reading twice, once from each hand.From these

two readings, Lin determined the special properties of his or her heartbeats and stored 5.them in a computer.This then became his or her unique password for entering the computer. Lin believes that the pulse rate system will be popular because it is much safer than fingerprint 6.recognition (recognize) systems , some of 7.which can be “tricked” with a photograph of someone else’s finger. The new system is also said to be more convenient.Instead of typing in a series of complicated numbers and letters every time,you 8.simply (simple) need to touch the computer to log in.This may help put 9.an end to the panic of not being able to start up a computer 10.because/for/as/since you’ve forgotten your password. B The only survivor of a shipwreck was washed up on a small and an uninhabited island.He prayed to God for rescuing him, and every day he scanned the horizon for help, but 1.none seemed forthcoming. 2. Exhausted (exhaust), he eventually managed to build a little hut out of driftwood to protect him 3.from the elements,and to store his few possessions.But then one day,after searching for food, he arrived home only 4.to_find (find) his little hut in flames, the smoke rolling up to the sky. The 5.worst (bad) thing happened;everything was lost.He was stunned with grief and anger. “God,how could you do this to me!” he cried.Early the next day,however,he was awakened by the sound of a ship that 6.was_approaching (approach) the island.It came to rescue him. “How did you know I was here?”the weary man asked his rescuers.“We saw your smoke signal,” they replied. It is easy to get discouraged 7.once/when things are going bad.But we shouldn’t lose heart, because God is at work in our lives,even in the midst of pain and suffering.Remember,next time your little hut is burning to the ground,it just may be 8.a smoke signal that summons the grace of God.9.For all the negative things we have to say to 10.ourselves,God has a positive answer to them.


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