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2014高考语法填空题解题技巧与语法填空专题训练


2014 高考语法填空题解题技巧与语法填空专题训练 2014 年英语高考大纲最重要的变化就是题型有重大调整,取消原来的 15 道单选题,新 增 10 道语法填空题,分值不变总分仍为 15 分。 同样都是考语法知识,但单选和语法填空题却有很大不同。语法填空题是给出 200 字左 右的一段短文或对话,段落中给出 10 个填空,其中填空是给出一个单词,填写它的正确词 形,如形容词的比较级等,其余填空是结合上下文直接填词,这要求考生既要掌握熟练的语 法知识,还要有一定的语言阅读能力。从单选题那种单独句子中的单独的语法考核,到短文 中的语法实际应用,此次题型转变得更加灵活。 针对语法填空题如何复习,奇速英语名师提醒考生,应继续进行语法知识的复习,加强 对词汇本身用法,如主、被、动,固定短语搭配,冠词、连词等运用进行复习。下面从考纲 解读、应试点睛、专题训练三个方面进行详细说明: 【考纲解读】 语法填空是考查“词法与句法知识”的项目。词法部分侧重考查动词时态及语态、非谓语 动词、情态动词、冠词、代词、并列连词、形容词与副词、介词等; 句法部分侧重考查定 语从句、名词性从句、状语从句、虚拟语气、强调句型、倒装、省略句等。试题本着“突出 语境、重在运用、符合表达、体现能力”的原则,强调语法知识在具体语境中的运用,因此 掌握一定的文化背景、揣摩说话人的意图成了解决语法填空的关键。 【应试点睛】 1.要仔细阅读题干,抓住关键词,捕捉句中隐含信息。题干中的关键词或关键符号具有提示 信息的作用,一旦抓住了它,就能掌握选择的依据。几乎每年的高考题在题干设计上都有所 创新,所以考生在考试之前应该有相应的心理准备。 例 1.There's a ________ in our office that when it's somebody's birthday, they bring in a cake for us all to share. A.tradition B.balance C.concern D.Relationship [解析] A 考查名词词义辨析。 句意: 在我们办公室有一个传统, 那就是在某一个人过生日时, 那个人就带一个蛋糕到办公室和大家一起分享。tradition 传统; balance 平衡; concern 关 心; relationship 关系。根据句意可知选 A。 2.灵活采用还原法(把倒装式、强调式或疑问式的题干变换为陈述句,再选择就容易多了)、 归类法(根据句意,把选项分组归类,缩小范围,提高做题的速度和确保准确性)、推理法(根 据前后文进行逻辑推理, 在四个选项都可填入的情况下, 要认真阅读全句, 仔细体会其语境, 进行综合判断)、排除法(对于难度较大的题要逐个试填,最后,选取最符合语境的选项)等做 题方法。 例 2. I ________ sooner but I didn't know that they were waiting for me. A.had come B.was coming C.would come D.would have come [解析] D 似乎本题与虚拟语气不沾边,但是我们把“?but I didn't know that they were waiting for me.”变化一下就成了“?if I had known that they were waiting for me.”这样我们就知道, 本空是虚拟语气的主句,与过去事实相反。 3. 多从交际的角度,即上下文的情景考虑问题,不要单一地局限于某项语法理论。近年来, 高考题重视考查学生的语言实践能力,将语法语言知识放置于一定的语言环境中进行考查, 这是近年来高考英语改革的一个方向。所以考生在做题的过程中应该树立全局观、整体观, 不能顾此失彼,只注意语法知识的正确性而忽略了语境使用中的合理性。 例 3. If you ________ smoke, please go outside. A.can B.should C.must D.may [解析] C 句意:如果你非要吸烟,请到外面去。考查情态动词的用法。can 能够;should 应
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该;must 非要,偏要;may 可以。根据语境可知选 C。 4.高考中的单选考点分布相对稳定、集中。英语的时态、语态、非谓语动词、名词、代词、 形容词、副词、冠词、情态动词出现的频率较高,尤其要引起重视的是动词、动词短语、各 种习惯表达法及交际用法。 例 4. The exam results will be ________ on Friday afternoon. A.put down B.put off C.put up D.put away [解析] C 句意:考试结果会在周五的下午被张贴出来。本题考查动词短语用法辨析。A 项意 为“放下,镇压”,B 项意为“推迟,阻止”,C 项意为“张贴,举起,建造”,D 项意为 “收好,储存”。故选 C。 5.对于含插入成分的句子,要抓住主干,排除冗余信息。 例 5.It sounds like something is wrong with the car's engine.________, we'd better take it to the garage immediately. A.Otherwise B.If not C.But for that D.If so [解析] D 句意:听起来好像车的发动机出了问题。如果那样的话,我们最好立即把它送到修 理厂。本题考查省略。otherwise 在其他方面,否则;if not 如果不这样的话,否则; but for that 要不是那样的话; if so 如果那样的话。根据句意应选 D。 【专题展示】 (1)短文体 One of my father's favorite 1 (say) as I was growing up was “Try it!” I couldn't say I didn't like something, 2 it might be, until after I tried it. Over the years I've come to realize how much of my success I owe to my 3 (accept) of those words as one of my values. My first job was just one I decided to try for a couple of years until I determined what I wanted to do as a career (职业). 4 (actual) I believed I would work for a few years, get 5 (marry), stay home and raise a family, so I didn't think the job I took mattered that much. I couldn't 6 more mistaken. I mastered the skills of that 7 (begin) level position and I was given the opportunity (机会) to move up through the company into 8 (differ) positions. I accepted each new opportunity with the thought, “Well, I'll try it; 9 I don't like it I can always go back to my 10 (early) position.” But I was with the same company for the past 28 years. 短文中设有 10 个空,其中 7 个给出了提示词,考生需要根据句意使用恰当的词填空,且词 性和词形要正确;另外 3 个空没有给出任何提示,考生需要根据语篇逻辑填空;填入的单词 数量不得多于 3 个。各题答案如下: 1. sayings 4. Actually 7. beginning 2. whatever 5. married 8. different 3. acceptance 6. have been 9. if 10. earlier

(2)对话体 Mum: (putting on her coat) I'm going to have to go down to the shop for more bread. Alan: Why? Mum: I'm not sure what 1 (happen). I made some sandwiches earlier and left them on the table 2 I went to answer the phone. But someone must have taken them because they're 3 (go). Alan: Oh, it must have been Dad. I'm sure he was in the kitchen 4 (early). Mum: No, he went off to his tennis match before I finished 5 (make) them, so he couldn't have done it. 6 , he couldn't carry a plate of sandwiches as well as all his tennis stuff, so I'm sure 7 wasn't him. Alan: (opening the fridge door) Well, it wasn't me. But Mum, look! Are these your sandwiches
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here on the bottom shelf of 8 fridge? Mum: Are they there? Oh, my goodness. I 9 (put) them in there when the phone rang. Oh, dear. I really must be losing my 10 . Now, why did I put on my coat? 对话中设有 10 个空,其中 5 个给出了提示词,考生需要根据句意使用恰当的词填空;另外 5 个没有给出任何提示,考生需要根据语篇逻辑填空;填入的单词数量不得多于 3 个。各题 答案如下: 1.happened 2.when 3. gone 4. earlier 5. making 6. Anyway 7. it 8. the 9. must have put 10. mind/memory 【专题训练】 (一) Eleven?year?old Angela was stricken with a disease involving her nervous system. The doctors did not hold out much hope of her ever recovering 1.________ this illness. They predicted she'd spend the rest of her life in a wheelchair. 2.________ Angela firmly believed that she was definitely going to be walking again someday. The doctors were charmed by her 3.________ (defeatable) spirit. They taught her about imaging — about seeing herself 4.________ (walk).Angela would work as hard as possible in physical therapy(治疗), lying there faithfully doing her imaging, visualizing herself moving, moving, moving! One day, 5.________ she was straining all her might to imagine her legs moving again, 6.________ seemed as though a miracle happened: the bed moved! She screamed out, “Look, what I 7.________ (do)! Look! Look! I can do it! I moved! I moved! ” Of course, 8.________ this very moment everyone else in the hospital was screaming, too. It was the San Francisco earthquake. But don't tell 9.________ to Angela. She was 10.________(convince) that she did it. And now only a few years later, she was back in school on her own two feet. No walking sticks, no wheelchair. 【要点综述】 靠轮椅行走的安吉拉,连医生对她的康复都不抱希望,但她始终没有放弃, 一次地震让她觉得是她自己的腿动了, 并对此坚信不疑, 几年后她真的靠自己的双脚重新走 进了学校。 1.from recover from an illness 意为“从疾病中恢复过来”。 2.But 与前句是转折关系。 3.undefeatable 在名词前作定语,要用形容词;由语境可知,此处应表示“不败的”,故 填 undefeatable。句意:医生为她永不言败的精神所折服。 4.walking see sb doing sth 看见某人在做某事。 5.as as 表示“正当??时”。 6.it 句式搭配:it seems as if/as though?仿佛是??。 7.am doing 8.at at this very moment 意为“就在此刻”。 9.that/it 代替前文说的地震这回事。 10.convinced 用形容词形式。be convinced of/that? 深信??,坚信。 (二) One Sunday morning in August I went to a local music festival. I left it early because I had an appointment 1.________ (late) that day. My friends walked me to the bus stop and waited with me 2.________ the bus arrived. I got on the bus and found a seat near the back, and then I noticed a man 3.________ (sit) at the front. He 4.________ (pretend) that a tiger toy was real and giving it a
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voice. He must be 5.________ (mental) disabled. Behind him were other people to 6.________he was trying to talk, but after some minutes 7.________ walked away and sat near me, looking annoyed. I didn't want to be laughed at for talking to him but I didn't like leaving him 8.________ his own either. After a while I rose from my seat and walked to the front of the bus. I sat next to the man and introduced myself. We had 9.________ amazing conversation. He got off the bus before me and I felt very happy the rest of the way home. I'm glad I made the choice. It made 10.________ of us feel good. 【解析】本文是一篇记叙文。文章讲述了“我”的一次坐车经历:在公交车上遇到一个好像 是弱智的人,其他人都躲开了,而“我”走近了他,和他聊起来,一路上“我”俩都很高兴。 1.later 考查副词的用法。我离开得较早因为那天晚些时候我有个约会。 2.till/until 考查状语从句的连接词。我的朋友一直陪我直到公共汽车来。 3.sitting/sit 考查动词的用法。notice sb doing/do sth.意为“注意到某人正在做某 事/做了某事”。 4.was pretending 考查动词的时态。由 giving it a voice 可知用过去进行时。 5.mentally 考查副词的用法。此处 disabled 是形容词,用副词修饰。 6.whom 考查定语从句的关系词。此处 he was trying to talk to 是定语从句,people 是先行词,whom 作介词 to 的宾语。 7.they 考查代词的用法。他们走开然后坐在我的旁边。 8.on 考查词组的用法。此处考查词组 on one’s own (=alone)。 9.an 考查冠词的用法。amazing 是以元音音素开头,故用 an。 10.both 考查代词的用法。由上文 We had ? amazing conversation 可知“我们俩” 都很高兴。 (三) A man recognized as a genius in business circles was invited as an honour guest to a TV interview. Everybody was eager to hear a success story from him. He, 1.________, only said with a slight smile, “Wouldn’t it be better for me to ask you for 2.________ (advise) on a certain problem?” Here is the problem he raised: “People all rushed to the place 3.________ a gold mine had recently been discovered but they were blocked by a river 4.________(flow) across the only way to it. What would you do if you 5.________ (be ) among them?” “Make a roundabout (绕行的) way,” someone suggested. “Swim across,” said another. The genius smiled 6.________ a word. Then he gave his view. “Why not do 7.________ else instead of rushing to the mine? How about buying a boat to do some ferrying (摆渡)?” The audience were shocked. He explained calmly, “The man could make 8.________ great amount of money from the passengers. They were willing to pay for the ferry 9.________ there was gold on the other bank.” Do what others have not thought to do or something never attempted before—that is the key 10.________ success. A difficult circumstance, in the eyes of a wise man, often means a potential chance for success. 【要点综述】 本文是一篇启迪故事,介绍了一位商业天才告诉人们要做别人想不到的或以 前没有尝试过的事情来取得成功。

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1. however 考副词表转折的用法。根据语境应填一个表示转折的副词。 2. advice 考构词法。介词后面用名词,注意不能用复数形式。 3. where 考关系副词引导定语从句的用法。先行词是地点名词,且从句结构完整,应用关系 副词 where 引导。 4.flowing 考非谓语动词的用法。根据结构应填 v.?ing 形式作定语修饰 a river, 表示主动, 相当于一个定语从句 which flows。 5.were 考虚拟语气的用法。表示与现在事实相反的假设,从句用所给动词的过去式。 6.without 考介词的用法。名词前面用介词,根据语境应填 without 表示“这位商业天才没 说一句话,只是笑了一笑。” 7. something 考不定代词的用法。用于表示建议、请求用代词 something。 8. a 考冠词的固定搭配。“大量的”用 a great amount of/ a great deal of/ a great number of 等 表示。 9. because 考从属连词的用法。前后分句明显有因果关系,故填表示原因的从属连词,故填 because。 10. to 考介词的固定搭配。表示“??的关键,??的答案”,用介词 to。

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