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定冠词不定冠词零冠词


冠词
The definite article ,Indefinite article

and zero article

冠词的定义 冠词是置于名词之前、说明名词所表 示的人或事物的一种虚词。冠词也可以

说是名词的一种标志,它不能离开名词
而单独存在。

冠词有三种:
定冠词(definite article)、

不定冠词(indefinite article)
和零冠(zero article)

不定冠词有两个形式,一个是a, 另一个

是an。 a 用在辅音(指的是音标不是指
字母)开头的词前, an 用在以元音开头

的词前。
a university, an umbrella, a European, an example, a one-act play, an hour

an honest man

Mrs. Taylor has ___ 8-year-old daughter who has ___ gift for painting ----she has won two national prizes. A. a; a B. an; the C. an; a D. the; a

不定冠词的基本用法

1. 泛指某一类人或事物的一个
A boy is waiting for you.

A Mr Smith is coming here。
2. 表示某一类人或事物, 相当于any, A horse is an animal. A child needs love. A car must be insured(保养)。

3. 用于首次提到的人或物的单数名词前
面。An old cock is sitting in a tall tree.

4.用于描写自然现象的名词前,表示“一
阵”、“一场”、“一种”等。例如: snow---- a snow 一场雪

shower---- a shower 一阵暴雨

5. 用在抽象名词之前表示具体介绍:是 什么样的人,是什么样的事物。 The little girl is a joy to her parents. He is a success. 和你一块共事很愉快。 It is a pleasure to work with you. He did me a great kindness. What a great surprise you gave me.

6.用于某些固定的词组。 a lot of/ a great deal of 很多 a few 有些 a little 一些 a piece of 一张…… to have a rest 休息一下 as a matter of face 事实上

7.用在序数词前,“又一,再一”;a most = a very. Although he had failed four times, he was determined to try a fifth time. This is a most instructive film. 8.用在many, half , such 等词后. Many a boy is swimming. The village is half an hour’s walk from here. 9.用在 so (as/too/how etc.) +形容词之后 1 How interesting a film it is! = How interesting the film is! 2 He is not so /as good a driver as you

10.用 a/an + 物质名词,表示“ 一… ” eg. a coffee; a tea; a brandy; an ice cream 11.用a/an表示部分不可数名词,表示“一 点”,“一 些”等。 a smile一丝微笑 a rain一场雨 make a noise 制造一点噪音 12.与专有名词连用,“一个。。。式的人”; “。。。的作品”。 eg: a Lei Feng of our class; play a Liszt

13. 可以表示量度单位,"每..." 40 km an/per hour 每小时40公里 twice a/per day 每天两次 14. 与可数名词连用位于what, such之后,表示 感叹,或强调程度 What a surprise! 真是让人吃惊。 My boss is such a fool! 我的老板这么蠢。 15. 用在形容词最高级前,相当于very。 This is a most useful dictionary.这是一本非常 有用的字典。

16. 用在序数词前面表示“再一次,又一次”。 Ten years after the death of her husband, she got married for a second time.在她丈夫去世十年后,她 再次结婚了。 17. 用在many, quite, rather, such, twice, what 等词后面, 构成短语。 It’s quite a problem. 这是一个相当难的问题。 I’ve never seen such an exciting football match before. 我以前从来没见过这么精彩的比赛

定冠词的基本用法: 1. 特指某个或某些人或事物, 或指谈话 双方都知道的人或事物, 或重复上文 提到的人或事物。例如: How do you like the film? There was a chair by the window. On the chair sat a young woman with a baby in her arms. The baby is very fat.

2. 指世界上独一无二的事物。 The earth is biggest than the moon, but smaller than the sun. the sky; the universe; the atmosphere 3. 用在单数可数名词之前, 表示某一类 人或事物。如: The lion is more fierce than the wolf. The compass was invented in ancient China.

4. 常用在乐器的名称之前。如: play the violin/piano
5. 用在某些专有名词前:the People’s Republic of China, the Great Wall, the White House; 在江河、山脉、海 洋、湖泊、群岛的名词之前:

the Changjiang River; the Yellow River; the Salt Lake

6.在姓氏的复数形式前加定冠词, 表示一家人。 the Smiths 史密斯一家人 The Wangs live in the next-door house. 7.用在方位名词前或某些表示时间的词组或惯用语中. eg. On the left (right) in the west in the end in the morning 8.某些形容词前加 the 表示一类人或物,指人时谓语动词用复数。 eg. 1 The rich become richer, the poor poorer. 2 The beautiful is always loved. 3 The Chinese are working hard.
the British英国人, the rich富人, the young年轻人,

9、用在序数词前,形容词的最高级前及表示两者之间的比较中. eg.1 the longest river ; the third lesson 2 He is the taller of the two. 10、表示几十年代的数字之前。 eg. In the 1870s (而表示 “在某人四十多岁” 时翻译成in his forties ) 11、表示发明物的名词前. Eg. Alexander Graham Bell invented the phone in 1876.

12. 和表示数量的名词连用,表示“以...为单位” Eggs are sold by the dozen. 鸡蛋按打来卖。 He is paid by the hour / the day/ week/ month.他按小 时/天/周/月来付酬。 13. 与名词连用时,要注意与不定冠词的区别。 a / the most interesting…非常有趣的/ 最有趣的… a / the number of 许多/ …的数量 for a/ the moment 片刻,一会儿/ 暂时,目前 give sb. a / the push 推某人一下 / 解雇某人

英语定冠词用法口诀
特指重现用定冠,独一无二把冠添, 打球不用戴帽子,演奏乐器衣冠严, 江山河海和峡湾,戴上帽子较安全, 不戴帽子就吃饭,形容词加the名词变, 习惯用语冠不冠,入乡随俗记心间。

英语定冠词用法口诀
? ? ? ? ? 特指、重提和唯一,岛屿,海峡和海湾; 海洋,党派最高级,沙漠,河流与群山; 方位、顺序和乐器,年代,团体与机关; 船名,建筑和组织,会议,条约与报刊; 姓氏复数,国全名,请你记住用定冠。

不加冠词的情况:
1.在大多数专有名词、泛指的抽象名词和物质名词前: We love science. She is fond of music. 2.名词前有物主代词,指示代词,不定代词,名词所有格及 kind of, sort of, type of, piece of 等限制时不加冠词。 This is my book. 3.三餐前不加冠词,但有形容词修饰时加a 表示一顿。 1 What do you usually have for lunch? 2 We had a really good dinner. 4.四季前一般不加the。但特指必须加the。 1 It was very cold in the winter of 1985. 2 Summer comes after spring and before autumn.

5.在星期、月份、节假日等名词前:
National Day; New Year’s Day;Women’s Day

在含有day的节日、假日前,不用冠词Children’s Day ,但
在含有festival的节日前,需加冠词the Spring Festival; the Mid –autumn Festival. 6. 在表语,宾语补足语,同位语中,表示独一无二的职位或 头衔及呼吁前 Who’s captain of your team? 谁是你们队长? He was elected monitor of our class.他被选为班长 George Bush, president of the United States… 美国总统布 什… What’s wrong with you, Uncle?

This is Comrade Yang, chairman of the Students’ Union.

He reported this to Mr Black headmaster of the school.
7.在三餐饭和球类运动、棋类运动的名 词前: I like rice for supper. Let’s go and watch them play chess.

8. 国名、人名前面,一般不加定冠词。 China, Japan, England, Mary, Henry 等。但有的国名例外,如: the United States, the Philippines, the People’s Republic of China。

9.表示独一无二头衔或职位的名词在句中做宾补,表语 以及同位语时,大都用零冠词。 He was made monitor only yesterday. 10.当bike,car,taxi,bus,train,foot,ship等与介词by连用,表示一种 交通手段时,不用the。 Did you come back by plane or by train? 还有by water,by land,by sea,by air,on foot,On horse back 以 及 by telephone, by telegraph但take a bus, on the bike, in a boat等需加冠词。 11.表示语言的名词前一般不用冠词。如: Chinese,English, French, 但用language时需加the 如: the Chinese language 12. turn 作“变成,成为”,后边的名词不带冠词。 turn engineer = become an engineer. 13. 用于家庭成员或nurse, cook, teacher 等具有our nurse ( cook, teacher) 等意义时: Teacher was very pleased with our work. Mother was being made up looking like the ideal, middle-aged housewife.

14. 在独立结构中 The hunter entered the forest, gun in hand.猎人手拿 着枪,走进了森林。 15.在as引导的让步状语从句 中。 Child as he is, he knows a lot about the history of China.他虽然是个孩子,却对中国历史了解很多 16. 用在某些习惯用语中 ? go to school (college, hospital, class, church, bed…) ? by bike, (bus, train, car, boat, ship, plane, air…) ? at sunrise, (sunset, noon, night, midnight)

17.在下列表示行为、状态、特征、原因以及说明方
式、目的等的固定习语中。 at breakfast(吃早饭时)/at table(吃饭)/at dinner (吃饭)/in class(在课堂上)/in court(出庭作证) /in debt(欠债)/in danger(处境危险)/in good (poor)health身体健康 (不健康)/in good condition (状态好)/in great demand/in great need/in motion (在运动中)/in time of danger/in office(就职) /in trouble (difficulty)/in surprise/in honour of/in favor of/with anger/in colour/in general/in size/in length/in character(在性格上)/in sight/in (out of) order/in fact/on business/on holiday/on leave(休假) /on strike/on watch/on fire/on time.

18.在某些词组中,用不用冠词,所表示的含 义不同。如 ? go to school (上学) go to the school(到学校去) ? in hospital (住院) in the hospital (在医院里面) ? in front of (在…前面) in the front of (在…前部) ? of age 成年 of an age 同龄 ? die of cold 冻死 die of a cold 感冒而死 ? at table 用餐 at a table 在桌子旁 ? in word 口头上 in a word 总而言之 ? at sea 茫然不知所措 at the sea 在海上 ? In charge of 负责。。。 In the charge of 有谁负责 ? two of us 我们中的两人 the two of us 就我们两人

19.有定冠词与无定冠词的区别
? 吃饭 坐在桌旁 在海边 ? 乘船 ? 负责…… ? 由……负责,在……掌管之下 ? 在白天 ? 按日计算 ? 发生 ? 代替 ? 拥有 ? 为……所拥有 ? 能看见 ? 据……的见解 ? 代替 ? 在……的地方 ? 成年 ? 同龄 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

sit at table sit at the table by the sea by sea be in charge of be in the charge of by day by the day take place take the place of in possession of in the possession of in sight of in the sight of in place of in the place of be of age be of an age

20.有定冠词与无定冠词的区别 ? ? ? ? ? 征求意见 听从劝告 他仍在执政 他仍在办公室 那是毫无疑问的. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? take advice take the advice He is still in office. He is still in the office. It is out of question. (=beyond question) It is out of the question (=impossible)

? 那是根本不可能的.

in future / in the future ; in front of / in the front of

in bed / church / prison / town睡觉/做礼拜/蹲监狱/进城

in the bed / church / prison / town在床上/在教堂/在监狱里/在城里
go to class / hospital / school / college 上课 / 住院 / 上学 / 上大学 go to the class / hospital / school / college 到课堂 / 医院 / 学校 / 大学 去

不用冠词的集中情况
下列情况应免冠,代词限定名词前; 专有名词不可数,学科球类三餐饭; 复数名词表泛指,两节星期月份前; 颜色语种和国名,称呼习语及头衔。

Finish activity 1 on students’ books.
We usually use the definite article (the) with them. Why do you think this is necessary? Because they are all unique—there is only one of them.

The Internet/ the World Wide Web/ the head teacher/ the universe the world/ the sun/ the official language/ the moon/ the president the capital

Finish activity 2.
Continents: Asia, Europe, Oceania; America, Antarctica Countries: China, Argentina, Australia, India, France (exceptions: The Netherlands, The Netherlands, The Lebanon)

Cities: Beijing, London, New York, Sydney, Shanghai (exceptions: The Hague) Plural and uncountable nouns in general

statements:
Snow is cold. Guns are dangerous.

Finish activity 3. Choose the correct article to complete each question. _ 1. Is there (a/the) computer at your school? _ 2. Do you have (a/the) lesson in the
computer room?

3. Can you access (an/the) ___ Internet at school? 4. Have you got (a/ _ the) phone at home? 5. Have you got (a/the) computer at _ home?

Complete the sentences with the definite article if necessary. 1. Does ___ the headmaster know how to use a computer? 2. Are___ / computers important? 3. Can you access ____ the Internet at school?

4. You need ____ / software to use a

computer?
5. ____ The World Wide Web is full of _____ websites. /

1. ---Have you seen ___pen? I left it here this morning. ---Is it ___black one? I think I saw some where. A. a; the B. the; the C. the ; a D. a; a

2. Summers in ___ south of France are for ___most part dry and sunny. A./; a B. the; / C. /; / D. the ; the

3. Jumping out of ___airplane at ten thousand feet is quite ____exciting experience. A./;the B. /;an C. an; an D. the; the

4. I don’t like talking on ____ telephone;

I prefer writing _____letters.
A. a; the B. the; 不填 C. the; the D. was killing

5. ---I don’t like_____New York at all.

---But this isn’t_____ New York you
remember.

A. the; the
C. the; /

B. /; the
D. /; a

EXX. 1. In Hangzhou Mr Green was so struck by____ beauty of _____ nature that he stayed or another night. A. /;/ B. /; the C. the; / D. the; the 2. Many people are still in _____habit of writing silly things in ______ public places. A. the; the B. /; / C. the; / D. /; the

3. Five years ago her brother was ____ university student of _____physics. A. a; the B. an; the C. an; / D. a; / 4. ---Have you seen _____ pen? I left it here this morning. --- Is it ____ black one? I think I saw it somewhere. A. a; the B. the; the C. the; a D. a; a

5. I love ____ history because it give us
______ knowledge of past events. A. the, a B. /;a C. /; / D. a; the 6. Most animals have little connection with___ animals of ___ different kind unless they kill them for food. A. the; a B. /; a C. the; the D. /; the

7. Many people agree that ___ knowledge of English is a must in ___ international trade today. A. a; / B. the; an C. the; the D. /; the 8. ___ is the largest of the continents of the world. A. Asia B. An Asia C. A Asia D. The Asia

9. I go to ___ school on foot because my home is near___ school. A. the; the B. the; / C. /; the D. /; / 10. We elected him ___ head of the workshop. A. / B. one C. the D. a


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