# 常用表示数量关系的前缀

Unit 2 Simulation of Random Variables
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and expressions ?Text and notes ?Grammar ?Exercises ?Reading material

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Advocate Alternative Argument Concentration Converge Deficiency Derivative Die Differentiable Disperse Facility

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Histogram Inference Interpretation Profile Proportion Pseudo-random Refraction Stabilize Statistical Stochastic Successive

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Toss v./n. 投，掷 Underlie v. 位于…之下，成为…的基础 By means of 依靠 Consist of 由…组成 Give rise to 引起，使发生 In contrast with 和…形成对比[对照] In terms of 根据，按照，用…的话，在…方面 Bernoulli distribution 伯努利分布 Binomial distribution 二项式分布 Normal distribution 正态分布 Poisson distribution 泊松分布 Probability density function 概率密度函数(abbr. pdf) Uniform distribution 均匀分布

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of probability ? Random variables: definition; discrete random variables; continuous random variables ? Random variables for simulation

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This concept of probability is of an objective quantity that applies to each observation and measure (in a relative way) how likely it is to fall into the corresponding class.

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It seems that one is forced into a subjective view of the uncertainties, but the probability figures that emerge must obey certain rules in order to be consistent.

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For engineering students it is most appropriate to keep the first interpretation-that of probability as an idealized proportion-in mind when studying the theory.

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This may seem a hopeless requirement, considering that computer programs are sequences of deterministic instructions running on deterministic hardware.

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The successive variables ?U1,U2 , ? appear to be uncorrelated, and, although there is some structure in the sequence (and indeed the sequences will eventually repeat itself), it is rare for these deficiencies to cause problems in practice.

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Grammar－专业英语词汇的构成
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1、派生法（Derivation）
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1、派生法（Derivation）
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multi-/poly-:多?multipurpose, polynomial(多项式) non-:非、不?nonlinear, nondestructive post-:后?postgraduate, posterior pre-:预先?preset, preface re-:再、反、重新?reaction, readjust, reverse sub-:次于、在下?subroutine（子程序）, subscript super-:超，在上?superconductor, superposition（重合， 叠加） sym-/syn-:相同?symmetry, synchronous tele-:远离?telephone, telegraph trans-:跨、移?transmitter, transverse（横）, transform ultra-:外、极、超?ultrasonic（超声波）, ultraviolet ray(紫外线) un-:不?unable, unavoidable, unstable

1、派生法（Derivation）
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1、派生法（Derivation）
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1、派生法（Derivation）
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1、派生法（Derivation）
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1、派生法（Derivation）
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2、复合法（composition）
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? 直接结合：breakthrough,

overestimate,

bandwidth ? 连字符：general-purpose(多用途的)， stateof-the-art(达到最新技术发展水平的)

3、转化法（conversion）
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4、拼缀法（blending）
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? Transistor=transfer+resistor

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modem=modulator+demodulator

5、缩略法（shorting）
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(radio detection and ranging) 雷达 ? GPS (global positioning system) 全球定位系统

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? 主谓关系：被修饰的名词多数来自不及物动词和形容

? 动宾关系：被修饰的名词必定来自于及物动词 ? The

questions of convergence are not simple, and their study forms an important chapter in modern analysis. ? Many scientists have worked at the theory of magnetism since its discovery.

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A 随B 变化的曲线图 the graph (plot) of A as a function of B the graph (plot) of A versus (against) B the graph (plot) of the dependence of A on (upon) B the graph (plot) of the variation of A with B 这理论来源于 …… The theory comes (stems, emerges, originates) from …… The theory is obtained (provided, furnished) from ……

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A poster
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Poster of Crowd saliency (ECCV2014)

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Exercises
1. Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. (1) The theoretical foundation for the subject of statistics is contained in c . a. histogram b. the concept of probability c. the theory of probability d. decision-making and expert system

Exercises
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For engineering students it is most appropriate to keep the first interpretation – that of probability as an idealized proportion – in mind when studying the theory. What does “that” mean in the sentence? c . a. theory b. concept c. interpretation d. study

Exercises
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Find which is not an example of random variables b . a. the number of students attending class b. the number of bits used to denote ASCII codes c. the lifetime of a battery d. the waiting time at the crossroad

Exercises
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In general, the behavior of a continuous random variable is described by a d . a. distribution function b. probability function c. probability distribution d. probability density function

Exercises
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Random variables with different distributions can be generated c . a. by Monte Carlo numerical methods b. from an Gaussian distributed random sequence c. from uniformly distributed pseudorandom sequence d. based on the central limit theorem

Exercises
2. Match the word pairs, one from Column A and one from Column B.
Column A 1.random 2.expert 3.probability 4.densiy 5.computer 6.sample 7.statistical 8.impossible 9.standard 10.relative Column B a. space b. frequency c. simulation d. deviation e. function f. variable g. distribution h. event i. system j. inference

Exercises
3. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
(1) A lot of information is required to specify the exact distribution of a random variable, and even more to specify the joint distribution of two or more variables. (2) The binomial and Poisson are discrete distributions, which have the widest applications among all discrete random variables. The probability distribution is especially useful to engineers because of its importance in statistical quality control.

Exercises
3. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
(3) For any random variable the difference between the values of the distribution function at two pints is the probability that a value of the random variable will lie between those two points (or is equal to the upper one). (4) In general, the probability p of a random event can be interpreted as meaning that if the experiment is repeated a large number of times, the event would be observed about 100p percent of the time.

Exercises
3. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
(5) In statistics it is customary to refer to any process of observation as an experiment. (6) If an event definitely cannot occur upon realization of the set of conditions it is called impossible.

Exercises
4. Complete the sentences. You may have to change some words slightly.
(1) Electronics _________ is the study and use of electrical devices that operate by controlling the flow of electron _______ or other ___________ electronically charged particle in devices such as vacuum tube and semiconductors. a. electron b. electronic c. electronics d. electronically

Exercises
(2) One of the best known computer ________ simulation which are very widely used in research, design and training is the flight simulator _______ upon which pilots receive much of their training. a. simulation b. simulator c. simulating d. simulate
amplified (3) Signals are sent to amplifiers ________ to be __________. a. amplification b. amplifier c. amplifying d. amplify

Exercises
(4) (a) It follows that we can use the one table for the standard variates normal for all calculations involving normal _______. (b) However, a great many applications of probability theory concern quantitative variables _______ rather than qualitative events. (c) There are two approaches to measuring the _______ variation of random variables around their central values. The most variance a weighted important such measure is the _______, sum of sequential differences between the possible values and the mean.

Exercises
(d) Frequency response will be flat and bandwidth infinite because AC will be simply a rapidly ______ varying DC level to the ideal amplifier. a. various b. variable c. variate d. variance e. variation f. varying

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The central limit theorem Two parts: The normal distribution The central limit theorem

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Approximation 近似值 Arbitrary 任意的 Cumulative 累积的 Mean 均值 Parameter 参数 Population 总体 Robust 稳定的，(-ness，鲁棒性，稳定性) Symmetrical 对称的，均匀的(名词 symmetry) Tabulate 把…制成表格，列数 Variance 方差 Variate 变量 Independent identically distributed 独立同分布(abbr. i.i.d.) Standard deviation 标准偏差 Standard normal distribution 标准正态分布(均值为0，方差为1) Statistical inference 统计推理

Assignment
Do exercises 1,2 ,3 and 4 in page 23; ? Read the reading material. ? Note: this passage is related with the probability theory which you will study.
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CPU: central processing unit ROM: read-only memory RAM: random access memory CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access GPS: Global Position System GPRS: General Packet Radio Service SNR: Signal Noise Ratio DSP: Digital Signal Processing DIP: Double In-line Package IC: Integrated Circuit PCB: Print Circuit Board GSM: Global System of Mobile Communications EDA: Electronic Design Automation

Omar Y.Al-Jarraha, Paul D.Yoob, Sami Muhaidatc et.al. Big Data Research 2 (2015), 87-93 ? Efficient Machine Learning for Big Data A Review
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11表示数量关系和表示完全意思的前缀_图文.ppt
11表示数量关系和表示完全意思的前缀 - 一、表示数量关系的前缀 1. uni-

(委派) 表示数量关系的前缀 1)表示“单一”,“一” mon-, mon-,

prefix 词缀--前缀.doc
1 具有定量数量的关系的前缀 (1)表示定量数量“单,一”的意义: mono-;mon-...表示否定意义的前缀:把词的正方意义变为否定的前缀常见的否定前缀主要有: a-,...