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初中英语三年知识点总结、中考范例


初中英语三年知识点总结及中考范例 一年级(上) 【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语 1. Sit down 2. on duty 3. in English 4. have a seat 5. at home 6. look like 7. look at 8. have a look 9. come on 10. at work 11. at school 12. put on 13. look after 14. get up 15. go shopping II. 重要句型 1. help sb. do sth. 2. What about…? 3. Let?s do sth. 4. It?s time to do sth. 5. It?s time for …6. What?s…? It is…/ It?s… 7. Where is…? It?s…. 8. How old are you? I?m…. 9. What class are you in? I?m in….10. Welcome to…. 11. What?s …plus…? It?s…. 12. I think… 13. Who?s this? This is…. 14. What can you see? I can see…. 15. There is (are) …. 16. What colour is it (are they)? It?s (They?re)… 17. Whose …is this? It?s…. 18. What time is it? It?s…. III. 交际用语 1. Good morning, Miss/Mr…. 2. Hello! Hi! 3. Nice to meet you. Nice to meet you, too. 4. How are you? I?m fine, thank you/thanks. And you? 5. See you. See you later. 6. Thank you! You?re welcome. 7. Goodbye! Bye! 8. What?s your name? My name is …. 9. Here you are. This way, please. 10. Who?s on duty today? 11. Let?s do. 12. Let me see. IV. 重要语法 1. 动词 be 的用法; 2. 人称代词和物主代词的用法; 3. 名词的单复数和所有格的用法; 4. 冠词的基本用法; 5. There be 句型的用法。 【名师讲解】 1. in/on 在表示空间位置时,in 表示在某个空间的范围 以内,on 表示在某一个物体的表面之上。例如: There is a bird in the tree. 树上有只鸟。 There is a picture on the wall. 墙上有张图。 2. this/that/these/those (1)this 常常用来指在时间、地点上更接近讲话人

的人和事,these 是 this 的复数形式。that 常 常用来指在时间、地点上离讲话人更远一点的 人和事,those 时 that 的复数形式。例如: You look in this box and I?ll look in that one over there. 你看看这个盒子,我去看那边的那个盒 子。 I want this car, not that car. 我想要这辆小汽 车,不是那一辆。 Take these books to his room, please. 请把这些 书拿到他房间去。 This is mine; that?s yours. 这个是我的,那个是 你的。 These are apples; those are oranges. 这些是苹 果,那些是橘子。 (2)在打电话的用语中, this 常常指的是我, that 常常指的是对方。例如: This is Mary speaking. Who?s that? 我是玛丽。 你是谁? 3. There be/ have There be "有", 其确切含意为"某处或某时存在 某人或某物。"其结构是:There be + 某人或某物 + 表示地点或时间的状语。There be 后面的名词实际 上是主语,be 动词的形式要和主语在数上保持一 致, be 动词后面的名词是单数或不可数名词时用 is, 名词是复数时用 are。例如: (1) There is a big bottle of coke on the table. 桌上 有一大瓶子可乐。 (2) There is a doll in the box. 那个盒子里有个娃 娃。 (3) There are many apples on the tree. 那树上有许 多苹果。 总之, There be 结构强调的是一种客观存在的" 有"。have 表示"拥有,占有,具有",即:某人有 某物(sb. have / has sth.)。主语一般是名词或代词, 与主语是所属关系。例如: (4) I have two brothers and one sister.我有两个兄 弟,一个姐姐。 (5) That house has four rooms.那所房子有四个房 间。 4. look/ see/ watch (1)look 表示“看、瞧”,着重指认真看,强调看 的动作,表示有意识地注意看,但不一定看 到,以提醒对方注意。,如: Look! The children are playing computer games. 瞧!孩子们在玩电脑游戏。
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Look! What?s that over there? 看! 那边那个是 什么? 单独使用是不及物动词, 如强调看某人/物, 其 后接介词 at,才能带宾语,如: He?s looking at me。他正在看着我。 (2)see 强调“看”的结果,着重的是 look 这个动 作的结果,意思是“看到”,see 是及物动词,后面 能直接跟宾语。如: What can you see in the picture? 你能在图上 看到什么? Look at the blackboard. What did you see on it? 看黑板!你看到了什么? (3)watch“观看,注视”,侧重于场面,表示全 神贯注地观看、观察或注视某事务的活动,强调过 程,常用于“看电视、看足球、看演出”等。如: Yesterday we watched a football match on TV. 昨天我们从电视上看了一场足球比赛。 4. put on/ / in put on 意为“穿上,戴上”。主要指“穿上”这一 动作, 后面接表示服装、鞋帽的名词。 in 是介词, 表示“穿着”强调状态。 在句中可以 做定语、表语和状语。如: It?s cold outside, put on your coat. 外面冷,穿上 你的外衣。 He puts on his hat and goes out. 他戴上帽子, 走 了出去。 The woman in a white blouse is John?s mother.穿 白色衬衣的那个妇女是 John 的妈妈。 5. house/ home/family house :“ 房子 ”,指居住的建筑物 ; Home: “ 家 ” ,指一个人同家人共同经常居住的地方 ; Family: “家庭“,“家庭成员”。例如: Please come to my house this afternoon. 今天下 午请到我家来。 He is not at home. 他不在家。 My family all get up early. 我们全家都起得很 早。 6. fine, nice, good, well 四者都可用作形容词表示"好"之意,但前三者 既可作表语又可作定语,而后者仅用作表语。主要 区别在于:

(1) fine 指物时表示的是质量上的"精细", 形容 人时表示的是"身体健康",也 可以用来指"天气晴朗"。例如: Your parents are very fine. 你父母身体很健 康。 That's a fine machine. 那是一台很好的机 器。 It's a fine day for a walk today. 今天是散步 的好时候。 (2)nice 主要侧重于人或物的外表,有"美好", "漂亮"的意思,也可用于问候或赞扬别人。 例如: Lucy looks nice. 露西看上去很漂亮。 These coats are very nice. 那些裙子很好看。 Nice to meet you. 见到你很高兴。 It's very nice of you. 你真好。 (3)good 形容人时指"品德好",形容物时指"质 量好",是表示人或物各方面都好的普通用 语。例如: Her son is a good student. 她儿子是一个好 学生。 The red car is very good. 那辆红色小汽车很 好。 (4)well 只可用来形容人的"身体好", 但不能作 定语, 它也能用作副词作状语, 多放在所修 饰的动词之后。例如: I'm very well, thanks. 我身体很好,谢谢。 My friends sing well. 我的朋友们歌唱得好。 【考点扫描】 中考考点在本单元主要集中在: 1. 动词 be 的用法; 2. 人称代词和物主代词的用法; 3. 名词的单复数和所有格的用法; 4. 冠词的基本用法; 5. There be 句型的用法。 6. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型; 7. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。 考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空、 完成句子。 【中考范例】 1. (2004 年北京市中考试题)
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Mary, please show ________ your picture. A. my B. mine C. I D. me 【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是人称代词和 物主代词的用法。本题中动词 show 后面跟双宾语, 空白处应填入人称代词的宾格 me 作宾语。 2. (2004 年上海市徐汇区中考试题) _________ orange on the desk is for you, Mike. A. A B.An C. / D. The 【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是冠词的基本 用法。因为是特指课桌上的那个橘子,所以用定冠 词 the。 3. (2004 年哈尔滨市中考试题) ---What _______ the number of the girls in your class? ---About twenty. A. is B. am C. are D. be 【解析】答案:A。该题考查的是动词 be 的用 法和主谓一致。the number 作主语,应该是单数第 三人称,动词 be 变为 is。 4. (2004 年陕西省中考试题) There _____ a football match on TV this evening.A. will have B. is going to be C. has D. is going to have 【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是 There be… 句型和动词 have 用法区别。 There be 句型本身就表 示“在某个地方存在某个人或物”,不能和动词 have 混在一起用。 初一年级(下) 【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语 1. a bottle of 2. a little 3. a lot (of) 4. all day 5. be from 6. be over 7. come back 8. come from 9. do one?s homework 10. do the shopping 11. get down 12. get home 13. get to 14. get up 15. go shopping 16. have a drink of 17. have a look 18. have breakfast 19. have lunch 20. have supper 21. listen to 22. not…at all 23. put…away 24. take off 25. throw it like that 26. would like 27. in the middle of the day 28. in the morning / afternoon/ evening 29. on a farm 30. in a factory II. 重要句型

1. Let sb. do sth. 2. Could sb. do sth.? 3. would like sth. 4. would like to do sth. 5. What about something to eat? 6. How do you spell …? 7. May I borrow…? III. 交际用语 1. —Thanks very much! —You're welcome. 2. Put it/them away. 3. What's wrong? 4. I think so. I don't think so. 5. I want to take some books to the classroom. 6. Give me a bottle of orange juice, please. Please give it / them back tomorrow. OK. 9. What's your favourite sport? 10. Don't worry. 11.I?m (not) good at basketball. 12. Do you want a go? 13. That's right./ That?s all right./ All right. 14. Do you have a dictionary / any dictionaries? Yes, I do. / No, I don?t. 15. We / They have some CDs. We / They don?t have any CDs. 16. ---What day is it today / tomorrow? ---It?s Monday. 17. ---May I borrow your colour pens, please? ---Certainly. Here you are. 18. ---Where are you from? ---From Beijing. 19. What's your telephone number in New York? 20. ---Do you like hot dogs? ---Yes, I do. ( A little. / A lot. / Very much.) ---No, I don't. ( I don't like them at all.) 21. ---What does your mother like? ---She likes dumplings and vegetables very much. 22. ---When do you go to school every day? ---I go to school at 7:00 every day. 23. ---What time does he go to bed in the evening? ---He goes to bed at 10:00. IV. 重要语法 1.人称代词的用法; 2. 祈使句; 3. 现在进行时的构成和用法; 4.动词 have 的用法;
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5.一般现在时构成和用法; 6.可数名词和不可数名词的构成和用法 【名师讲解】 1. That's right./ That‘s all right./ All right. That’s right 意为“对的”,表示赞同对方的意 见、看法或行为,肯定对方的答案或判断。例如: "I think we must help the old man.""我想我们应该 帮助这位老人。" "That's right."或 "You're right.""说得对"。 That’s all right.意为“不用谢”、“没关系”, 用来回答对方的致谢或道歉。例如: "Many thanks." "That's all right." "Sorry. It's broken." "That's all right." All right.意为“行了”、“可以”,表示同意对方的 建议或要求。有时还可以表示“身体很好” "Please tell me about it." "请把此事告诉我。" "All right.""好吧。" Is your mother all right?你妈身体好吗 2. make/do 这两个词都可以解释为“做”,但含义却不同, 不能混用。make 指做东西或制东西,do 指做一件 具体的事。 Can you make a paper boat for me? 你能为我做个 纸船吗? He?s doing his homework now.他正在做他的作 业。 3. say/speak/talk/tell say: 是最口语化的最普通的一个词, 意为“说 出”、“说道”,着重所说的话。如: “I want to go there by bus” , he said . 他说,“我要 坐汽车到那里去。” Please say it in English .请用英语说。 speak : “说话”,着重开口发声,不着重所说 的内容,一般用作不及物动词 (即后面不能直接 接宾语 ) 。如: Can you speak about him? 你能不能说说他的情 况? I don?t like to speak like this. 我不喜欢这样说话。 speak 作及物动词解时,只能和某种语言等 连用,表达在对话中恰当使用词汇的能力。如: She speaks English well.她英语说得好。 talk : 与 speak 意义相近,也着重说话的动 作,而不着重所说的话,因此,一般也只用作不 及物动词, 不过,talk 暗示话是对某人说的, 有较强的对话意味,着重指连续地和别人谈话。 如:

I would like to talk to him about it . 我想跟他谈那 件事。 Old women like to talk with children.老年妇女喜 欢和孩子们交谈。 tell : “告诉”,除较少情况外,一般后面总接 双宾语。如: He?s telling me a story.他在给我讲故事。 tell a lie 撒谎 tell sb. to do sth. /tell sb. not to do sth. Miss Zhao often tells us to study hard. 4. do cooking/ do the cooking do cooking 作“做饭”解,属泛指。do the cooking 特指某一顿饭或某一家人的饭。 cooking 为 动名词,不能用作复数,但前面可用 some, much 修饰。从 do some cooking 可引出许多类似的短语: do some washing 洗些衣服 do some shopping 买些东西 do some reading 读书 do some writing 写些东西 do some fishing 钓鱼 从以上短语可引申出另一类短语, 不能用 some, much 或定冠词。 go shopping 去买东西 go fishing 去钓鱼 go boating 去划船 go swimming 去游泳 5. like doing sth./ like to do sth. like doing sth. 与 like to do sth. 意思相同,但 用法有区别。前者强调一般性的爱好或者表示动作 的习惯性和经常性;后来表示一次性和偶然性的动 作。例如: He likes playing football, but he doesn?t like to play football with Li Ming. 他喜欢踢足球,但是他不喜欢和李明踢。 6. other/ others/ the other/ another other 表其余的,别的, Have you any other questions?你还有其他问题吗? others 别的人,别的东西 In the room some people are American, the others are French.在屋子里一些人是 美国人,其他的是法国人。 the other 表另一个(二者之中)one…,the other… One of my two brothers studies English, the other studies Chinese. 我两个哥哥中的一个学习英文,另一个学中文。 another 表三者以上的另一个,另一些

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There is room for another few books on the shelf. 书架上还可以放点书。 7. in the tree/ on the tree in the tree 与 on the tree.译成中文均为"在树 上"但英语中有区别。 in the tree 表示某人、 某事 (不 属于树本身生长出的别的东西)落在树上,表示树 的枝、 叶、 花、 果等长在树上时, 要使用 on the tree. 如: There are some apples on the tree. 那棵树上有些 苹果。 There is a bird in the tree. 那棵树上有只鸟。 8. some/ any (1)some 和 any 既可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不 可数名词。但有以下两点需要 注意。 some 常用于肯定句中,any 常用于否定句和 疑问句中。如: There is some water in the glass. Is there any water in the glass? There isn't any water in the glass. (2)在说话者希望得到肯定答复的一般疑问句中, 或在表示请求,邀请的疑问句中,我们依然用 some。如: Would you like some tea? 9. tall/ high (1)说人, 动物, 树木等有生命的东西, 主要用 tall, 不用 high,例如 a tall woman 一个高个子妇女 a tall horse 一个高大的马 (2)说一个不与地面接触的人和物的高时,要用 high,而不用 tall,比如人站在桌子上时,飞机 飞上天时,例如: He is high up in the tree. 他高高地爬在树上。 The plane is so high in the sky. 飞机在空中这么 高。 (3)指建筑物、山时要 tall 或 high 都可以,不过 high 的程度比 tall 高。 (4)high 可作副词,tall 不能。 (5)tall 的反义词为 short, high 的反义词为 low. 10. can/ could

(1) can 表示体力和脑力方面的能力, 或根据客观 条件能做某种动作的"能力 "。例如: Can you ride a bike? 你会骑自行车吗? What can I do for you? 要帮忙吗? Can you make a cake?你会做蛋糕吗? (2) can 用在否定句和疑问句中时有时表示说话 人的"怀疑""猜测"或不肯定。例如: Where can he be?他会在什么地方呢? Can the news be true?这个消息会是真的 吗? It surely can't be six o'clock already?不可能已 经六点钟了吧? You can't be hungry so soon,Tom,you've just had lunch.汤姆,你不可能饿得这么快,你刚 吃过午饭。 What can he mean?他会是什么意思? 在日常会话中,can 可代替 may 表示"允许", may 比较正式。例如: You can come in any time.你随时都可以来。 --- Can I use your pen?我能用你的钢笔吗? --- Of course,you can.当然可以。 You can have my seat,I'm going now.我要走 了,你坐我的座位吧。 (3) could could 是 can 的过去式,表示过去有过的能力和可 能性(在否定和疑问句中)。例如: The doctor said he could help him.(能力)医生 说他能帮助他。 Lily could swim when she was four years old. (能力) 当丽丽四岁的时候她就会游泳。 At that time we thought the story could be true.(可能 性) 那时我们以为所说的可能是真的。 could 可代替 can 表示现在时间的动作,但语 气较为婉转。例如: Could I speak to John, please?我能和约翰说话吗? Could you?在口语中表示请求对方做事。例
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如: Could you wait half an hour?请你等半个小时好 吗? Could you please ring again at six?六点钟请你再打 电话好吗? (4) can 的形式 只有现在式 can 和过去式 could 两种形式。能表示 一般现在和一般过去两种时态,有时也能表示将 来。所有其他时态(包括将来时)须用 be able to 加动词不定式来表示。例如: They have not been able to come to Beijing. 他们没有能到北京来。 11. look for/ find look for 意为“寻找”,而 find 意为“找到,发 现”, 前者强调“找”这一动作, 并不注重“找”的结果, 而后者则强调“找”的结果。例如: She can?t find her ruler. 她找不到她的尺子啦。 Tom is looking for his watch, but he can?t find it. 汤姆正在寻找他的手表,但没能找到。 12. be sleeping/ be asleep be sleeping 表示动作,意思是“正在睡觉”;be asleep 表示状态,意思是“睡着了”。如: ---What are the children doing in the room? 孩 子们在房间里做什么? ---They are sleeping.他们正在睡觉。 The children are asleep now.现在孩子们睡着 了。 13. often/ usually/sometimes often 表示"经常",sometimes 表示"有时候", 在表示发生频率上 often 要高于 usually,usually 要高于 sometimes。这三个词表示的是经常性, 一般性的动作或情况,常与一般现在时连用,常 位于主要谓语动词的前面,其他谓语动词(be 动词,情态动词和助动词)的后面,有时也可位 于句尾。如果要加强语气,则放在句首。 We usually play basketball after school.我们通 常放学后打篮球。 Sometimes I go to bed early.有时,我睡觉很 早。 He often reads English in the morning.他经常 在早晨读英语。 14. How much/ How many 呀? 钱?

how much 常用来询问某一商品的价格,常见 句式是 How much is / are…? How much is the skirt? 这条裙子多少钱? How much are the bananas? 这些香蕉多少 how much 后加不可数名词, 表示数量, 意为“多 少“,how many 后加可数名词的复数形式。 How much meat do you want? 你要多少肉 How many students are there in your class? 你 们班有多少人? 15. be good for/ be good to/ be good at be good for 表示"对……有好处",而 be bad for 表示"对……有害"; be good to 表示"对……友好 ",而 be bad to 表示"对……不好";be good at 表示 "擅长,在……方面做得好",而 be bad at 表示" 在……方面做得不好"。 Doing eye exercises is good for your eyes.做眼 保健操对你的眼睛有好处。 Eating too much is bad for you health.吃的太多 对你的身体有害。 Miss Li is good to all of us.李老师对我们所有 的人都很友好。 The boss is bad to his workers.这个老板对他的 工人不好。 Li Lei is good at drawing, but I'm bad at it.李雷 擅长画画,但是我不擅长。 16. each/ every each 和 every 都有"每一个"的意思,但含义和 用法不相同。each 从个体着眼,every 从整体着眼。 each 可用于两者或两者以上,every 只用于三者或 三者以上。 We each have a new book. 我们每人各有一本新书。 There are trees on each side of the street. 街的两旁有树。 He gets up early every morning. 每天早晨他都起得早。 each 可以用作形容词、副词和代词;every 只 能用作形容词。 Each of them has his own duty. 他们各人有各人的义务。 They each want to do something different. 他们每个人都想做不同的事情。 17. 一般现在时/现在进行时
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一般现在时表示经常性的或习惯性的动作或 存在的状态, 也表示说话者的能力, 还有自然现象; 而现在进行时表示正在进行或发生的动作(构成方 式为 am/is /are/+doing)。 I do my homework in the evening. 我在晚上做作业。 I'm doing my homework now. 我现在正在做作业。 现在进行时常与 now, these days, at the moment 或 Look, listen 等词连用;而一般现在时常与 often, always, sometimes, usually, every day, in the morning, on Mondays 等连用。 We often clean the classroom after school. 我们经常放学后打扫教室。 Look! They are cleaning the classroom . 看!他们正在打扫教室呢。 【考点扫描】 中考考点在本单元主要集中在: 1.动词一般现在时和现在进行时的用法,人称代 词的用法,可数名词和不可数 名词的构成和用法。 2.本册书中常见的交际用语 3.本册书中一些重点的词组和短语 考试形式往往是单项填空、完形填空、短文改错和 短文填空。 【中考范例】 1.(2004 年安徽省中考试题) ---Hurry up! We?re all waiting for you. ---I ________ for an important phone call. Go without me. A. wait B. was waiting C. am waiting D. waited 【解析】答案:C。表示现在正在进行的动作, 用现在进行时。 2. (2004 年长春市中考试题) Could you help ____ with _______ English, please? A. I, my B. me, me C. me, my D. my, I 【解析】答案:C。第一个空作宾语,应用人称 代词的宾格 me, 第二个空作定语, 应用形容词性 物主代词 my。 3.(2004 年长春市中考试题) Dr. White can _______ French very well. A. speak B. talk C. say D. tell 【解析】答案:A。说什麽语言常用动词 speak。

4.(2004 年黄冈中考试题) English is spoken by ______ people. A. a lot B. much many C. a large number of D. a great deal of 【解析】答案:C。只有 a large number of 能用 来修饰复数可数名词 people。 初二年级(上) 【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语 1. on time 2. best wishes 3. give a talk 4. for example 5. short for 6. a waste of time 7. go on a field trip 8. go fishing 9. I agree 10. next week 11. the day after tomorrow 12. have a picnic 13. have some problems doing sth. 14. go the wrong way 15. hurry up 16. get together 17. in the open air 18. on Mid-Autumn Day 19. come over 20. have to 21. get home 22. agree with 23. in the country 24. in town 25. all the same 26. in front of 27. on the left/right side 28. next to 29. up and down 30. keep healthy 31. grow up 32. at the same time 33. the day before yesterday 35. last Saturday 36. half an hour ago 37. a moment ago 38. just now 39. by the way
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40. all the time 41. at first II. 重要句型 1. have fun doing sth. 2. Why don?t you…? 3. We?re going to do sth. 4. start with sth. 5. Why not…? 6. Are you going to…? 7. be friendly to sb. 8. You?d better do sth. 9. ask sb. for sth. 10. say goodbye to sb. 11. Good luck(with sb)! III. 交际用语 1.Welcome backto school! 2.Excuse me. I?m sorry I?m late, because the traffic is bad. 3.It doesn?t matter. 4.Happy Teachers? Day ! 5.That?s a good idea. 6.What are you going to do? 7.Where are we going ? 8.What are we going to do ? 9.I?m good at… 10.It?s not far from… 11. Are you free tomorrow evening? 12.Would you and Lily like to come over to my home for Mid-Autumn Festival? 13.I?m glad you can come. 14.Thanks for asking us. 15.How about another one? 16.May I have a taste? 17.Let me walk with you. 18.What do you have to do? 19.Do you live on a farm? 20.Which do you like better, the city or the country? 21.Which do you like best, dogs, cats or chickens? 22.Shall we go at ten? Good idea! 23.---Let?s make it half past one. ---OK. 24.---Why not come a little earlier? ---All right. 25.Excuse me. Where?s the nearest post office, please? 26.It?s over there on the right. 27.I?m sorry I don?t know. 28.You?d better… 29.Thank you all the same.

30.Which bus do I take? 31.Go along this road. 32.What day was it yesterday? 33.I?m sorry to hear that. 34.I hope you?re better now. 35.Why did you call me? 36.I called to tell… IV. 重要语法 1.be going to 的用法; 2.形容词的比较级、最高级; 3.形容词和副词的比较 4.一般过去时 【名师讲解】 1. on the street / in the street 表示 “ 在街上 ” 时, on the street 和 in the street 都可以,在美国多用 on the street, 在英国 多用 in the street. 例如: We have a house in the street. 我们在街上有座 房子。 I met him on the street. 我在街上遇见了他。 2. would like / like would like 和 like 含义不同。like 意思是 “喜欢”,“爱好”,而 would like 意思是“想要”。 试比较: I like beer.=I?m fond of beer. 我喜欢喝啤酒。 I?d like a glass of beer= I want a glass of beer. 我想要一杯啤酒。 Do you like going to the cinema? 你喜欢看电 影吗? Would you like to go to the cinema tonight? 你 今晚想去看电影吗? 3. another / the other (1)another 通常用于三个或三个以上或不确 定数量中的任意一个人或 物体。 例如: May I have another apple, please? 请在给我 一个苹果好吗? This coat is too small for me. Please show me another 这件外套我穿太小,请再给我拿一 件看看。 (2)the other 通常指两者中的另一个。例如: He has two rulers. One is short. The other is long. 他有两把尺子,一把短的,另一把长 的。 I have two brothers. One works in Xi?an . The other works in Beijing. 我有两个兄弟,一个 在西安工作,另一个在北京工作。 4. have to /must
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(1)have to 和 must 都可以用来谈论义务, 但用 法略有不同。如果某人主观上觉得必须去做 而又想去时,常用 must。如果谈论某种来自 “外界”的义务,常用 have to。例如: I must stop smoking. 我必须戒烟。 (自己想戒 烟) They have to work for the boss. 他们不得不为那个老板工作。 (条件逼得他们 去工作) (2)have to 可用于多种时态,must 只能用于一 般现在时。例如: I?ll have to get up early tomorrow morning.明 天早晨我必须早早起床。 We had to work long hours every day in order to get more money. 为了多挣钱, 我们不得不每天长时间地工作。 (3)用于否定句时, mustn’t 意思是“决不能”, “禁 止”,而 don’t have to 意思是“不必”,相当于 needn?t。例如: You mustn?t be late again next time.下一次你 决不能再迟到。 You don?t have to go there today. You can go there tomorrow. 你今天不必到那里去了。你可以明天去。 5. hear sb. or sth.doing sth. / herar sb. or sth. do sth. hear sb. or sth.doing sth.意思是“听到某人或 某物在做某事”,而 hear sb. or sth. do sth.意思是 “听到某人或某物做过某事”。试比较: I hear him singing an English song.听见他在唱英 歌曲。 I heard him sing an English song.我听见他唱一 首英文歌。 类似 hear 这种用法的还有 see, watch, listen, feel 等感官动词。 6. any /some any 和 some 都可以同不可数名词和可数名词 的复数形式连用,但 some 一般用在肯定句中;any 用在疑问句和否定句中。试比较: I want some money. 我想要点钱。 Have you any money? 你有钱吗? I don?t have any money. 我一点钱也没有。 some 有时也用于疑问句,表示说话人期待一 个肯定回答或鼓励人家说“是”。例如: Would you like some more beer?请你再来点啤 酒好吗? Could I have some rice, please?请给我来点米饭

好吗? 7. hear /listen to listen to 和 hear 都有“听”的意思,但含义有 所不同。Listen to 强调“听”的动作,hear 强调“听” 的结果。例如: Listen to me ,please! I?m going to tell you a story. 请听我说!我给你们讲个故事。 Listen! Can you hear someone crying in the next room? 听!你能听见有人在隔壁房间里哭吗? I listened, but heard nothing.我听了听,但什么 也听不见。 hear 后面如果接宾语从句,常常表示“听说”。 例如: I hear some foreign students will visit our school. 我听说一些外国学生将要访问我们学校。 I hear there is going to be a film in our school this evening.我听说今晚我们学校要演一场电影。 8. Let’s… /Let us… Let’s… 和 Let us… 都表示“让我们……”, 如 果 us 包括听话人在内,其含义相同,附带问句用 shall we. 如果 us 不包括听话人在内, 其含义不同, Let us…的附带问句要用 will you。例如: Let?s go shopping, shall we? 我们去购物好 吗? 9. take/ bring/ carry /get 这四个动词都有“拿”和“带”的意思,但含义有 所不同。take 意为“带走”,“拿走”,bring 意为“带 来”,“拿来”, get 表示“到别的地方把某人或某物带 来或拿来”,carry 不强调方向,带有负重的意思。 试比较: My parents often take me there on holidays.我父 母常常带我到那里去度假。 I?m going to take you to Beijing.我准备带你去 北京。 Bring me a cup of tea, please.请给我端杯茶来。 I?ll bring the book to you tomorrow.明天我把那 本书给你带来。 The waiter carried the me to the table 服务员把 肉送到桌上。 The monkey carried the bag on her back.猴子把 那个包背在背上。 She went back to get her handbag.他折回去拿他 的手提包。 Let me get the doctor.让我去请医生吧。 10. far away /faraway (1)far away 是一个副词短语,意思是“很远”。例 如:
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Some are far away. Some are nearer.有些离得很 远,有些离得近一些的。 The village is far away from here.那个村子离这儿 很远。 (2)faraway 是一个形容词,意思是“遥远的”,可 以在句中作定语。例如: He lives in faraway mountain village.他住在一个 遥远的小山村。 11. find / look for find 和 look for 都有“找”的意思, 但含义不同。 find 强调“找”的结果, 而 look for 强调“找”的过程。 请看下列例句: He is looking for his bike.他在找他的自行车。 I?m looking for my watch, but can?t find it.我在 找我的手表,但是找不到。 I hope you will soon find your lost ring.希望你 尽快找到丢失的戒指。 另外,find 还有“发现”;“感到”等意思。例如: I found a wallet in the desk.我在课桌里发现了 一个钱包。 I find this book very interesting.我觉得这本书很 有意思。 12. in front of /in the front of In front of 表示在某物的前面,不在某物的范 围内。In the front of 表示在某物的前部,在某物 的范围内。试比较: My seat is in front of Mary?s.我的座位在玛丽座 位的前面。 He is sitting in the front of the car with the driver. 他和司机坐在小车的前部。 【考点扫描】 1. be going to 的用法; 2. 形容词的比较级、最高级; 3. 形容词和副词的比较 4. 一般过去时 5. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型; 6. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。 【中考范例】 1. (2004 年烟台市中考试题) In the exam, the ________ you are, the ________ mistakes you?ll make. A. carefully, little B. more carefully, fewest C. more careful, fewer D. more careful, less 【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是形容词和副 词的比较以及他们的比较等级的用法。第一个空应 填形容词 careful 的比较级,因为它在句中作表语,

第二个空应填 few 的比较级,因为它修饰的是复数 可数名词。 2. (2004 年河北省中考试题) Bob never does his homework _________ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes. A. so careful B. as carefully as C. carefully D. as careful as 【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是形容词和副 词的用法比较。该空应填副词,因为它修饰的是动 词 does。该题用的是 not as+副词+as 的结构,所以 答案应是 B。 3. (2004 年重庆市中考试题) That day I saw some parents _________ at the back of the classroom, ________ to the teacher. A. sitting, listened B. sat, listened C. sitting, listening D. sat, listening 【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是 see sb. doing sth. 的句型结构和分词作状语的用法。第一个空 stting 在 句 中作 saw 的宾 语 补足 语, 第二 个 空 listening 做伴随状语。 4. (2004 年杭州市中考试题) You ________ open the door before the train gets into the station. A. don?t have to B. mustn?t C. needn?t D. may not 【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是几个情态动 词否定式的用法区别。don?t have to 和 needn?t 的意 思都是“不必”,may not 的意思是“可以不”,只有 mustn?t 表示“不许”,“禁止”。 初二年级(中) 【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语 1. give a concert 2. fall down 3. go on 4. at the end of 5. go back 6. in ahurry 7. write down 8. come out 9. all the year round 10. later on 11. at times 12. ring sb. up
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13. Happy New Year! 14. have a party 15. hold on 16. hear from 17. be ready 18. at the moment 19. take out 20.the same as 21. turn over 22. get-together 23. put on 24. take a seat 25. wait for 26. get lost 27. just then 28. first of all 29. go wrong 30. make a noise 31. get on 32. get off 33. stand in line 34. at the head of 35. laugh at 36. throw about 37. in fact 38. at midnight 39. enjoy oneself 40. have a headache 41. have a cough 42. fall asleep 43. again and again 44. look over 45. take exercise II. 重要句型 1. be good for sth. 2. I think … 3. I hope… 4. I love… 5. I don?t like… 6. I?m sure… 7. forget to do sth. 8. take a message for sb. 9. give sb. the message 10. help yourself to sth. 11. be famous for sth. 12. on one?s way to… 13. make one?s way to…

14. quarrel with sb. 15. agree with sb. 16. stop sb. from doing sth. III. 交际用语 1.What?s the weather like today? 2.It?s cold, but quite suuny. 3.How cold it is today! 4.Yes, but it?ll be warmer later on. 5.Shall we make a snowman? 6.Ok. Come on! 7.Happy New Year! 8.May I speak to Ann, please?? 9.Hold on, please. 10.Thanks a lot for inviting me to your party. 11.Ok. But I?m afraid I may be a little late. 12.Can I take a message for you? 13.That?s OK. It doesn?t matter. 14.I?m very sorry, but I can?t come. 15.I?m sorry to hear that. 16.Happy birthday! 17.Would you like ...? Would you like to ...? 18.Do you think ...? Yes, I think so. / No, I don't think so. 19.Do you agree? Yes, I agree. / No, don't really agree. I really can't agree. 20.There are a few / a lot of ... / on it. 21.So do we. 22.I'm happy you like it. 23.Which is the way to ..., please? 24.Turn right/left at the ... crossing. 25.Go on until you reach ... 26.How can I get to ...? Go down/up/along this road. 27.What's the matter? 28.It'll take you half an hour to ... 29.We'd better catch a bus. 30.It may be in ... Ah, so it is 31.You must be more careful! 32.You mustn't cross the road now. 33.If you want to cross a street, you must wait for the green light. 34.Please stand in line. 35.You must wait for your turn. 36.If you don't go soon, you'll be late. 37.I don't feel very well.
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38.My head hurts. 39.You mustn't eat anything until you see the doctor. 40.What's the trouble? 41.What's the matter with…? 42.She didn't feel like eating anything. 43.Nothing serious. 44.Have/get a pain in… 45.No problem. 46.Take this medicine three times a day. IV. 重要语法 1. 一般过去时; 2. 反意疑问句的用法; 3. 一般将来时; 4. 感叹句; 5. 简单句的五种基本句型; 6. 情态动词 can, may 和 must, have to 的用法; 7. 时间状语从句和条件状语从句。 【名师讲解】 1. above/ over/ on 这三个介词都表示“在……之上”, 但含义不同。 on 指在某物的表面上,和某物接触;above 指在某 物的上方,不和某物接触,但也不一定在某物的正 上方;over 指在某物的正上方,不和某物接触。试 比较: There is a book on the desk.课桌上有一本书。 I raise my right hand above my head. 我把右手高 举过头。 There is a stone bridge over the river. 河面上有座 石桥。 2. forget to do sth./forget doing sth. forget to do sth.意思是“忘记做某事”,实际上 还没做;forget doing sth,意思是“忘记做过某事”, 实际上已经做过了。试比较: I forgot to tell him the news.我忘记告诉他这条消 息了。 I forgot telling him the news.我已经把这条消息告 诉他了,我却忘了。 类似的词还有:remember, regret 等。 3. hope/wish hope 和 wish 在汉语中都有“希望”的意思,但 其含义和用法有所不同。主要区别如下: (1)wish 可以用来表示不可实现的愿望;hope 只 能用来表示可能实现的愿望。例如: I wish I were 20 years younger.我但愿自己能年 轻二十岁。 I hope you?ll be better soon. 我希望你能很快好 起来。

I wish the weather wasn?t so cold. 但愿天气不 这麽冷。 I hope he will come, too. 我希望他也能来。 (2)wish 可以接 sb. to do sth. 的结构,而 hope 不 可以。例如: Do you wish me to come back later? 你是否希 望我再来? 4. be sure to do sth./ be sure of/about sb. or sth. (1)be sure to do sth.可以用来表示说话人给对方 提出要求,意思是“务必”,也可以用来表示说 话人做出的推断,意思是“一定”,“肯定”。例 如: Be sure to lock the door when you leave.你离开 时务必把门锁好。 It?s a good film. You are sure to enjoy it.这是一 部好电影,你肯定会喜欢的。 (2)be sure of/about sb.or sth. 可用来表示“某人 对某事有把握”。例如: I?m sure of his success.我相信他会成功。 I think it was three years ago, but I?m not sure about it.我想那是三年前的事情,但我没有把 握。 5. hear from/hear of hear 意思是“听到”,从哪里听到要用 from 来 表示。例如: I?ve heard from Xiao Wu that we?ll start out military training tomorrow. 我听小吴说,我们明天开始军训。 Listen to the tape and write out what you hear from Han Mei. 听录音,并写出你从韩梅那里听到的内容。 hear from 还有一个意思是“收到某人的来信” (=receive a letter from sb.)。例如: I heard from my pen friend in the U.S.A. last month. 上个月我受到了美国笔友的来信。 I heard from her last week. 我上周接到了她的来 信。 hear of 和和 hear from 含义不同。hear of 意思 是“听说”,“得知”(某事或某人的存在),常用在 疑问句和否定句里。例如: Who is he? I?ve never heard of him.他是谁?我从 来没有听说过他。 I never heard of such a thing! 这样的事我从来没 有听说过。 6. It’s a pleasure./With pleasure. It’s a pleasure 这句话常用作别人向你表示致
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谢时的答语,意思是“那是我乐意做的”。例如: ---Thank you for helping me. 谢谢你地帮助。 ---It?s a pleasure. 那是我乐意做的。 ---Thanks a lot. Bye.非常感谢。 再见。 ---It?s a pleasure. 那是我乐意做的。再见。 类 似 的 话 还 有 “Not at all.” “You are welcome.” “That?s all right.” With pleasure 也用作客气的答语,主要用在别 人要你做某事,而你又非常愿意去做的场合。例 如: ---Will you please pass me the newspaper, please? 请你把报纸递给我好吗? ---With pleasure. 当然可以。 7. seem/look (1)二者都可以作“看起来”讲, 但 seem 暗示凭借 一些迹象作出的有根据的判断, 这种判断往往接近 事实;look 着重强调由视觉得出的印象。两者都可 跟(to be)+形容词和 as if 从句。如: He seems / looks (to be) very happy today. 他 今天看起来很高兴。 It looks (seems) as if it it is going to rain. 好像 要下雨了。 (2)但下列情况中只用 seem 不用 look: 1)后跟不定式 to do 时。如: He seems to know the answer. 他似乎知 道答案。 2)在 It seems that ...结构中。如: It seems that he is happier now than yesterday.他像比昨天高兴些了。 8. be ready to do/be ready for/ get ready to do/get ready for (1)be ready to do 和 be ready for…表示“已作 好…的准备”,强调状态 (2)get ready to do 和 get ready for…表示“为… 做准备”,强调行为。如: I'm ready to do anything you want me to do. 我愿意/随时准备做一切做你要我做的事。 I'm ready for any questions you may ask.我愿 意/随时准备回答你可能问的问题。 He's getting ready to leave for Tokyo.他正准 备动身去东京。

Let's get ready for the hard moment.我们为这 一艰难时刻作好准备吧。 (3)be ready to do 通常可理解“乐于做某事”, 即 思想上总是有做某事的准备。 be not ready to do 表示 “不轻易做某事”。如: He's usually not ready to listen to others.他通常 不轻易听从别人。 9. at table/at the table at table 在吃饭,at the table 在桌子旁边。 例如: The Greens are at table. 格林一家人在吃饭。 Mr. Black is sitting at the table and reading a book.布莱克先生坐在桌旁读书。 10. reach, arrive/get to 三者都有"到达"之意。reach 是及物动词,后 直接加名词,get 和 arrive 是不及物动词,不能直 接加名词,须借助于介词。get to 后加名词地点, 若跟副词地点时,to 去掉;arrive at +小地方,arrive in+大地方。如: Lucy got to the zoo before 8 o'clock. 露西 8 点前到 了动物园。 When did your parents arrive in Shanghai? 你父母 何时到上海的? It was late when I got home. 我到家时天色已晚。 11. sick/ill 二者都是形容词。当“生病的,患病“之意时, ill 只作表语,不作定语;而 sick 既可作表语也可作 定语。sick 有"呕吐,恶心"的意思,只能作表语, 而 ill 无此意。如: Li Lei was ill last week. (只作表语)李磊上周生 病了。 He's a sick man. (作定语)他是病人。不能说 成:He's an ill man. My grandfather was sick for a month last year. (作表语)我祖父去年病了一个 月。 12. in time/on time in time 是"及时"的意思,on time 是"准时, 按时"。如: I didn't get to the bus stop in time. 我没有及时 赶上汽车。 We'll finish our job on time. 我们要按时完成任 务。
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13. may be/maybe It may be in your inside pocket. = Maybe it is in your inside pocket. 也许在你里边的口袋里。 第一句 中 may be 是情态动词+be 动词构成的谓语部分, 意 思是"也许是","可能是";第二句中的 maybe 是副 词,意思是"可能",常位于句首,不能位于句中, 相当于另一副词 perhaps。再如: Maybe you put it in that bag.也许你放在了那只 包里。(不能说 You maybe put it in that bag.) It may be a hat.那可能是顶帽子。(不能说 It maybe a hat. 或 It maybe is a hat.) 14. noise/ voice/ sound noise 指嘈杂声,噪音大的吵杂声。voice 是指 说话的声音,嗓音,嗓子。sound 是指耳朵能够听 到的声音、闹声等。它是表示声音之意的最普通的 字。有时还用作科学上的声音。例如: Don't make so much noise! 别那么大声喧哗! I didn't recognize John's voice on the telephone. 在电话里我听不出约翰的声 音。 He spoke in a low voice. 他低声说话。 We heard a strange sound. 我们听到了一种奇 怪的声音。 Sound travels fast, but light travels faster. 声音 传得快,但是光传得更快。 【考点扫描】 中考考点在本单元主要集中在: 1. 一般过去时; 2. 反意疑问句的用法; 3. 一般将来时; 4. 感叹句; 5. 简单句的五种基本句型; 6. 情态动词 can, may 和 must, have to 的用法; 7. 时间状语从句和条件状语从句; 8. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型; 9. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。 考试形式可以是单项填空、完型天空、短文填空和 完成句子。 【中考范例】 1. (2004 年长沙市中考试题) ---Do you know if we will go to the cinema tomorrow? ---I think we?ll go if we ________ too much homework. A. will have B. had C. won?t have D. don?t have

【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是条件状语从 句的时态。在条件和时间状语从句里通常用一般现 在是表示将来的动作。 2. (2004 年佛山市中考试题) You have been to Tibet, _________? I was told that the snow-covered mountains were very beautiful. A. have you B. haven?t you C. don?t you 【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是反意疑问句 的构成。反意疑问句的前一部分是肯定句,后一部 分就应该是否定的疑问部分,而且要和前一部分保 持时态上的一致。 3. (2004 年扬州市中考试题) ---Jacky, look at that Japanese sumoist(相扑手). ---Wow, ______________! A. How a fat man B. What a fat man C. How fat man D. What fat man 【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是感叹句的构 成。这个感叹句省略了主谓部分,只保留了感叹部 分。 如果以 What 开头, 就应该是 What a fat man! 如 果是 How 开头,就应该是 How fat! 4. (2004 年福建省泉州市中考试题) ---Thanks for your help. ---__________________ A. It doesn?t matter B. Don?t thank me C. You?re welcome D. That?s right 【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是日常交际用 语 。 回 答 别 人 的 道 谢 通 常 用 “That?s all right.” 或”You?re welcome.” 初二英语(下) 【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语 1. on time 2. out of 3. all by oneself 4. lots of 5. no longer 6. get back 7. sooner or later 8. run away 9. eat up 10. take care of 11. turn off 12. turn on
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13. after a while 14. make faces 15. teach oneself 16. fall off 17. play the piano 18. knock at 19. to one's surprise 20. look up 21. enjoy oneself 22. help yourself 23. tell a story / stories 24. leave....behind …… 25. come along 26. hold a sports meeting 27. be neck and neck 28. as ... as 29. not so / as ... as 30. do one's best 31. take part in 32. a moment late 33. Bad luck! 34. fall behind 35. high jump 36. long jump 37. relay race 38. well done! 39. take off 40. as usual 41. a pair of 42. at once 43. hurry off 44. come to oneself 45. after a while 46. knock on 47. take care of 48. at the moment 49. set off 50. here and there 51. on watch 52. look out 53. take one?s place II. 重要句型 1. We?d better not do sth. 2. leave one. oneself

3. find one?s way to a place 4. stand on one?s head 5. make sb. Happy 6. catch up with sb. 7. pass on sth. to somebody 8. spend time doing sth. 9. go on doing sth. 10. get on well with sb. 11. be angry with sb. 12. be fed up with sth. 13. not…until… 14. make room for sb. III. 交际用语 1. We?re all by ourselves. 2. I fell a little afraid. 3. Don?t be afraid. 4. Help! 5. Can?t you hear anything? 6. I can?t hear anything / anybody there. 7. Maybe it?s a tiger. 8. Let?s get it back before they eat the food. 9. Did she learn all by herself? 10. Could she swim when she was …years old? 11. She didn?t hurt herself. 12. He couldn?t buy himself many nice things. 13. Did he enjoy himself? 14. Help yourselves. 15. Bad luck! 16. Come on! 17. Well done! Congratulations (to…)! 18. It must be very interesting. 19. I don?t think you?ll like it. 20. It seems to be an interesting book. 21. I?m sure (that)… I?m not sure if… I?m not sure what to… 22. I hope so. 23. What was he/she drawing when…? 24. I?m sorry to trouble you. 25. Would you please…? 26. What were you doing at ten o?clock yesterday morning? 27. You look tired today. 28. You?d better go to bed early tonight, if you can. 29. How kind! 30. Let?s move the bag, or it may cause an accident. 31. It?s really nice of you.
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32. Don?t mention it. 33. Don?t crowd around him. IV. 重要语法 1. 不定代词/副词的运用; 2. 反身代词的用法; 3. 并列句; 4. 形容词和副词的比较等级; 5. 冠词的用法; 6. 动词的过去进行时; 【名师讲解】 1. bring/take Bring 表示“带来、拿来”,指从别处朝说话人 所在或将在的地方“带来、 拿来”。 而 take 则表示“拿 去、带走”,它表示的方向与 bring 相反,指从说话 人所在地“拿走、带走”。如: Bring me the book, please. 把那本书给我拿来。 Take some food to the old man. 给那位老人带去 些食物。 2. somebody/ anybody/nobody 一般说来,somebody 用于定句,anybody 用 于否定句、疑问句和条件状语从句。例如: Somebody came to see you when you were out. 你 出来时有人来见你。 Does anybody live on this island? 有人在这岛上 住吗? I didn't see anybody there. 我在那儿谁也没看见。 Don't let anybody in. I'm too busy to see anybody. 别让任何人进来。我太忙,谁也不想见。 There is nobody in the room. 房间里没人。 Nobody told me that you were ill, so I didn't know about it . 谁也没告诉我你病了。所以我不知道。 3. listen, listen to, hear 这三个词意思都是“听”,但是它们的用法不完 全相同。它们的区别在于: (1)listen 只用于不及物动词, 后面接人或人物做 宾语,着重于“倾听”,指的是有意识的动作, 至于是否听到,并非强调的重点。如: Listen! Someone is singing in the classroom. 听!有人在教室唱歌。 (2)listen to 为 listen 的及物形式,后面一定要接 人或物做宾语,这里的 to 是介词。如:

Do you like listening to light music?你喜欢听轻 音乐吗? (3)hear 可用作及物动词, 也可用作不及物动词, 意思是“听到、听见”,指用耳朵听到了某个声 音,表示无意识的动作,着重于听的能力和结 果。如: We hear with our ears.我们用耳朵听。 She listens but hears nothing.她听了听,但是什 么也没有听见。 4. many/ much/ a few/ a little/ few/ little (1)many 修饰可数名词,much 修饰不可数名词; 都表示许多。例如: He has many books.他有许多书。 He drank much milk.他喝了许多牛奶。 (2)a few 和 a little 都表示"有一点儿",侧重于肯 定,相当于"some",但 a few 修 饰可数名词,a little 修饰不可数名词,例如: He has a few friends in London.他在伦敦有一 些朋友。 Would you like some coffee? Yes, just a little.喝 点咖啡好吗?好的,只要一点。 (3)few 和 little 表示"几乎没有",侧重否定。few 后接可数名词,little 后接不可数名词。例如: He is a strange man. He has few words.他是个 怪人,他几乎不说什么话。 Hurry up, there is little time left.赶快, 没什么时 间了。 5. either/ neither/ both either 可作形容词, 一般指"两者中的任何一个 "。有时也可表示"两个都……"的意思,后跟名词的 单数形式;neither: 指两者中没有一个,全否定; both: 指两者都,肯定。句中可作主语、宾语和定 语,both 后面应跟名词的复数形式。如: Neither of the films is good.两部电影都不好。 (没 有一部是好的) Either of the films is good. 两部电影都不错。 (谓 语动词用单数) Both the teachers often answer the questions.这两 个老师都常常解答问题。 6. take part in/join

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take part in 参加某种活动; join 参加,加入某 一政党或组织。例如: Can you take part in my party.你能来参加我的派 对吗? We often take part in many school activities.我们 经常参加学校里的一些活动。 He joined the party in 1963. 他 1963 年入的党。 My little brother joined the army last year. 我小弟 去年参的军。 7. quite/ rather/ very (1)quite 表示程度“很,十分,完全地”,“相当”。 如: She is quite right.她对极了。 That's not quite what I want . 那并不完全是我 所要的。 (2)rather 表示程度上的“相当”,比预想地程度 要大, 通常用在不喜欢的情况下。 如: It's rather cold today.今天的天气相当冷。 (3)very 表示程度“很,甚,极其,非常”,用于修 饰形容词或副词,既可用在喜欢的情况下,也 可用于不喜欢的情况下。应注意“a very +形容 词+可数名词的单数”结构中,"a"应置于"very" 之前,该结构相当“quite a/an +形容词+名词” 的结构。如: Two months is quite a long time. / a very long time. 两个月是一段很长的时间。 It's a very nice day / quite a nice day. 今天天气 很好。 【考点扫描】 中考考点在本单元主要集中在: 1. 不定代词/副词的运用; 2. 反身代词的用法; 3. 并列句; 4. 形容词和副词的比较等级; 5. 冠词的用法; 6. 动词的过去进行时; 7. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型; 8. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。 考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和 完成句子。 【中考范例】

1. (2004 年江西省中考试题) ---I called you yesterday evening, but there was no answer. ---Oh, I am sorry I ___________ dinner at my friend?s home. A. have B. had C. was having D. have had 【解析】答案:C。该提考查的是动词的时态。 表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作应用过去进 行时。 2. (2004 年北京市中考试题) ---Which is _________, the sun, the moon or the earth? ---Of course the moon is. A. small B. smaller C. smallest D. the smallest 【解析】答案:D。该提考查的是形容词的比较 等级。三者进行比较,其中最小的应用最高级, 而形容词最高级之前必须加顶冠词 the。 3. (2004 年河北省中考试题) Bob never does his homework _________ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes. A. so careful as B. as carefully as C. carefully as D. as careful as 【解析】答案:B。该提考查的是形容词和副词 的用法区别。空白处所缺的词是修饰动词短语 does his homework 的,应该用副词。另外,表示 “ 某人做事不如某人细心 ” 应用 “not as carefully as”这样的结构。 4. (2004 年吉林省中考试题) ---I like riding fast. It?s very exciting. ---Oh! You mustn?t do it like that, ________ it may have an accident. A. and B. or C. so D. but 【解析】答案:B。该提考查的是连接并列句的 并列连词的选择。And 通常连接两个意思一致的并 列句,so 连接两个有因果关系的并列句,but 连接 两个有转折关系的并列句,or 相当于 if not 意思是 “否则”。 初三年级(上) 【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语 1. at the moment 2. used to 3. for a while 4. walk away with sth. 5. leave for some place 6. sooner or later 7. pay for
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8. come up with an idea 9. think of 10. have a try 11. all over the world 12. be famous for 13. large numbers of 14. all the year round 15. no matter what 16. give up 17. for example 18. by the way 19. on business 20. so far 21. come true 22. set off 23. slow down 24. go on doing 25. wait for 26. be proud of 27. be afraid of 28. speak highly of 29. a year and a half 30. half a year 31. pick up 32. as soon as 33. keep… clean 34. take care of 35. cut down 36. make a contribution to 37. base on 38. make sure 39. take away 40. begin with 41. right now 42. as soon as possible 43. leave a message 44. all kinds of things 45. walk around 46. fall asleep 47. wake up 48. go on a trip 49. have a good time 50. take photos 51. come out 52. come on 53. have a family meeting 54. talk about

55. go for a holiday 56 go scuba diving 57. write down 58. by oneself 59. walk along 60. get a chance to do sth 61. have a wonderful time 62. book a room 63. have an accident 64. be interested in 65. use sth. to do sth. 66. make a TV show 67. be amazed at 68. take part in 69. feed on 70. get out of II. 重要句型 1. Why don?t you do sth.? 2. make sb. Happy 3. borrow sth. from sb. 4. forget to do sth. 5. pay fro sth. 6. return sth. To sb. 7. learn sth. from sb. 8. be famous for sth. 9. No matter what… 10. be with sb. 11. go on doing sth. 12. speak highly of sb. 13. keep doing sth. 14. allow sb. To do sth. 15. encourage sb. to do sth. III. 交际用语

16. It is said that…

1. --- Excuse me, have you got …? --- Yes, I have. (Sorry, I haven?t.) 2. --- Why don?t you …? --- Thanks, I will. 3. --- Thanks a lot. (Thank you very much.) --- You are welcome. 4. --- Have you ever done…? --- Yes, I have, once. (No, never.) 5. --- I?ve just done… --- Really? 6. ---What?s …like ? 7. --- How long have you been…? --- Since… 8. --- Have you ever been to…?
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--- I?ve never been there. (None of us has./ Only …has. ) 9. --- Would you like to have a try? --- I don?t think I can… 10. --- What have you done since…? 11. --- How long have you been at this …? --- For… 12. --- How long has she/ he worked there…? --- She?s / He?s worked there for… / all her / his life. 13. --- I?m sorry he isn?t here right now. 14. --- May I help you? 15. --- That?s very kind of you. 16. ---Could we go scuba diving? 17. --- Could you tell us how long we?re going to be away? 18. --- Let?s try to find some information about it, OK? 19. --- Could you please tell me how to search the Internet? 20. --- Go straight along here. 21. ---Please go to Gate 12. 22. --- Please come this way. 23. --- Could you tell me what you think about Hainan Island? 24. --- That sounds really cool! IV. 重要语法 1. 宾语从句 2. 现在完成时 3. 一般过去时与现在完成时的用法比较: 【名师讲解】 1. Maybe/ may be (1) maybe 是副词,意思是“大概,也许”,常用 作状语。 Maybe you put it in your bag.也许你把它放在 包里了。 “Will he come tomorrow?”“Maybe not.” 明天来吗?”“也许不”。 (2) may be 相当于是情态动词 may 与 be 动词搭 配一起作谓语, 意思是“也许是…, 可能是…”。 It may be 9:00 when they arrive.他们可能于九 点到达。 The man may be a lawyer. 那人也许是律师。 2. borrow/ lend/ keep/ use “他

(1) borrow 表示的是从别人那里借来东西,即我 们通常所说的“借进来”。 We often borrow books from our school library. 我们经常从学校图书馆借书。 I borrowed this dictionary from my teacher. 我 从老师那儿借来了这本字典。 borrow 是一个瞬间完成的动作, 因此不能与 时间段连用。 You can borrow my recorder for three days. ( 错误 ) I have borrowed this book for only one week. ( 错误 ) (2) lend 表示的是把自己的东西借给别人,即我 们通常所说的“借出去”。 Thank you for lending me your bike.谢谢你把 自行车借给我。 He often lends money to his brother.他经常借 钱给他弟弟。 lend 与 borrow 一样,也是一个瞬间完成的 动作,不能与一段时间连用。 (3) keep 的意思也是“借”,但一般是指借来后的 保存或使用阶段,是一段持续的时间,因此 可以与时 间段连用。 You can keep my recorder for three days.我的 录音机你可以借用三天。 I have kept this book for only one week.这本书 我才刚借了一星期。 (4) use 也可以当“借用”讲,但它的本意是“用, 使用”。 May I use your ruler? 我能借你的尺子用一下 吗? He had to use this public telephone.他不得不 使用这部公用电话。 3. leave/ leave for (1) leave 意思是“离开,留下”。 We left Shanghai two years ago.我们两年前离 开了上海。

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He left his cell phone in the taxi last week.他上 周把手机落在出租车里了。 (2) leave for 意思是“前往”,表示要去的目的地。 We will leave for Tibet next month.我们将于 下月去西藏。 The train is leaving for Moscow.这趟火车即将 开往莫斯科。 4. since/ for (1) since 用于完成时态,既能用作介词,也能用 作连词,后常接时间点,意思是“自从”。 He has been a worker since he came into this city. 自从他来到这个城市,他就是工人了。 I have never seen him since we last met in Shanghai . 自从我们上次在上海见过之后, 我再也没见过 他。 since 作连词,还有“既然”的意思。 Since you are interested in it, just do it. 对它感兴趣,那就做吧。 You can have fun now since you?ve finished your work. 既然你已经做完了功课,就开心玩会儿吧。 (2) for 用于完成时, 用作介词, 后常接一段时间, 意思是“经过…”。 I have learned English for five years.我已经学 了五年英语了。 They have waited for you for 30 minutes.他们 已经等了你三十分钟了。 for 也可以用作连词,但意思是“因为”。 They missed the flight for they were late.他们由 于完到了而误了航班。 He fell ill for many reasons.他由于多种原因病 倒了。 5. neither/ either/ both (1) neither 作代词是对两者都进行否定,意思为 “两者都不”,作主语时谓语动词用单数. Neither of the boys is from England.这两个男孩 都不是来自英国。 既然你

I know neither of them. 他们两个我都不认识。 neither 用作形容词,也修饰单数名词,意思 与作代词时相同;用作连词时,一般与 nor 搭配, 表示 “既不…也不”。作主语时,谓语动词也遵循 就近原则。 She neither ate nor drank yesterday. 她昨天既不 吃也不喝。 Neither he nor we play football on Sundays. 他 和我们星期天都不踢球。 (2) either 作代词时, 是指两者中的任意一方,(两者 之)每一个,故作主语时谓语动词用单数. Either of the books is new.这两本书任何一本都 是新的. She doesn?t like either of the films.这两部电影她 都不喜欢. either 作形容词, 用来修饰单数名词,意思与作 介词时相同. Either school is near my home. 的)任何一所学校都离我家很近. Either question is difficult.两个问题(中的任何一 个)都难. either 作连词时,一般与 or 搭配,表示两者选其 一,意思是“不是…就是”。作主语时,谓语动词遵 循就近原则。 Either he or I am right.不是他就是我是对的。 Either my sister or my parents are coming to see me.不是我姐姐就是我父母要来 看我。 (3) both 作代词时,指的是所涉及到的“两者都”, 故作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。 I like both of the stories.这两个故事我都喜欢。 Both of my parents are teachers.我父母两人都是 老师。 both 作形容词时,用来修饰两者,意思与作代 词时相同. Both his arms are hurt.他的两只胳膊都受伤了。 Both these students are good at English. 这两个 学生都擅长英语。 (这两所学校中

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both 用作连词时,多与 and 搭配,表示“既… 又, 不仅…而且”, 作主语时,谓语动词仍用复数形 式。 Both piano and violin are my bobbies.钢琴和小 提琴都是我的爱好。 They study both history and physics. 他们既学 历史,又学物理。 6. find/look for/ find out (1) find 强调找的结果,意思是“找到”。此外还有 “发现,发觉”的意思,后可接宾语从句。 Jim couldn?t find his hat.吉姆找不着帽子了。 Have you found your lost keys? 你找到丢失的 钥匙了吗? He found the lights were on along the street.他发 现沿街的灯都亮了 (2) look for 的意思为“寻找”,指的是找的动作而 非结果。另外,还有“盼望,期待”的意思。 She is looking for her son.她正在找她的儿子。 We?ve been looking for the car since early this morning.我们从今天一大早就开始找这辆车 了。 I look for the coming holiday.我期待着即将来 临的假期。 (3) find out 含有经过观察、研究或探索而得知的 意思,后常接较抽象的事物,意思是“找出, 发现,查明(真相)”等。 I can find out who took my money away.我能查 出谁拿了我的钱。 Could you find out when the plane arrives? 你 能设法知道飞机何时到吗? 7. forget to do/ forget doing (1) forget to do 是指忘记去做某件事了,即该事 还没有做。 Please don?t forget to call this afternoon.今天下 午不要忘了给我打电话。 I forgot to take some small change with me.我身 上忘了带零钱了。 (2) forget doing 是指忘记某件已经做过的事情, 即该事已经做了,但被忘记了。

He forgot telling me his address.他忘了告诉过 我地址了。 They forgot having been here before.他们忘了 以前曾来过这儿。 8. stop doing/ stop to do (1) stop doing 是指停止做某事,即 doing 这个动 作不再继续。 They stopped debating.他们停止了辩论。(不 辩论了) He had to stop driving as the traffic lights changed in to red. 由于交通灯变成了红色, 他 不得不停车。 (2) stop to do 是指停下来开始做另一件事,即停 止原先的事,开始做 do 这个动作。 She stopped to have a rest.她停下来休息会儿。 (开始休息) They stopped to talk.他们停下来开始交谈。 9. except/ besides (1) except 是指不包括后面所提人或物在内的“除 了”,可以理解为“撇开…不谈”,表示两部分的 不同。 Everyone is excited except me. 除我以外的每个人都很激动。(他们激动,而 我却不激动) All the visitors are Japanese except him. 除他以外的所有游客都是日本人。 (其他人是 日本人,可他不是) (2)besides 是包括后面所提人或物在内的“除 了”,可以理解为“除之外…还、除之外…又”, 表示两部分 的相似性。 Twenty-five students went to the cinema besides him. 除他以外,还有 25 个学生去看了电影。(他 和另外 25 人都去了) We like biology besides English. 除了英语外,我们还喜欢生物。(生物和英 语都喜欢)

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besides 还可用作副词,意思是“此外;而且”, 常用于句首或句尾。 He is a great thinker, and besides, he is a politician. 他是一名伟大的思想家, 除此以外, 他还是一 位政治家。 They encouraged me, and they supported me with money, besides. 他们不仅鼓励我,而且与我以金钱上的支持。 10. keep doing/ keep on doing (1) keep doing 指的是连续地、坚持不断地做某 事,中间不间断。 It kept blowing for a whole day.刮了一整天风 了。 The temperature keeps dropping.温度持续下 降。 (2) keep on doing 是指反复坚持做某事,但动作 之间略有间隔。 They have kept on writing to each other for many years.他们已经互相通信多年了。 After drinking some water, he kept on talking. 喝了一些水后,他坚持讲话。 11. seem/ look (1) seem 一般着重于以客观迹象为依据, 意思是 “似乎、好象、看起来…”。 The baby seems to be happy.婴儿看上去似乎 很高兴。 He seemed to be sorry for that.他似乎为那件 事感到抱歉。 seem 能与 to do 结构连用,而 look 不能。 It seems to rain. 似乎要下雨了。 They seemed to have finished their work.他们 似乎已经完成了工作。 在 it 作形式主语的句型中只能用 seem。 It seems that he is quite busy now.他现在看起 来很忙。 It seems to us that there is nothing serious.在我 看来没什么大不了的。 (2) look 用作“看起来;好像”时,常从物体的外 观或样貌上来判断, 是以视觉所接受的印象为

依据的。 The room looks clean.这间房看起来很干净。 The girl looks like her mother.那女孩看起来向 她的妈妈。 12. such/ so (1)such 常用作形容词,用来修饰名词。 Don?t be such a fool.别这么傻。 He is such a clever boy.他是如此聪明的一个男 孩。 (2) so 是副词,用来修饰形容词或副词。 He is so kind! 他真好心! Why did you come so late? 你为何回来得如 此晚? 当名词前有 many, much, few, little 等表示多、 少时,应该用 so。 He has so many friends.他有如此多的朋友。 Only so little time is left! 才剩这么一点儿时 间! 13. either/ too/ also (1)either 用作“也”时是副词, 常用于否定句句尾。 She is not a Japanese, I?m not, either.她不是日 本人,我也不是。 My sister doesn?t like this song, either.我妹妹也 不喜欢这首歌。 (2)too 常用于肯定句或疑问句尾,表示“也”。 He likes China, too.他也喜欢中国。 Are you in Grade 3, too? 你也在三年级吗? (3)also 也常用于肯定句或疑问句, 但一般位于句 中。 We are also students.我们也是学生。 He also went there on foot.他也是走着去的。 Did you also want to have a look? 你也想看看 吗? 14. if/ whether 在下列情况下只能用 whether 而非 if: (1)与 or not 连用时,只能用 whether. We want to know whether you are ill or not. 我 们想知道你是否生病了。 Please tell me whether or not you have finished your work.
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请告诉我们你是否完成了工作。 (2)后接动词不定式时,只能用 whether. Adam didn?t know whether to go or stay.亚当不 知道是走还是留。 He hasn?t decided whether to have dinner with me.他还没决定是否和我共进晚 餐。 (3)所引导的宾语从句放在主句之前时,只能用 whether. Whether it will rain or snow, we don?t mind. 我 们不在乎将要刮风还是下雨。 Whether I won or lost, she didn?t want to know. 我是赢是输她不想知道。 (4)引导主语从句或表语从句时, 一般用 whether. The most important was whether they had gone. 最重要的是他们是不是已经 走了。 Whether he will go with me is a secret.他是否 会和我一起去还是个秘密。 if 能引导条件状语从句,表示“如果,假如”, 而 whether 没有此用法。 We?ll have a football match if it doesn?t rain tomorrow.如果明天不下雨,我们 要进行足球赛。 I?ll tell him if I sees him.我看见他就告诉他。 If you?re in danger, please call 110.如果你遇到 危险,请拨打 110。 15. cost/ spend/ pay/ take (1) cost 一般用某物来做主语, 表示( “ 某物) 值…、 花费…”,既能指花费时 间也能指金钱。 The new bike costs me 300 yuan.这辆新自行车 花了我三百元。 It will cost you a whole to read through this book.通读这本书将会花费你整整 一周时间。 cost 还可以用作名词,表示“成本、费用、价 格、代价”等。 What?s the cost of this TV set? 这台电视机的

成本是多少钱? They succeeded at the cost of hard work.他们辛 苦地工作换来的成功。 (2) spend 一般用某人来作主语,表示“(某人) 花费…,付出…”,也能指时间或金钱,指时间时 常与 in 搭配,指金钱时常与 on 或 for 搭配。 We spent two days in repairing this machine.我们 花了两天时间修理这台机器。 Mr. Lee spends $20 on books every month.李先 生每月花二十美元在书上。 (3) pay 用作动词时, 一般也以某人作主语, 但一 般指花钱、 付款等, 很少用来指花费时间。 常与 for 搭配使用。 They paid 70 yuan for the tickets.他们花了七十 元买票。 He was too poor to pay for his schooling.他穷得 交不起学费。 pay 还可以用作名词, 意思为“薪水、 工资”等。 It?s hard for me to live with such low pay.我很 难靠这么低的薪水生活下去。 (4)take 也指“花费(时间、 金钱)”, 但通常用某事、 某物做主语,或用形式主语 it. How long will the meeting take? 会议要开多 久? It took me several hours to get there. 我花了几 个小时才到那儿。 16. bad/ badly 这两个词的意思含有“坏、糟、严重”等意思, 且它们有共同的比较级 worse 和最高级 worst 。 (1) bad 是一个形容词,意思是“坏的,糟糕的, 差的,严重的”。 I don?t think he is a bad person.我并不认为他是 一个坏人。 I had a bad headache.我的头疼得很厉害。 (2)badly 是一个副词,意思是“不好地,差”,也 可以表示程度,意为“严重地,非常,极度”。 We need help badly.我们急需帮助。 His arm was badly hurt.他的胳膊严重受伤了。
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17. interested/ interesting (1) interested 是指“对…产生兴趣的,对…感兴 趣的”,一般用人做主语,后常用介词 in. He was interested in biology before.他以前对生 物感兴趣。 I?m not interested in art.我对艺术不感兴趣。 (2)interesting 的意思是“有趣的”,指能够给人带 来兴趣的某人或某事物。 He is an interesting old man.他是个有趣的老 头。 The interesting story attracted me. 的故事吸引了我。 18. dead/ die/ death/ dying (1) dead 是形容词,意思为“死了的、 无生命的”, 表示状态,可以与一段时间连用。 The tree has been dead for ten years.这棵树死了 有十年了。 The rabbits are all dead. 这些兔子都是死的。 (2) die 是动词,意思为“死、死亡”,是一个瞬间 动词,不能与一段时间连用。 My grandpa died two years ago.我爷爷两年前 去世了。 The old man died of cancer.老人死于癌症。 (3) death 是名词,意思为“死亡、去世”等。 The memorial hall was built one year after his death. 他死后一年,纪念馆建成了。 His death is a great loss to us.他的死是我们的 巨大损失。 (4) dying 是 die 的现在分词,用作形容词,意思 是“垂死的、即将死去的”。 The doctors have saved the dying man.医生们救 活了那个垂死的人。 The poor dog had no food, it was dying.可怜的 狗没有食物,快要饿死了。 【考点扫描】 中考考点在本单元主要集中在: 1. 宾语从句的时态和语序; 2. 一般过去时和过去完成时的用法区别; 3. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型; 4. 本单元学习的日常交际用语。 这个有趣

考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和 完成句子。 【中考范例】 1. (2004 年北京市海淀区中考试题) ---Do you know ________________? ---Only ten months old. A. when does Tiger Woods start golfing B. when did Tiger Woods start golfing C. when Tiger Woods starts golfing D. when Tiger Woods started golfing 【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是宾语从句的 时态和语序。这个宾语从句的时态应用一般过去 时,应为这里说的是过去的事情。语序应用陈述句 的语序,所以正确答案是: when Tiger Woods started golfing。 2. (2004 年北京市海淀区中考试题) I?m interested in animals, so I _____________ every Saturday working in an animal hospital. A. pay B. get C. take D. spend 【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是 pay, get, take 和 spend 这四个动词的用法区别。只有动词 spend 可以用在 sb. spends time doing sth. 这个句型里,所 以正确答案影视 spend。 3. (2004 年天津市中考试题) Could I ________ your telephone? I have something important to tell my parents. A. keep B. borrow C. use D. lend 【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是 keep, borrow, use 和 lend 四个动词的用法区别。keep 的真正含义 是“保留”,borrow 的含义是“借入”,lend 的含义是 “借出”,只有 use 的含义是“使用”。在这个句子里 实际上是“使用”的意思,所以应选 use。 4. (2004 年鄂州市中考试题) ---Hi, Ann. Where?s your brother? I need his help. ---He left home two weeks ago and ________away ever since. A. is B. was C. has been D. had been 【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是动词时态的 用法区别。一般现在时表示经常发生的动作或现在 所处的状态;一般过去时表示过去的动作或过去所 处的状态;过去完成时表示过去的动作或过去的时 间以前发生的事情;现在完成时表示动作或状态从 过去某一时间开始一直延续到现在或刚刚结束。这 里只能用现在完成时。

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初三年级(中) 【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语 1. give up 2. try out 3. most of 4. not…any more 5. at the age of 6. at that time 7. send message by telegraph 8. graduate from 9. turn down 10. put up 11. at the top of 12. get together 13. from house to house 14. at the end of 15. on top of 16. as well 17. climb down 18. in a single night 19. even though 20. live on 21. once upon a time 22. according to 23. keep warm 24. on the other hand 25. on show 26. on display 27. in the future 28. look up 29. Tree Planting Day 30. just right 31. as often as possible 32. wash away 33. in this way 34. in a few years' time 35. point to 36. thanks to 37. more or less

38. so far 39. shut down 40. send up 41. put off II. 重要句型 1.set one's mind to do sth. 2. put … together 3. stop…from… 4. keep…from… 5. be filled with sth. 6. give birth to 7. be covered with 8. be made of 9. fill…with… 10. match…with 11. be used for 12. have nothing to do with 13. come up with 14. no matter how… 15. keep sb./sth.warm III. 交际用语 1. ---I'm trying to … 2. --- I'll … 3. --- Which of these would you like most to …? 4. --- What do you want to … ? 5. --- I want to… 6. --- I hope to … 7. --- I plan to… 8. --- I'm going to… 9. --- I'm so happy that … 10. --- I'm glad …. 11. --- me too. 12. --- What's this called in English? 13. --- What's it made of? 14. --- It's made of … 15. --- What's it used for? 16. --- It's used for … 17. --- English is widely used for business/ … 18. --- It is one of the world's most important languages as it is so widely used.
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19. --- Where is / are … grown / produced / made ? 20. --- The (ground ) must be just right… 21. --- It's best to … 22. --- The hole should not be too deep. 23. --- The Great Green Wall is 7000 kilometres long, and between 400 and 1700 kilometres wide. 24. --- The more, the better. 25. --- More or less! 26. --- The (ground ) must be just right… 27. --- The hole should not be too deep. 28. 掌握以下常见标志: ENTRANCE EXIT PUSH PULL NO SMOKING NO PARKING FRAGILE THIS SIDE UP NO PHOTOS DANGER BUSINESS HOURS PLAY STOP PAUSE ON OFF IV. 重要语法 1. 动词被动语态的结构和用法; 2. 动词不定式的功能和用法。 【名师讲解】 1. be able to/ can (1) 都能表示“能够,具备干某件事的能力”这个 含义,此时可以互换。 Mr. Green is able to finish the work on time. = Mr. Green can finish the work on time. 格林先生能够按时完成这项工作。 (2) be able to 可以用于各种时态, 而 can 为情态 动词,多用于现在时,其过去式为 could。 We are sure he will be able to be an artist when he grows up. 我们相信他长大后能够成为一名画家。 Miss Lin has been able to pay the car by herself. 林小姐已经能够自己负担那辆车了。 (4) Can 除了表示“能够,有能力做某事”以外, 还有如下用法,而 be able to 则没有。表示 请求,但语 气没有 could 委婉 Can I have a look at this picture? 我能看看这张 图片吗?

Can we leave school after 6:00 p.m. ?我们可以 在下午 6 点之后再离开学校吗? 表示可能性。 That man can?t be our new teacher. 那人不可 能是我们的新老师。 The exam can?t be too difficult.考试不会太难。 2. bring/ take/carry/fetch (1) bring 一般是指拿来, 即从别处往说话人这里 拿,翻译成“带来”。 He brought us some good news.他给我们带来 了一些好消息。 Please don?t forget to bring your homework tomorrow. 明天请别忘了把家庭作业带来。 (2) take 一般是指从说话人这里往别处拿,翻译 成“带走”。 Please take the umbrella with you. It?s going to rain.要下雨了,请把伞带上。 She took the dictionary away.她把字典拿走 了。 (3) carry 不强调方向,表示“携带、背着、运送、 搬扛”等意思。 They carried the boxes into the factory. 他们 把箱子搬进了工厂。 A taxi carried them to the station. 出租车送他 们到了车站 (4) fetch 表示的是“去取来、去拿来、去叫来”等 意思,包含去和来两趟。 The waiter fetched them some apples.侍者为 他们取来了一些苹果。 Mother fetched the doctor for her ill son.妈妈 为生病的儿子请来了医生。 3. whole/ all (1) whole 强调一个完整如一,互不分割的整体。 The whole country is suffering the war. 整个国 家正遭遇战争。 I just want to know the whole story.我仅仅只想 知道完整的故事。

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whole 在句中的位置是放在所有格,冠词和指 示代词的之后。 They will spend their whole holiday in Canada. 他们将到加拿大渡过整个假期。(所有格后) She has finished writing the whole book. 她已 经写完了整本书。(冠词后 whole 用来修饰可数名词(名词用单数)。 He ate the whole cake. 他把整个蛋糕都吃了。 (强调整整一个蛋糕) (2) all 强调由一个个部分组成的“全部”。 Miss Green knew all the students in the class. 格林小姐认识这个班上的所有人。 (一个一个 全认识) all 在句中的位置是放在所有格,定冠词和指 示代词的之前。 Jim finished all his homework in twenty minutes. 吉姆在 20 分钟之内完成了所有的作业。(所 有格前) Of all the boys here, he sings best.在这里所有 的男孩之中,他唱的最好。(定冠词前) The boy can answer all these questions.那个男 孩能够回答所有的这些问题。(指示代词前) all 既能修饰可数名词(名词须用复数),又 能修饰不可数名词。 All these five books are mine.这五本书都是我 的。(修饰可数名词) She was worried about her son all the time.她总 在为她的儿子担心。(修饰不可数名词) 4. fill/ full (1) fill 常作动词,与 with 连用,意思是“注满、 装满”,也能表示“填空;补缺”的意思。 He filled the box with chalk.他把粉笔装满了盒 子。 The bucket is filled with water.水桶里装满了 水。 (2) full 是形容词,翻译成“满的,装满的”,常与 of 连用。此外还能表示“完全的”和“吃饱的, 过饱的”。 All the rooms are full of people.所有的房间都

满人了。 The bus was full. He had to wait for the next one. 这辆车人满了,他只有等下一辆。 5. be made of/ be made from/ be made in/ be made into (1) be made of 表示"由…制成", 一般指能够看出 原材料,或发生的是物理变化。 This table cloth is made of paper.这张桌布是 由纸做的。 This salad is made of apples and strawberries. 这种沙拉是由苹果和草莓做的。 (2) be made from 也表示"由…制成",但一般指 看不出原材料,或发生的是化学变化。 Bread is made from corn.面包是小麦做的。 The lifeboat is made from some special material. 这个救生艇是由某种特殊材料制成的。 (3) be made in 指的是产地,意思为"于…制造"。 The caps are made in Russia.这些帽子产于俄罗 斯。 My mother likes to buy things which are made in China. 我妈妈喜欢买中国产的东西。 (4) be made into 的意思为"被制成为…"。 This piece of wood will be made into a small bench. 这块木头将要被制成一个小凳。 The paper has been made into clothes for the doll. 纸被做成了洋娃娃的衣服。 6. none/ no one/ neither (1) none 既能指人, 又能指物, 意思是"没有一个, 无一",常用作代词,与 of 连用。 None of us has heard of him before.我们没有一 个人以前听说过他。 I like none of the coats. 那些外套我一件都不 喜欢。 none 用作主语时,谓语动词用单复数皆可。 None of the answers is true.没有一个答案是正 确的。 None of the rooms are mine.没有一间房子是我 的。
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(2) no one 只能用来指人,且不能与 of 连用。 No one is absent.没有人缺席。 I knew no one there.那里我一个人也不认识。 no one 用作主语时,谓语动词只能用单数。 No one agrees with you. 没有人同意你的说 法。 (3) neither 作代词是对两者都进行否定, 意思为" 两者都不",作主语时谓语动词用单数。 Neither of the boys is from England. 这两个男 孩都不是来自英国。 I know neither of them.他们两个我都不认识。 7. found/ find (1) find 的意思是"找到、发现",其过去式和过去 分词都是 found. I can't find my glasses.我找不着我的眼镜了。 He found it boring to sit here alone.他发现独自坐 在这里很没劲。 (2) found 是另外一个词,与 find 并没有关系,意 思是"成立、建设",常用作及物动词。 The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949.中华人民共和国成立于 1949 年。 The school was founded by the local residents.这 所学校是由当地居民修建的。 8. hear / hear of/ hear from (1)hear 的意思是"听见;听说,得知",后面能接 名词、代词或宾语从句。 We heard the news just a moment ago.我刚听说 这个消息。 Can you hear me? 能听见我说话吗? (2) hear of 的意思是"听说",一般指非直接的听 见,而是听别人说的。后不能接宾语从句。 I have never heard of her.我从未听说过她。 They heard of the film long time ago.他们很久以 前就听说过这部电影。 (3) hear from 的意思是"收到来信",与"听"无关。 I often hear from him. 我经常收到他的来信。 He hasn't heard from his mother for a long time.他 很久没有收到妈妈的信了

9. send/ send for (1) send 意思是"送往,派遣",还有"发信,寄信" 的意思。 The company sent him to study abroad.公司派他 到国外学习去了。 Mr. Brown sent her children away.布郎夫人送走 了孩子们。 (2) send for 意思是"召唤;派人去取;派人去拿", 而非本人亲自去。 They have sent for a repairman.他们已经派人去 请了一名修理工。 She sent for some flowers.她派了人去买花。 10. get to/ arrive/ reach (1) arrive 后不能直接接地点,是一个不及物动词。 若表示到达一个相对大的地点, 用 arrive in ; 若表 示相对小的地点,用 arrive at . The delegation will arrive in China at 5:00 p.m.代 表团将于下午 5:00 到达北京。 It was dark when they arrived at the railway station.当他们到达火车站的时候,天已经黑了。 When did she arrive here last time? 她上次是什 么时候到这儿的?(副词前省略介词) (2) reach 能直接接所到达的地点,是一个及物动 词。 They reached London on Friday.他们星期五到达 了伦敦。 The news only reached me yesterday.我于昨天才 接到这个消息。 reach 还有"伸手去取,伸手触及,联络"等意 思。 Can you reach that apple on the tree? 你能够到树 上的哪个苹果吗? He can always be reached on the phone.可随时打 电话跟他联系。 (3) get 在表示"到达"时是不及物动词,应与 to 搭 配使用。 We often get to school on foot.我们经常步行到 学校。

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They got to the top of the hill at noon.他们于中午 到达了山顶。 【考点扫描】 中考考点在本单元主要集中在: 1. 动词被动语态的结构和用法; 2. 动词不定式的功能和用法; 3. 本单元的词汇、短语和句型; 4. 本单元学过的交际用语。 考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和 完成句子。 【中考范例】 1. (2004 年北京市中考试题) Aunt Li often asks her son ________ too much meat. It?s bad for his health. A. don?t eat B. not to eat C. not eat D. to not eat 【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是动词不定式 的构成和用法。 这个句子的基本句型是 ask sb. not to do sth. 这里, not to eat 是不定式的否定式做宾语补 足语。 2. (2004 年嘉兴市中考试题) China is becoming stronger and stronger, so Chinese ________ in more American schools now. A. was taught B. is taught C. teaches D. taught 【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是动词的语态 和时态。Chinese 是一种语言,只能被人教,因此 要用被动语态。又因为说的现在的情况,动词要用 一般现在时。所以选 B。 3. (2004 年河北省中考试题) This painting ________ to a museum in New York in 1977. A. sells B. sold C. was sold D. is sold 【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是动词的语态 和时态。This painting 只能被卖,所以用被动语态, 又因为是 1977 年卖的,所以用一般过去时。 4. (2004 年扬州市中考试题) ---If you ________ a new idea, please call me as soon as possible. ---Sure, I will. A. keep up with B. catch up with C. feed up with D. come up with 【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是短语动词用 法。 本单元学习的短语动词 come up with a new idea 意思是想出新主意,正符合题意。 【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语

初三年级(下)

1. beg one's pardon down decision, 7. a place of interest off 10. think about 12. at all, carry on 4. wear out

2. multiply …by…3. slow 5. try on 6. make a 9. drop 15.

8. make a mistake 14. by the time

11. make up one's mind, 17. from now on 20. before long,

13. at least 16. never mind

18. come down II. 重要句型

19. hands up

21. no one, 22. not…any longer 1. be busy doing sth. 2. prefer to do sth. 3. regard... as... 4. be pleased with sth./sb. 5. be angry with sb. III. 交际用语 1. ---How much does… cost …? 2. ---It can cost as little as … yuan and as much as … yuan. 3. ---It costs …. 4. ---It's worth …. 5. ---I don't agree with …. 6. ---I wasn't sure whether…. 7. ---I wonder if …. 8. ---What size …? 9. ---Have you got any other colour / size / kind? 10. ---Have you got anything cheaper? 11. ---How much are they? 12. ---How much does it cost? 13. ---How much is it? 14. ---That's a bit expensive. 15. ---Even though they're a little expensive, I'll take them. 16. ---I'll think about …. 17. ---I don't think I'll take …. 18. ---I like …. 19. ---I don't really like …. 20. ---Can I help you, girl?
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21. ---Would you like me to look in the back? 22. ---We can find …. 23. ---Do you like being …? 24. ---Can I ask you some questions? 25. ---Sure. 26. ---It was great. 27. ---Wow! 28. ---Yeah! 29. ---Oh dear! 30. ---Hands up! 31. ---I?ll shoot anyone who moves. 32. ---There?s no need to thank me. 33. ---Can you remember anything else about him? 34. ---Come down, Polly! 35. ---There is a little traffic accident. 36. ---There's a big traffic jam. 37. ---Well, I'm sure he'll be here before long. 38. ---I'm beginning to get angry with him! 39.---Yes, we can't wait any longer. Let's go without him. 40. ---That's terrible! 41. ---That's a really bad excuse! IV. 重要语法 1. 过去将来时 2. 过去完成时 3. 动词不定式 4. 定语从句 【名师讲解】 1. think/ think/about/ think of (1) think 单独使用时表示"思考", 接 that 宾语从 句时意为"认为","觉得"。 I am thinking how to work out the problem. I think she is a good student. 当宾语从句含有否定概念时,通常形式上否定 think ,但意义上却是否定宾语从句。 I don't think he can come. I don't think it will be windy. (2)think about 可接一个名词,动词-ing 形式或 由疑问词引导的不定式或宾语从句,意思是"考 虑……"。

I have thought about it for a long time. Please think about how to tell her the bad news. (3)think of 表示"认为", 一般用于疑问句中, 与 what 连用。 What do you think of the TV play? = How do you like the TV play? 2. big/ large/ great 上述形容词都表示"大",但侧重点及程度不 同。 (1) big 指具体事物的大小, 强调比正常形体的标 准大,既可用在普通场合, 也可用在正式场合。 它可用来指人的身材高大或"长大了",还可表示" 伟大","重要"之意。如: Can you lift up this big stone? On the last day I made a big decision. (2) large 特别强调远远超过标准的大,指体积、 面积、容积、数量之大。如: A whale is a large animal. A large crowd collected at the gate of the theatre. (3) great 除了表示数量体积之大外,又指抽象的 程度,意味着伟大性,重要性, 优越性;常 用于抽象 或无形的东西; 用于有形的东西时, 常带有"伟大", "大得令人吃惊"等意思, 含有一定的感情色彩。 如: China is a great country with a long history. He was one of the greatest scientists. 3. cost/ take/ spend/ pay (1) cost 表示"花钱",花费,付出(只能用于钱、 精力、生命等;主语必须是物。) The book cost me five yuan. (2) take 的主语是动词不定式, 通常用 it 做形式 主语。 It took me five yuan to buy the book.. (3) spend,在主动语句中主语是人 I spent five yuan on (for) the book.或 I spent five yuan (in) buying the book. (4) pay 的主语是人。 I paid five yuan for the book.
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4. expensive/ high/ cheap/ low 这四个词在谈论到价格的高低时,要注意使 用。 expensive 与 high 涉及到价格"高", 而 cheap 与 low 涉及到价格"低"。 (1) expensive 昂贵的,花钱多的。这个单词若谈 到"价格高,货贵"时,其主语不能是价格,必须是 货物、物品本身。如: This watch is expensive. 这只表很贵。 These glass-products are not expensive. 这些玻 璃制品不是很值钱。 注意:cheap 表示"价廉","便宜的",其主语也 不能是价格,必须是物品本身。如: The cheap table was bought from him. 这张便宜 的桌子是他卖给我们的。 This cloth doll is very cheap. 这只布娃娃很便 宜。 (2)high 在表示价格时,含义是"高",low 在表示 价格时,含义是"低",这两个词不能用于物品 本身,只 能用在价格上。如: The price of this watch is very high. 这只表的 价格太高了。 The price of this book is not low for me. 这本书 的价格对我来说是不低。 下面我们试看几个句子的正误对照: The price of this computer is expensive. (宜改为:This computer is expensive. 或 The price of this computer is high. ) The price of this pen is not cheap for him to buy. (宜改为:This pen is not cheap for him to buy. 或 The price of this pen is not low for him. ) 5. alone/ lonely lonely 与 alone 的意思比较接近,但在使用时 有所区别: (1)lonely 用作形容词,意思是"孤单的;寂寞 的"。可指心灵上的寂寞,也可指偏僻的地点。 在句中既可作表语,也可作定语。 (2)alone 可作形容词和副词,意思是"单独; 独自",不指心理上寂寞的感觉。

She was taken to a lonely island, lived alone, but she never felt lonely. 她被带到一个荒岛上, 自己居住, 但她从不感 到寂寞。 6. before long/ long before (1)before long 作“不久以后”讲, 切不要按字面译 为“长时间以前”或“好久以前”。如: We hope to finish our experiment before long. 我们希望不久(以后)就把实验做完。 (2)long before 作"很久以前"讲。原意为"……以 前很久",故也可译为"老早"。long before 跟 before long 不同,前者在其后面可以接名词或一个从句;当上 下文明确时,名词或从句还可以省略。Before long 则没有上述搭配用法。 They began the test yesterday, but we had made experiment long before. 我们昨天开始做实验, 但我们在那以前很久就 已经做准备了。 7. as/ when/ while (1)as 是连词,意思是"当……的时候,一面…… 一面",(强调同时,一般连续时间不长),如: As we were talking about Titanic, our teacher came in. 正当我们谈论"泰坦尼克号"这部电影时,教师进 来了。 The students sing as they go along. 学生们边走边 唱。 (2)When 和 as 一样都是连词,注意它们的不同。 如 when"当……的时候"(一般表示动作紧接 着发生); "那时"(等立连词,前有逗号分开) I stayed till sunset, when it began to rain. 我一直 呆到太阳下山,那时天开始下雨了。 (3)while 是"当……时候;和……同时"(强调同 时发生,一般连续时间较长) While I was watching TV, he was reading. 当我在 看电视的时候,他正在看书。

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While there is life, there is hope. 有生命就有希 望。 8. beat/win/ hit (1)beat 是动词, 意思是"连续地打; 打败; 敲打"。 beat 后可接人或队名。意思是"击败对手。"如: I can beat you at swimming. (2)win 意思是"赢得某个项目",后面常接"match, game"。如: He won a game. 他胜一局。 We won a match. 我们比赛得胜。 (3)hit 意思是"击中" (有时可表示"打一下") 。 如: The mother hit her child out of anger. 妈妈生 气,打了她孩子一下。 9. keep doing/keep on doing (1)keep doing 侧重表示"持续不停地做某事"或" 持续某种状态"。如: The girl kept crying all the time. 那个女孩一直 在哭。 The baby kept sleeping about four hours. 这个 婴儿连续睡了大约四个小时。 (2)keep on doing 表示"总不断做某事",不表示 静止状态。不能与 sitting, sleeping, lying, standing 这类 词连用。如: It kept on raining for seven days. Don't keep on asking such silly questions. 10. get/ turn/ become 这三个词都可作系动词用,表示状态的变化, 后跟表语,但三个词的用法稍有不同。get 强调情 感、气候和环境的变化;turn 强调色彩的变化;而 become 则强调职务、职称等的变化。如: The days are getting shorter and shorter in winter.冬天的白天越来越短。 She couldn't answer the question and her face turned red.她回答不出问题,脸红了。 When did you become a teacher? - Ten years ago.你什么时候当的老师?十年前。 11. steal / rob 从意思上讲 steal 表示偷窃的意思。而 rob 表 示抢劫的意思; 从搭配上来讲, steal sth from sb/sth ; 而 rob 则用 rob sb/sth of sth; 例如:

He stole money from the rich to give it to the poor. They robbed the bank of one million dollars. 12. see/look/watch/notice 在英语中,see,look,watch,notice 都有“看” 的意思,要注意他们的区别。 see 意为“看到”,表示视觉器官有意识或无意 识地看到物体,强调“看到”的结果。 look 意为“看”,表示有意识地观看,强调“看” 的动作。 watch 意为“观看,注视”,指以较大的注意力 观看。 notice 意为“看到, 注意到”, 指有意识的注意, 含有从不注意到注意的变化的意义。例如: What can you see in the picture?在图画中你能 看到什么? Look! How happily they are playing!看!他们 玩得多高兴啊! He?s watched TV for over two hours.他看了两 个多小时的电视。 He noticed a purse lying on the road.他注意到 地上有个钱包。 13. Shoot/ shoot at shoot 是及物动词,意思是“射中,射死”,宾 语多为人或动物等。而 shoot at 是一个动词词组, 意为“向……射击”,至于射中或射死与否不得而 知。如: The man shot five birds in the forest.那个人在 森林里射死(中)了五只鸟。 The hunter shot at the bear.猎人朝熊射击了。 They shot at the she-wolf, but didn't shoot her.他们向那只母狼射击,但是没有射中/ 死。 14. escape/ run away (1)escape 作“逃跑”、“逃脱”或“逃避”讲时,往往 会有成功之意。如: The old man escaped death.那个老人死里逃 生。

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The thief escaped from prison.那个小偷越狱 了。 (2)run away 作“逃跑”、 “跑走”讲时, 往往强调动 作。如: Don't let him run away. 别让他跑了。 口语中 escape 和 run away 可以互用。 15. so that..../ so... that.... (1) so that....为了,以便 。引导一个目的状语从 句,从句中往往有情态动词。也可引导一个结 果状语从句。如: I left at 5:00 so that I could catch the early bus. Speak loudly, so that they can hear what you say. He didn't study English so that he lost a chance to work in a foreign company. (2) so... that....既可引导一个结果状语从句, 也可 引导一个目的状语从句。 如:The classroom was so noisy that I could hardly study. I got up so early in the morning that I could catch the train. 【考点扫描】 中考考点在本单元主要集中在: 1. 过去将来时; 2. 过去完成时; 3. 动词不定式; 4. 定语从句; 5. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型; 6. 本单元学过的交际用语。 考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和 完成句子。 【中考范例】 1. (2004 年济宁市中考试题) He wanted to know ______________. A. whether he speaks at the meeting B. when the meeting would start B. what he?s going to do at the meeting D. where would the meeting be held 【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是宾语从句的 语序和时态。因为主句的时态是一般过去时,所以 从句应用过去将来时,这就排除了 A 和 B。宾语从 句的时态应该是陈述句的语序, 所以只有 B 是对的。 2. (2004 年烟台市中考试题)

---Why didn?t you go to the movie yesterday? ---Because I ___________ it before. A. had watched B. have seen C. have watched D. had seen 【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是动词的搭配 以及现在完成时和过去完成时的用法区别。看电影 习惯商用 see a movie, 又因为说的昨天以前发生的 事情,应该用过去完成时。只有 D 正确。 3. (2004 年重庆市中考试题) ---Did you win the football game? ---Bad luck. Our team __________ in the final one. A. won B. beat C. was won D. was beaten 【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是动词搭配和 动词的语态。动词 win 通常和比赛一类的词连用, 不与人或队连用,因此可以排除 A 和 C。beat 是个 及物动词,既然我们的运气不好,就是输了,应该 用被动语态。 4. (2004 年广州市中考试题) ---Who is the man ________ was talking to our English teacher? ---Oh! It?s Mr Baker, our maths teacher. A. he B. that C. whom D. which 【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是引导定语从 句关系代词的选择。由于先行词是人,可以排除 A 和 D。而该词在定语从句中作主语,只有 B 合适。

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