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2014高考英语阅读理解巩固精品题练习(5)及答案


2014 高考英语阅读理解巩固精品题练习(5)及答案
阅读理解-------【细节理解题】常见错误类型: (1)张冠李戴。把文章作者的观点与他人的观点混淆起来,题干问 的是作者的观点,选项 中出现的却是他人的观点;或者题干问的是他人的观点,却把作者的观点放到选项中去。或 者是选项的答案并非是题干中主语的行为或观点,而是文中其他人物的行为或观点。 (2) 扩缩范围。英语文章为了表达准确、严密,很注意对范围的限定,有时通过加上 almost all,nearly,more than,normally,usually 等词对文意加以限制,“扩缩范围”干扰法就 是通过改变或去掉限制性词语,将信息中的范围、程度、色彩等改变,使该选项看似正确, 实际上却是错误的。 (3)无中生有。干扰项往往是生活的基本常识和普遍接受的观点,但在原文中并无相关的 信息支持点,这种选项的设置往往与问题的设问毫不相干。此外,干扰项也可能就是与所阅 读的 文章内容没有任何联系。 (4)偷梁换柱。干扰项用了与原文相似的句型结构和大部分相似的单词,却在不易引人注 意的地方换了几个词汇,造成句意的改变。 (5)文不对题。这类题最不容易辨别,选项中的描述与原文完全一致,确属原文中的一个 细节,这时要回到题干,看该选项是否能回答题干所提的问题。

阅读理解---------【推理判断题】易错点 (2012· 四川高考,A 篇) On a hill 600 feet above the surrounding land,we watch the lines of rain move across the scene,the moon rise over the hills,and the stars appear in the sky.The views invite a long look from a comfortable chair in front of the wooden house. Every window in our wooden house has a view,and the forest and lakes seldom look the same as the hour before.Each look reminds us where we are. There is space fo r our three boys to play outside,to shoot arrows,collect tree seeds,build earth houses and climb trees. Our kids have learned the names of the trees,and with the names have come familiarity and appreciation.As they tell all who show even a passing interest,maple(枫树)makes the best fighting sticks and white pines are the best climbing trees. The air is clean and fresh.The water from the well has a pleasant taste,and it is perhaps the healthiest water our kids will ever drink.Though they have one glass a day of juice and the rest is water,they never say anything against that. The seasons change just outside the door.We watch the maples turn every shade of yellow and red in the fall and note the poplars'(杨树)putting out the first green leaves of spring.The rainbow

smelt fills the local stream as the ice gradually disappears,and the wood frogs start to sing in pools after being frozen for the winter.A family of birds rules our skies and flies over the lake. 41.What can be learned from Paragraph 2? A.The scenes are colorful and changeable. B.There are many windows in the wooden house. C.The views remind us that we are in a wooden house. D.The lakes outside the windows are quite different in color. 【错混透析】 A 推理判断题。本段中提到,透过每扇窗户都会看到一番风景,森林和湖 泊与一小时之前所见到的都不一样。据此可知,作者身居的环境是多彩和变幻的。故选 A 项。 42.By mentioning the names of the trees,the author aims to show that______. A.the kids like playing in trees B.the kids are very familiar with trees C.the kids have learned much knowledge D.the kids find trees useful learning tools 【错混透析】C 推理判断题。根据第四段话中“Our kids have learned the names of the trees...”及“As they tell all...white pines are the best climbing trees.”可知孩子们已经了解了关于树 的很多知识。故选 C 项。

阅读理解【解题指导】 【 推理判断题】常见错误类型: (1)未经推断。把文章中已经明确介绍或说明的内容误以为推理判断的结论。 (2)凭空想象。凭主观想象或自己的常识理解文章中的细节,而不是凭借文章信息进行推 理,缺乏文章信息的支持。 (3)断章取义。能够找到文章的信息依据,但理解片面,缺乏思维的严密性。 C7 [2013· 广东卷] A Imagination and fantasy can play an important role in achieving the things we fear.Children know this very well. Fred Epstein,in his book If I Make It to Five,tells a story he heard from one of his friends about Tom,a four-year-old boy with a cancer in his back bone.He came through several operations and a lot of pain by mastering his imagination. Tom loved to pretend,and he particularly loved to play superheroes. Dr. Epstein explained that it was actually a brilliant way for his young mind to handle the terrifying and painful life he led. The day before his third trip to the operating room,Tom was terribly afraid.“Maybe I could go

as Superman,”he whispered to his mom.Hearing this, the mother hesitated for a while.She had avoided buying the expensive costume(戏装),but finally she agreed. The next day Tom appeared as the powerful Superman,showing off through the hospital halls and coolly waving his hand to the people greeting him along the way.And Tom,with the strength of his fantasy,successfully made it through the operation. The power of imagination need not be reserved for children only.We all have the power to use our fantasies to attempt things we never thought possible,to go through those things that seem impossible,and to achieve what we never believed we could. Just as Dr.Epstein puts it,“If you can dream it,you can do it.” It doesn't mean that you should dress as a superhero for your next job interview.But,next time you are tested in a way that seems impossible, imagine what it would take to overcome it.Become the person you need to become to win over your challenge and do it in your mind first.So,let your imagination run wild,and dare to dream. 26.What do we know about Tom? A.He was seriously ill. B.He was a dishonest boy. C.He was crazy about magic. D.He was Dr.Epstein's patient. 27.What can be inferred about Tom's mother? A.She was a rich lady. B.She refused Tom's request. C.She wanted Tom to be a superhero. D.She wanted to get Tom through the pain. 28.When Tom went for the third operation,he ________. A.pretended to be painful B.acted like a superhero C.appeared in poor spirits D.argued with his mother 29.In the last paragraph,you are advised ________. A.to go through some difficult tests

B.to wake up from your wild dreams C.to become a powerful person in your mind D.to wear expensive clothes for job interviews 30.What is the purpose of the passage? A.To tell us an interesting story. B.To help us make right decisions. C.To advise us to care about children. D.To encourage us to use our imagination. 【要点综述】 文章告诉我们,面对苦难和挑战,要充分发挥想象力的作用,使自己内心 强大起来,梦想才能实现。 26.A 细节理解题。由第一段的“Tom,a four-year-old boy with a cancer in his back bone.He came through several operations…”可知,Tom 病得很厉害。 27.D 推理判断题。由第四段的“And Tom, with the strength of his fantasy,successfully made it through the operation.”可以看出,Tom 的妈妈答应儿子的要求,就是想帮儿子减少手术 的痛苦感。其他选项可以这样排除:由第三段的 “She had avoided buying the expensive costume(戏装),but finally she agreed.”可以看出 A 和 B 错误;C 项可以由常识排除。 28.B 细节理解题。由第四段的“The next day Tom appeared as the powerful Superman,

showing off through the hospital halls and coolly waving his hand to the people greeting him along the way.”可知当时他的行为和超人一样。故选 B。 29.C 推理判断题。这是对前面所讲述的故事的升华,故事中小 Tom 用自己的想象力

战胜了痛苦,作者在这里也建议我们面对困难时要“need to become to win over your challenge and do it in your mind first.”还要“let your imagination run wild, and dare to dream.”由此可见,C 项符合题意。 30 . D 写 作 目 的 题 。 文 章 开 篇 点 题 : Imagination and fantasy can play an

important role in achieving the things we fear.告诉我们想象力的重要性,然后通过一个具体的例 子加以论证。最后一段中作者又鼓励我们在挑战和困难面前使用想象力,使自己内心强大起 来,故选 D。

阅读理解------【主旨大意题】易错点 (20 12· 课标全国高考,B 篇) Honey from the African forest is not only a kind of natural sugar,it is also delicious.Most people,and many animals,like eating it.However,the only way for them to get that honey is to find a wild bees' nest and take the honey from it.Often,these nests are high up in trees,and it is difficult to find them.In parts of Africa,though,people and animals looking for honey have a strange and unexpected helper—a little bird called a honey guide. The honey guide does not actually like honey,but it does like the wax in the beehives(蜂 房).The little bird cannot reach this wax,which is deep inside the bees' nest.So,when it finds a suitable nest,it looks for someone to help it.The honey guide gives a loud cry that attracts the attention of both passing animals and people.Once it has their attention,it flies through the forest, waiting from time to time for the curious animal or person as it leads them to the nest.When they finally arrive at the nest,the follower reaches in to get at the delicious honey as the bird patiently waits and watches.Some of the honey,and the wax,always falls to the ground, and this is when the honey guide takes its share. Scientists do not know why the honey guide likes eating the wax,but it is very determined in its efforts to get it.The birds seem to be able to smell wax from a long distance away.They will quickly arrive whenever a beekeeper is taking honey from his beehives,and will even enter churches when beeswax c andles are being lit. 63.What can be the best title for the text? A.Wild Bees C.Beekeeping in Africa B.Wax and Honey D.HoneyLover's Helper

【错混透析】 D 主旨大意题。本文主要介绍了能够作为蜂蜜向导的小鸟,所以标题应为 HoneyLover's Helper。

阅读理解【解题指导】 【主旨大意题】常见错误类型: (1)以偏概全。要么抓不住文章的主题、脉络,理解偏离中心或断章取义、信息紊乱、不 知所云,要么就是误把细节或具体事实当作文章的主题或只抓住了主题的一个侧面就误以为 是主题。 (2) 范围过大。归纳的主题太泛,与细节脱节或是没有对细节加以充分论证。干扰项归 纳、概括笼统,超过文章实际所讨论的内容。 (3)主观臆断。做题时全凭自我感觉先入为主、自以为是。所选的答案往往超出文章的内

容或背离作者的意图,以自己的观点代替作者的观点。 (4)繁琐冗长。不注意文章标题 的特点,所选答案语言不够凝练、精彩、吸引人。

阅读理解---------【词义猜测题】易错点 (2012· 北京高考,B 篇) Peanuts to This Proudly reading my words,I glanced around the room,only to find my classmates bearing big smiles on their faces and tears in their eyes.Confused , I glanced toward my stonefaced teacher.Having no choice , I slowly raised the report I had slaved over , hoping to hide myself.“What could be causing everyone to act this way?” Quickly,I flashed back to the day Miss Lancelot gave me the task.This was the first real task I received in my new school.It seemed simple:go on the Internet and find information about a man named George Washington.Since my idea of history came from an ancient teacher in my home country,I had never heard of that name before.As I searched the name of this fellow,it became evident that there were two people bearing the same name who looked completely different! One invented hundreds of uses for peanuts,while the other led some sort of army across America.I stared at the screen,wondering which one my teacher meant.I called my grandfather for a golden piece of advice:flip (掷) a coin.Heads — the commander,and tails — the peanut guy.Ah! Tails, my report would be about the great man who invented peanut butter,George Washington Carver.

peanut Weeks later,standing before this unfriendly mass,I was totally lost.Oh well,I lowered the paper and sat down at my desk,burning to find out what I had done wrong.As a classmate began his report,it all became clear,“My report is on George Washington,the man who started the American Revolution.” The whole world became quiet! How could I know that she meant that George Washington? Obviously,my grade was awful.Heartbroken but fearless,I decided to turn this around.I talked to Miss Lancelot,but she insisted:No redos; no new grade.I felt that the punishment was not justified,and I believed I deserved a second chance.Consequently,I threw myself heartily into my work for the rest of the school year.Ten months later,that chance unfolded as I found myself sitting in the headmaster's office with my grandfather , now having an entirely different conversation.I smiled and flashed back to the embarrassing mome nt at the beginning of the year as

the headmaster informed me of my option to skip the sixth grade.Justice is sweet! 62.The underlined word “burning” in Para.3 probably means ______. A.annoyed B.ashamed C.ready D.eager

【错混透析】 D 词义猜测题。根据本段内容不难看出,我当时有点茫然不知所措,静静 地坐在位子上,急于想知道我究竟错在哪里,结果有一位同学给出了答案。故此处 burning 意 为“急切的”,故 D 项正确。

阅读理解【解题指导】 【 词义猜测题】常见错误类型: (1)望文生义。仅仅理解了单词或短语的字面意义,而忽略了其真实的内在意义。 (2)缺乏依据。忽视画线词语所处的特定语境和上下文的信息提示。

C7 [2013· 广东卷] B Some people think that success is only for those with talent or those who grow up in the right family,and others believe that success mostly comes down to luck.I'm not going to say luck, talent,and circumstances don't come into play because they do.Some people are born into the right family while others are born with great intelligence,and that's just the reality of how life is. However,to succeed in life,one first needs to set a goal and then gradually make it more practical.And,in addition to that,in order to get really good at something,one needs to spend at leas t 10,000 hours studying and practising.To become great at certain things,it'll require even more time,time that most people won't put in. This is a big reason why many successful people advise you to do something you love. If you don't enjoy what you do,it is going to feel like unbearable pain and will likely make you quit well before you ever become good at it. When you see people exhibiting some great skills or having achieved great success,you know that they have put in a huge part of their life to get there at a huge cost.It's sometimes easy to think they got lucky or they were born with some rare talent,but thinking that way does you no good, and there's a huge chance that you're wrong anyway. Whatever you do,if you want to become great at it, you need to work day in and day out, almost to the point of addiction,and over a long period of time.If you're not willing to put in the

time and work,don't expect to receive any rewards.Consistent, hard work won't guarantee you the level of success you may want, but it will guarantee that you will become really good at whatever it is you put all that work into. 31.Paragraph 1 mainly talks about ________. A.the reasons for success B.the meaning of success C.the standards of success D.the importance of success 32.In Paragraph 2,the underlined word that refers to ________. A.being good at something B.setting a practical goal C.putting in more time D.succeeding in life 33.Successful people suggest doing what one loves because ________. A.work makes one feel pain B.one tends to enjoy his work C.one gives up his work easily D.it takes a lot of time to succeed 34.What can we infer from Paragraph 4? A.Successful people like to show their great skills. B.People sometimes succeed without luck or talent. C.People need to achieve success at the cost of life. D.It helps to think that luck or talent leads to success. 35.What is the main theme of the passage? A.Having a goal is vital to success. B.Being good is different from being great. C.One cannot succeed without time and practice. D.Luck,talent and family help to achieve success. 【要点综述】 人人都渴望成功,成功有时或许和天赋、运气和家境有关,但是缺少了长 期辛勤的付出,成功就会成为无稽之谈。

31 . A

段落大意题。这一部分向我们分析了一个人成功的因素: luc k, talent, and

circumstances。 32.B 代词指代题。上一句说的是要想成功需要做的第一个方面:“set a goal…make it

more practical”。由此可知答案。 33.D 细节理解题。题干关键词为:Successful people suggest(对应文章中的 advise)。

第三段的第一句话 “This is a big reason why many successful people advise you to do something you love.”中的 this,就是指的上文的“To become great at certain things, it'll require even more time, time that most people won't put in.”由此可知答案。 34.B 推理判断题。在这一段里作者告诉我们: It's sometimes easy to think they got

lucky or they wer e born with some rare talent,但接着又说:but thinking that way does you no good。由此可以看出,有时候人的成功是靠运气和天赋的,但是如果我们这样认为对我们是 没有好处的。由此可推知答案。 35.C 主旨大意题。纵观全文可以看出,文章首先向我们分析了成功的因素,怎样才能成 功,同时也剖析了对成功的一些错误的认识,最后一段总结全文,概括了主题,告诉我们成 功需要日复一日(work day in and day out, almost to the point of addiction, and over a long period of time)的努力和辛勤的工作(hard work)。由此可知答案。


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