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Writing (30 minutes)

Listening Comprehension (30 minutes) Section A 1. A) In a parking lot. B) At a grocery. C) At a fast food restaurant. D) In a car showroom. 2. A) Change her position now and then. B) Stretch her legs before standing up. C) Have a little nap after lunch. D) Get up and take a short walk. 3. A) The students should practice long-distance running. B) The students’ physical condition is not desirable. C) He doesn’t quite believe what the woman says. D) He thinks the race is too hard for the students. 4. A) They will get their degrees in two years. B) They are both pursuing graduate studies. C) They cannot afford to get married right now. D) They do not want to have a baby at present.

5. A) He must have been mistaken for Jack. B) Twins usually have a lot in common. C) Jack is certainly not as healthy as he is. D) He has not seen Jack for quite a few days. 6. A) The woman will attend the opening of the museum. B) The woman is asking the way at the crossroads. C) The man knows where the museum is located. D) The man will take the woman to the museum. 7. A) They cannot ask the guy to leave. B) The guy has been coming in for years. C) The guy must be feeling extremely lonely. D) They should not look down upon the guy. 8. A) Collect timepieces. B) Become time-conscious. C) Learn to mend clocks. D) Keep track of his daily activities. 9. A) It is eating into its banks. B) It winds its way to the sea. C) It is wide and deep. D) It is quickly rising. 10. A) Try to speed up the operation by any means. B) Take the equipment apart before being ferried. C) Reduce the transport cost as much as possible. D) Get the trucks over to the other side of the river. 11. A) Find as many boats as possible. B) Cut trees and build rowing boats. C) Halt the operation until further orders. D) Ask the commander to send a helicopter 12. A) Talk about his climbing experiences. B) Help him join an Indian expedition.

C) Give up mountain climbing altogether. D) Save money to buy climbing equipment. 13. A) He was the first to conquer Mt. Qomolangma. B) He had an unusual religious background. C) He climbed mountains to earn a living. D) He was very strict with his children. 14. A) They are to be conquered. B) They are to be protected. C) They are sacred places. D) They are like humans. 15. A) It was his father’s training that pulled him through. B) It was a milestone in his mountain climbing career. C) It helped him understand the Sherpa view of mountains. D) It was his father who gave him the strength to succeed. Section B Passage One 16. A) By showing a memorandum’s structure. B) By analyzing the organization of a letter. C) By comparing memorandums with letters. D) By reviewing what he has said previously. 17. A) They ignored many of the memorandums they received. B) They placed emphasis on the format of memorandums. C) They seldom read a memorandum through to the end. D) They spent a lot of time writing memorandums. 18. A) Style and wording. B) Directness and clarity. C) Structure and length. D) Simplicity and accuracy. 19. A) Inclusion of appropriate humor. B) Direct statement of purpose. C) Professional look. D) Accurate dating.

Passage Two 20. A) They give top priority to their work efficiency. B) They make an effort to lighten their workload. C) They try hard to make the best use of their time. D) They never change work habits unless forced to. 21. A) Sense of duty. B) Self-confidence. C) Work efficiency. D) Passion for work. 22. A) They find no pleasure in the work they do. B) They try to avoid work whenever possible. C) They are addicted to playing online games. D) They simply have no sense of responsibility. Passage Three 23. A) He lost all his property. B) He was sold to a circus. C) He ran away from his family. D) He was forced into slavery. 24. A) A carpenter. B) A master of his. C) A businessman. D) A black drummer. 25. A) It named its town hall after Solomon Northup. B) It freed all blacks in the town from slavery. C) It declared July 24 Solomon Northup Day. D) It hosted a reunion for the Northup family. Section C Intolerance is the art of ignoring any views that differ from your own. It (26) ________ itself in hatred, stereotypes, prejudice, and (27)________ . Once it intensifies in people, intolerance is nearly impossible to overcome. But why would anyone want to be labeled intolerant? Why would people want to be (28) ________ about the world around them? Why would one want be part of the problem in America, instead of the solution?

There are many explanations for intolerant attitudes, some (29) ________ childhood. It is likely that intolerant forks grew up (30) ________ intolerant parents and the cycle of prejudice has simply continued for (31) ________ . Perhaps intolerant people are so set in their ways that they find it easier to ignore anything that might not (32) ________ their limited view of life. Or maybe intolerant students have simply never been (33)________ to anyone different from themselves. But none of these reasons is an excuse for allowing the intolerance to continue. Intolerance should not be confused with disagreement. It is, of course, possible to disagree with an opinion without being intolerant of it. If you understand a belief but still don’t believe in that specific belief, that’s fine. You are (34) ________ your opinion. As a matter of fact, (35) ________ dissenters(持异议者)are important for any belief. If we all believed the same things, we would never grow, and we would never learn about the world around us. Intolerance does not stem from disagreement. It stems from fear. And fear stems from ignorance. Reading Comprehension (40 minutes) Section A It was 10 years ago, on a warm July night, that a newborn lamb took her first breath in a small shed in Scotland. From the outside, she looked no different from thousands of other sheep born on 36 farms. But Dolly, as the world soon came to realize, was no 37 lamb. She was cloned from a single cell of an adult female sheep, 38 long-held scientific dogma that had declared such a thing biologically impossible. A decade later, scientists are starting to come to grips with just how different Dolly was. Dozens of animals have been cloned since that first lamb—mice, cats, cows and, most recently, a dog—and it’s becoming 39 clear that they are all, in one way or another, defective. It’s 40 to think of clones as perfect carbon copies of the original. It turns out, though, that there are various degrees

of genetic 41. That may come as a shock to people who have paid thousands of dollars to clone a pet cat only to discover that the baby cat looks and behaves 42 like their beloved pet —with a different- color coat of fur, perhaps, or a 43 different attitude toward its human hosts. And these are just the obvious differences. Not only are clones 44 from the original template(模板)by time, but they are also the product of an unnatural molecular mechanism that turns out not to be very good at making 45 copies. In fact, the process can embed small flaws in the genes of clones that scientists are only now discovering. A) abstract B) completely C) deserted D) duplication E) everything F) identical G) increasingly H) miniature I) nothing J) ordinary K) overturning L) separated M) surrounding N) systematically O) tempting Section B Should Single-Sex Education Be Eliminated? [A] Why is a neuroscientist here debating single-sex schooling? Honestly, I had no fixed ideas on the topic when I

started researching it for my book, Pink Brain, Blue Brain. But any discussion of gender differences in children inevitably leads to this debate, so I felt compelled to dive into the research data on single-sex schooling. I read every study I could, weighed the existing evidence, and ultimately concluded that single-?sex education is not the answer to gender gaps in achievement—or the best way forward for today’s young people. After my book was published, I met several developmental and cognitive psychologists whose work was addressing gender and education from different angles, and we published a peer-reviewed Education Forum piece in Science magazine with the provocative title, “The Pseudoscience of Single-Sex Education.” [B] We showed that three lines of research used to justify single-sex schooling—educational, neuroscience, and social psychology—all fail to support its alleged benefits, and so the widely-held view that gender separation is somehow better for boys, girls, or both is nothing more than a myth. The Research on Academic Outcomes [C] First, we reviewed the extensive educational research that has compared academic outcomes in students attending single-sex versus coeducational schools. The overwhelming conclusion when you put this enormous literature together is that there is no clear academic advantage of sitting in allfemale or all-male classes, in spite of much popular belief to the contrary. I base this conclusion not on any individual study, but on large- scale and systematic reviews of thousands of studies conducted in every major English-speaking country. [D] Of course, there’re many excellent single-sex schools out there, but as these careful research reviews have demonstrated, it’s not their single-sex composition that makes them excellent. It’s all the other advantages that are typically packed into such schools, such as financial resources, quality of the faculty, and pro-?academic culture, along with the family background and pre-selected ability of the students themselves that determine their outcomes. [E] A case in point is the study by Linda Sax at UCLA, who

used data from a large national survey of college freshmen to evaluate the effect of single-sex versus coeducational high schools. Commissioned by the National Coalition of Girls’ Schools, the raw findings look pretty good for the funders— higher SAT scores and a stronger academic orientation among women who had attended all girls' high schools (men weren’t studied). However, once the researchers controlled for both student and school attributes—measures such as family income, parents’ education, and school resources—most of these effects were erased or diminished. [F] When it comes to boys in particular, the data show that single-sex education is distinctly unhelpful for them. Among the minority of studies that have reported advantages of single-sex schooling, virtually all of them were studies of girls. There’re no rigorous studies in the United States that find single-sex schooling is better for boys, and in fact, a separate line of research by economists has shown both boys and girls exhibit greater cognitive growth over the school year based on the “dose” of girls in a classroom. In fact, boys benefit even more than girls from having larger numbers of female classmates. So single-sex schooling is really not the answer to the current “boy crisis” in education. Brain and Cognitive Development [G] The second line of research often used to justify single-sex education falls squarely within my area of expertise: brain and cognitive development. It's been more than a decade now since the “brain sex movement” began infiltrating(渗入)our schools, and there are literally hundreds of schools caught up in the fad(新潮). Public schools in Wisconsin, Indiana, Florida and many other states now proudly declare on their websites that they separate boys and girls because “research solidly indicates that boys and girls learn differently,” due to “hard-wired” differences in their brains, eyes, ears, autonomic nervous systems, and more. [H] All of these statements can be traced to just a few would-be neuroscientists, especially physician Leonard Sax and

therapist Michael Gurian. Each gives lectures, runs conferences, and does a lot of professional development on socalled “gender-specific learning.” I analyzed their various claims about sex differences in hearing, vision, language, math, stress responses, and “learning styles” in my book and a long peer-reviewed paper. Other neuroscientists and psychologists have similarly exposed their work. In short, the mechanisms by which our brains learn language, math, physics, and every other subject don’t differ between boys and girls. Of course, learning does vary a lot between individual students, but research reliably shows that this variance is far greater within populations of boys or girls than between the two sexes. [I] The equal protection clause of the U.S. Constitution prohibits separation of students by sex in public education that’s based on precisely this kind of “overbroad generalizations about the different talents, capacities, or preferences of males and females.” And the reason it is prohibited is because it leads far too easily to stereotyping and sex discrimination. Social Developmental Psychology [J] That brings me to the third area of research which fails to support single-sex schooling and indeed suggests the practice is actually harmful: social-developmental psychology. [K] It’s a well-proven finding in social psychology that segregation promotes stereotyping and prejudice, whereas intergroup contact reduces them—and the results are the same whether you divide groups by race, age, gender, body mass index, sexual orientation, or any other category. What’s more, children are especially vulnerable to this kind of bias, because they are dependent on adults for learning which social categories are important and why we divide people into different groups. [L] You don’t have to look far to find evidence of stereotyping and sex discrimination in single-sex schools. There was the failed single-sex experiment in California, where six school districts used generous state grants to set

up separate boys' and girls' academies in the late 1990s. Once boys and girls were segregated, teachers resorted to traditional gender stereotypes to run their classes, and within just three years, five of the six districts had gone back to coeducation. [M] At the same time, researchers are increasingly discovering benefits of gender interaction in youth. A large British study found that children with other-sex older siblings(兄弟姐妹)exhibit less stereotypical play than children with same-sex older siblings, such as girls who like sports and building toys and boys who like art and dramatic play. Another study of high school social networks found less bullying and aggression the higher the density of mixed-sex friendships within a given adolescent network. Then there is the finding we cited in our Science paper of higher divorce and depression rates among a large group of British men who attended single-sex schools as teenagers, which might be explained by the lack of opportunity to learn about relationships during their formative years. [N] Whether in nursery school, high school, or the business world, gender segregation narrows our perceptions of each other, facilitating stereotyping and sexist attitudes. It’s very simple: the more we structure children and adolescents’ environment around gender distinctions and separation, the more they will use these categories as the primary basis for understanding themselves and others. [O] Gender is an important issue in education. There are gaps in reading, writing, and science achievement that should be narrower. There are gaps in career choice that should be narrower—if we really want to maximize human potential and American economic growth. But stereotyping boys and girls and separating them in the name of fictitious(虚构的)brain differences is never going to close these gaps. 46. Hundreds of schools separate boys from girls in class on the alleged brain and cognitive differences. 47. A review of extensive educational research shows no obvious academic advantage of single-sex schooling.

48. The author did not have any fixed ideas on single-sex education when she began her research on the subject. 49. Research found men who attended single-sex schools in their teens were more likely to suffer from depression. 50. Studies in social psychology have shown segregation in school education has a negative impact on children. 51. Reviews of research indicate there are more differences in brain and cognitive development within the same sex than between different sexes. 52. The findings of the national survey of college freshmen about the impact of single-sex schooling fail to take into account student and school attributes. 53. It wasn’t long before most of the school districts that experimented with single-sex education abandoned the practice. 54. Boys from coeducational classes demonstrate greater cognitive abilities according to the economists' research. 55. As careful research reviews show, academic excellence in some single-sex schools is attributed to other factors than single-sex education. Section C Passage One International governments' inaction concerning sustainable development is clearly worrying but the proactive(主动出击 的)approaches of some leading-edge companies are encouraging. Toyota, Wal-Mart, DuPont, M&S and General Electric have made tackling environmental wastes a key economic driver. DuPont committed itself to a 65% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the 10 years prior to 2010. By 2007, DuPont was saving $2.2 billion a year through energy efficiency, the same as its total declared profits that year. General Electric aims to reduce the energy intensity of its operations by 50% by 2015. They have invested heavily in projects designed to

change the way of using and conserving energy. Companies like Toyota and Wal-Mart are not committing to environmental goals out of the goodness of their hearts. The reason for their actions is a simple yet powerful realisation that the environmental and economic footprints fit well together. When M&S launched its “Plan A” sustainability programme in 2007, it was believed that it would cost over ?200 million in the first five years. However, the initiative had generated ?105 million by 2011/12. When we prevent physical waste, increase energy efficiency or improve resource productivity, we save money, improve profitability and enhance competitiveness. In fact, there are often huge “quick win” opportunities, thanks to years of neglect. However, there is a considerable gap between leading-edge companies and the rest of the pack. There are far too many companies still delaying creating a lean and green business system, arguing that it will cost money or require sizable capital investments. They remain stuck in the “environment is cost” mentality. Being environmentally friendly does not have to cost money. In fact, going beyond compliance saves cost at the same time that it generates cash, provided that management adopts the new lean and green model. Lean means doing more with less. Nonetheless, in most companies, economic and environmental continuous improvement is viewed as being in conflict with each other. This is one of the biggest opportunities missed across most industries. The size of the opportunity is enormous. The 3% Report recently published by World Wildlife Fund and CDP shows that the economic prize for curbing carbon emissions in the US economy is $780 billion between now and 2020. It suggests that one of the biggest levers for delivering this opportunity is “increased efficiency through management and behavioural change”—in other words, lean and green management. Some 50 studies show that companies that commit to such aspirational goals as zero waste, zero harmful emissions, and zero use of non-renewable resources are financially

outperforming their competitors. Conversely, it was found that climate disruption is already costing $1.2 trillion annually, cutting global GDP by 1.6%. Unaddressed, this will double by 2030. 56. What does the author say about some leading-edge companies? A) They operate in accordance with government policies. B) They take initiatives in handling environmental wastes. C) They are key drivers in their nations,economic growth. D) They are major contributors to environmental problems. 57. What motivates Toyota and Wal-Mart to make commitments to environmental protection? A) The goodness of their hearts. B) A strong sense of responsibility. C) The desire to generate profits. D) Pressure from environmentalists. 58. Why are so many companies reluctant to create an environment-friendly business system? A) They are bent on making quick money. B) They do not have the capital for the investment. C) They believe building such a system is too costly. D) They lack the incentive to change business practices. 59. What is said about the lean and green model of business? A) It helps businesses to save and gain at the same time. B) It is affordable only for a few leading-edge companies. C) It is likely to start a new round of intense competition. D) It will take a long time for all companies to embrace it. 60. What is the finding of the studies about companies

committed to environmental goals? A) They have greatly enhanced their sense of social responsibility. B) They do much better than their counterparts in terms of revenues. C) They have abandoned all the outdated equipment and technology. D) They make greater contributions to human progress than their rivals. Passage Two If you asked me to describe the rising philosophy of the day, I'd say it is data-ism. We now have the ability to gather huge amounts of data. This ability seems to carry with it certain cultural assumptions—that everything that can be measured should be measured; that data is a transparent and reliable lens that allows us to filter out emotionalism and ideology; that data will help us do remarkable things—like foretell the fixture. Over the next year, I’m hoping to get a better grip on some of the questions raised by the data revolution: In what situations should we rely on intuitive pattern recognition and in which situations should we ignore intuition and follow the data? What kinds of events are predictable using statistical analysis and what sorts of events are not? I confess I enter this in a skeptical frame of mind, believing that we tend to get carried away in our desire to reduce everything to the quantifiable. But at the outset let me celebrate two things data does really well. First, it's really good at exposing when our intuitive view of reality is wrong. For example, nearly every person who runs for political office has an intuitive sense that they can powerfully influence their odds of winning the election if they can just raise and spend more money. But this is largely wrong.

After the 2006 election, Sean Trende constructed a graph comparing the incumbent(在任者的)campaign spending advantages with their eventual margins of victory. There was barely any relationship between more spending and a bigger victory. Likewise, many teachers have an intuitive sense that different students have different learning styles: some are verbal and some are visual; some are linear, some are holistic(整体的).Teachers imagine they will improve outcomes if they tailor their presentations to each student. But there’s no evidence to support this either. Second, data can illuminate patterns of behavior we haven’t yet noticed. For example, I've always assumed people who frequently use words like “I,” “me,” and “mine” are probably more self-centered than people who don't. But as James Pennebaker of the University of Texas notes in his book, The Secret Life of Pronouns, when people are feeling confident, they are focused on the task at hand, not on themselves. High-status, confident people use fewer “I” words, not more. Our brains often don’t notice subtle verbal patterns, but Pennebaker’s computers can. Younger writers use more negative and past-tense words than older writers who use more positive and future-tense words. In sum, the data revolution is giving us wonderful ways to understand the present and the past. Will it transform our ability to predict and make decisions about the future? We’ll see. 61. What do data-ists assume they can do? A) Transform people’s cultural identity. B) Change the way future events unfold. C) Get a firm grip on the most important issues. D) Eliminate emotional and ideological bias. 62. What do people running for political office think they can do?

A) Use data analysis to predict the election result. B) Win the election if they can raise enough funds. C) Manipulate public opinion with favorable data. D) Increase the chances of winning by foul means. 63. Why do many teachers favor the idea of tailoring their presentations to different students? A) They think students prefer flexible teaching methods. B) They will be able to try different approaches. C) They believe students,learning styles vary. D) They can accommodate students with special needs. 64. What does James Pennebaker reveal in The Secret Life of Pronouns? A) The importance of using pronouns properly. B ) Repeated use of first-person pronouns by self-centered people. C) Frequent use of pronouns and future tense by young people. D) A pattern in confident people’s use of pronouns. 65. Why is the author skeptical of the data revolution? A) Data may not be easily accessible. B) Errors may occur with large data samples. C) Data cannot always do what we imagine it can. D) Some data may turn out to be outdated. Translation (30 minutes) 中国将努力确保到2015年就业者接受过平均13.3年的教育。如果这 一目标得以实现,今后大部分进入劳动力市场的人都需获得大学文凭。 在未来几年,中国将着力增加职业学院的招生人数:除了关注高等 教育外,还将寻找新的突破以确保教育制度更加公平。中国正在努力最 佳地利用教育资源,这样农村和欠发达地区将获得更多的支持。 教育部还决定改善欠发达地区学生的营养,并为外来务工人员的子 女提供在城市接受教育的同等机会。

参考译文: China will endeavor to ensure every employee to have average 13.3 years of education. If the goal is achieved, a majority of people entering the labor market will be having Bachelor’s degree. In the next few years, China will increase the number of people in vocational college. Except focusing on the higher education, the government will find a breakthrough point to ensure the justice of education. China is trying to optimize education resources and, accordingly, the countryside as well as the less developed areas will receive more support. In addition, the education ministry decides to improve the nutrition of students in less developed areas and provides equal opportunities for the children of workers from out of town to receive education in the city.

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