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Chapter2商务英语翻译技巧教程_图文

翻译的基本方法 ? 音译 Transliteration ? 直译 Literal Translation (word-for-word translation) ? 意译 Free Translation (sense-for-sense translation) ? 艺术加工

? Sure,

Bob, everybody talks about empowerment, but when the rubber hits the road, the bosses demand to have the last word. ? 译文:当然, Bob , 每个人都在谈论放权, 但真正开始执行总要等老板的最后决策。 ? What foreign businessmen find encouraging is that ideology is no longer in the driver’s seat. ? 译文:令外商感到鼓舞的是意识形态不再左 右一切了。

Floating policy is actually a convenient method of insuring goods where a number of similar export transactions are intended. ? floating policy ? 总保险单 ; 指用以承包多批次货运的一种持 续性长期保险凭证,常译为“统保单”。 译:统保单是货物保险的一种便利方法, 适合分 不同时间出口的一批类似货物。
1.

2. Without prejudice to any rights which exist under the applicable laws or under the Subcontract, the Contractor shall be entitled to withhold or defer payment of all or part of any sums otherwise due by the Contractor to the Subcontractor. ? without prejudice to相当于without affecting,意 为“在不损害· · · · · · 的原则下”,“在不影 响· · · · · · 的情况下”等等。 译:在不影响按适用法律或分包合同享有任何 权利的情况下,承包商有权扣留或暂缓支付承 包商应付给分包商的全部或部分到期金额。

Translation Skills

?2.1

英译汉

?词汇翻译 ?句子翻译

?2.2

汉译英

?词汇翻译

?句子翻译

accept ? maturity 1. Provided you fulfill the terms of the credit, we will accept and pay at maturity date. ? accept:承兑,认付(汇票等) ? maturity: 期满 ? 在贵公司履行信用证条款的条件下,我行将 承兑并于期满时支付信用证项下提示的汇票。
?

? ?
2.

outstanding settlement

Regarding our outstanding account US $6,000, we must request you to send us immediately your check in settlement. ? outstanding: 未完结的,未清的,未付的 ? settlement: 支付,结帐 ? 有关未付账6,000美元,请立即寄来支票,以便结 帐。

? Starbuck’s

annual turnover is 60 million yuan. ? That company has a fast turnover because of poor working conditions.
? turnover:

营业额;人员更换率

? 根据语境确定词义

a.

We are sorry to say we had to lodge a claim against you to cover our loss and hope you will take action immediately.
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十分遗憾地奉告,我方不得不向你方提出索赔以 弥补我方损失,并希望尽快落实。

b.
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This is the balance to cover the check.
这是准备用来交付支票的存款余额。

a.

b.
c.

Once the jewels were safely locked up in the bank he had no more anxieties about their security. He gave his house as a security. Treasury securities are revalued daily.

security: 安全; 抵押品,担保品; 证券,债券

? 根据专业确定词义 a. b.

They give 10% discount for cash payment. The exporter may take the accepted bill to a discount bank before the maturity if he is in urgent need of the amount of money.
出口商如果急需用这笔钱,他可以把这个承兑了的汇票拿 去贴现银行贴现。

c.

If the forward exchange rate is higher than the spot rate, we call it forward premium, and if it is lower, we call it forward discount.
如果远期汇率比即期汇率高,我们称之为远期升水;如果 远期比即期低,我们称之为远期贴水。

discount ? 贴现银行贴现(银行金融) ? 贴水(金融外汇)

? 根据搭配关系确定词义
a.

The above quoted are the articles in great demand, which have won a high reputation in various markets.
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上述报价的商品均为畅销货物,它们已在世界各 地市场上赢得很高的声誉。

b.

The articles in this agreement must not be modified and ended without the agreement by both parties.
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本协议中所列条款未经双方一致同意不得变动和 修改。

article: 商品;条款

? The

dollars remain strong against several important currencies. Canada is the biggest U.S. trading partner, accounting for more than 20% of both exports and imports, and the Canadian dollar is at all time low against the U.S. dollar. ? 美元对几个国家的货币保持坚挺。加拿大是 美国最大的贸易伙伴,占了美国进出口总额 的20%。目前加元对美元比价处于历史最低 点。

? 普通词汇,特殊意义
? In

order to market our new product, we have printed fine literature. literature ? 普通英语中,"文学"; ? 商 务 英 语 中 , "printed matters, including leaflets, instruction, product catalogue, price list, etc. (文字宣传资料,诸如产品说明书、产 品目录、价目表等)"

? However,

the tariff should not be greater in amount that the margin of price caused by dumping. ? 译文 : 但是, ( 反倾销 ) 关税税额不应比因倾销而 获得的毛利润高 。 dumping, ? 在商业领域被引申为“ 倾销 ”。 margin, ? 在商务英语中有“ 利润 、毛额 、押金 、 保证 金 ” 的意义 。

? When

Peter Welch, president of Cussons Polska and Uroda SA, arrived at Cusson’s newly acquired factory in Poland in 1993, he discovered that the concept of teamwork didn’t exist. acquire ? 在商务英语中,“收购” ? 当卡森波兰公司和乌诺达股份有限公司总裁彼 得维奇刚到在波兰新并购的工厂时, 他发现那 儿根本不存在团队合作的概念。 ? 注释:Uroda SA: 乌诺达股份有限公司。SA 是法 语,有时也写成 或S.A.。意思是“股份有限公 司”。

? 半专业词汇 ? The

bill of exchange shall be accepted first and then can be honored by the acceptor. ? honor ,“兑现、承付”的意思。 ? 该汇票应先承兑,然后由承兑方进行支付。

? If

all the terms and conditions in the credit are not complied with, the exporter may run the risk of his draft being dishonored by the bank. ? 商务英语中, dishonor 指银行“退票、拒付”。 ? 如果信用证的条款不一致,出口商的汇票有可 能遭到银行拒付。

? 专业词汇 ? lot

Labels: labels attached to each piece of multiple lot shipment for identification purposes. ? Lot Labels: 货票标签 ? 货票标签:给多批货物每件贴上标签以便于识别。

? ? ? ?

?
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premium indemnity tenancy lease of property wind up/cease a business appreciation of money

? 保险费 ? 赔偿

? 房屋出租
? 财产出租 ? 停业

? 货币升值

1.

2.

3.

The premium rates vary with differed interests insured. If the buyer fails to pay any account when due, the buyer shall be liable to pay the seller overdue interest on such unpaid amount from the due date until the actual date of payment at the rate of five percent per annum, such overdue interest shall be paid upon demand of the seller. 逾期利息 The articles of our immediate interest are your “CHON-HOI” brand Agricultural Washing 兴趣 Machines.

(保险费率)

被保险的货物

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.
7.

拆句法 词性转换法 肯定否定转换译法 语序重组法 省译法 增译法 重复法

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If a Party breaches any of the representations or warranties given by it in Articles 18.1 or repeated in 18.2, then in addition to any other remedies available to the other party under this contract or under Applicable Laws, it shall indemnify and keep indemnified the other Party and the company against any losses, damages, costs, expenses, liabilities and claims that such Party or the Company may suffer as a result of such breach.

? 首先,找出全句的主干结构; ? 其次,要找出句子中所有的谓语结构、非谓语

结构、介词短语和从句的引导词; ? 然后再分析从句和短句的功能; ? 最后,分析句子中是否有固定搭配,插入语等 其他成分。

If a Party breaches any of the representations or warranties given by it in Articles 18.1, then in addition to any other remedies available to the other party under this contract or under Applicable Laws, it shall indemnify and keep indemnified the other Party and the company against any losses, damages, costs, expenses, liabilities and claims that such Party or the Company may suffer as a result of such breach. 第一步,拆分句子:
? 1. 2. 3.

4.

If a Party breaches …in Articles 18.1 then in addition to …Applicable laws it shall indemnify and …costs, expenses, liabilities and claims that such Party or …as a result of such breach.

If a Party breaches any of the representations or warranties given by it in Articles 18.1, then in addition to any other remedies available to the other party under this contract or under Applicable Laws, it shall indemnify and keep indemnified the other Party and the company against any losses, damages, costs, expenses, liabilities and claims that such Party or the Company may suffer as a result of such breach. 第二步,句子的结构分析:
?
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句的主干结构是主语( It)(情态动词 动词原形)( shall indemnify and keep indemnified…against) 宾 语 ( the other Party and the Company); “if”引导的是条件从句,条件句的宾语部分跟随后置定语(given by it in Articles 18. 1 ); “in addition to”引导的是增补成分,其核心词remedies也跟了后置定 语 ( available to the other Party under this contract or under Applicable laws); 而“that”引导的则是后置定语修饰紧邻的五个名词; 固定结构“indemnify sb. against …”使某人不受……

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?

? ?

?

If a Party breaches any of the representations or warranties given by it in Articles 18.1, then in addition to any other remedies available to the other party under this contract or under Applicable Laws, it shall indemnify and keep indemnified the other Party and the company against any losses, damages, costs, expenses, liabilities and claims that such Party or the Company may suffer as a result of such breach.

如果一方违反任何其根据第 18.1条所做的陈述或担 保,则另一方除根据本合同或适用法律寻求任何可 能的救济之外,违约方应当赔偿另一方或合营公司 因此种违约行为而招致的任何损失、损害、费用、 开支、责任或索赔。

?

The Buyer may, within 15 days after arrival of the goods at the destination, lodge a claim against the Seller for short-weight being supported by Inspection Certificate issued by a reputable public surveyor.

分析:这是一个简单长句,其主干为The Buyers may…lodge a claim…。修饰谓语动词的状语有三个: a. 分别表示时间within 15 days after arrival of the goods at the destination b. 方式being supported by Inspection Certificate issued by a reputable public surveyor和 c. 目的for short-weight
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译文:货物抵达目的港 15 天内,买方可以凭有信誉 的公共检验员出示的检验证明向卖方提出短重索赔 。

In order to facilitate business in consideration of the present monetary stringency ( 银 根 紧 ) , the corporation, on behalf of which I am studying this proposition, is willing to base transaction on trade by barter (易货贸易) and would import any articles, which you would ship to the United States. ? 直译:为便于交易,考虑到最近银根很紧,本人正在研 究这笔交易所代表的公司希望以易货贸易为基础进行交 易,并进口你方能运到美国的任何商品。 ? 拆句组合后:最近银根很紧,为谋求达成交易,本人代 表公司正在研究如何做成这笔交易。我们希望以易货贸 易为基础,进口你方能运到美国的任何商品。
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1. Rockets have found application for the exploration of the universe.
火箭已经用来探索宇宙。

2. He is a good observer.
他善于观察。

3. Access to the Internet is very simple.
上互联网很简单。

4. Nylon is nearly twice as strong as natural silk.
尼龙的强度尼龙的强度几乎是天然丝的两倍。

Extremely keen competition between American and German vehicle manufacturers in the European market has compelled us to change our investment plan.
美国与德国汽车制造商在欧洲市场竞争得异常激烈,迫使我们 不得不改变投资计划。(英语名词转换成汉语动词) 将英语名词转换成汉语动词,译文更符合汉语的表达习 惯。因为与英语相比,汉语句子中动词用得多,除了大量的 动宾结构外,还有很多连动式、兼语式等两个以上动词连用 的现象。因此,英语中不少词类,如名词、动名词、介词、 形容词、副词等在英译汉时往往需要进行一定的调整,转译 成汉语动词。当然,英语的名词化和汉语的动词化并不排除 在英译汉时把英语动词转化成汉语的名词,再如:

1. A government report targets earnings from industry at US $ 200 billion by 2008.
政府的一份报告提出一个指标:到 2008 年,要使工业收入达到 2 000 亿美元。(英语动词转换成汉语名词)

2. The cost of making goods can be drastically lowered by means of mass-production.
通过批量生产可以大幅度降低生产产品的成本。(英语介词转化 成汉语动词)

3. Before World War II the most successful attempt to reduce tariffs by reciprocal bargaining was the trade agreements program of the United States, which was limited, however, by its bilateral nature.
第二次世界大战之前,通过互相谈判降低关税的最成功的努力是美 国的贸易协定计划,但是这一计划受其双边性质的限制。(英语代 词转换成汉语名词)

4. Advertising affects tremendously every sphere of modern life.
广告对现代生活的方方面面产生极大的影响。(英语副词转换成 汉语形容词)

5. The fair price connected with the superiority of varieties of our products will be able to guarantee our competitive edge in the international market.
我方各种各样的产品价格公平,品质优良,能够确保在国际市 场的竞争优势。(英语名词转换成汉语形容词)。

1. Males and females are equal in their right to inheritance.
(形容词转换为名词;介词转换为名词)

继承权男女平等。

2. I have the honor to inform you that the new products of yours have entered the international markets.
我荣幸地告诉你,贵公司的新产品已经打入了国际市场。 (名词转换成副词)

3. Lin Zexu believed that a successful ban of the trade in opium must be preceded by the destruction of the drug itself.
林则徐认为,要成功地禁止鸦片,就得首先把鸦片焚毁。 (形容词+名词转换为副词 +动词,名词转换为动词)

There must be less empty talk and more hard work.
(名词转换为动词)

一定要少说空话,多做工作。

For 20 years we were passive witnesses to the deterioration of prices of our raw materials and an excessive increase of the prices of manufactured goods.
(形容词+名词转换为副词+动词)

二十年来我们坐视原材料价格下跌与工业品价格暴涨(的情况)。

Amplification (增词法)
By amplification we mean supplying necessary words in our translation work so as to make the version correct and clear, to make it more like the language translated into. Of course words thus supplied must be indispensable either syntactically or semantically. In other words, a translator is not supposed to add any meaning to the original. ? There are two kinds: 1)Words for syntactic construction— to secure correctness, 2)Words supplied for semantic completion—to secure clearness. Both aim at making the version expressive and readily understood by the reader.
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◆ 增词法(Amplification): 1) 增补同义词 2) 增补范畴词 3) 增补产品名称

Warm up
1. In the evening, after the banquets, the concerts and the table tennis exhibitions, he would work on the drafting of the final communiqué.
晚上在参加宴会、出席音乐会、观看乒乓球表演之后,他还得 起草最后公报。

2. Our product is indeed cheap and fine.
我们的产品物美价廉。

3. Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; writing an exact man.
读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,写作使人准确。

1. 增补同义词 ? The innovation of products is one of the reform measures of the SOEs because it can decrease loss, cost and budget.
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产品的革新是国企改革措施之一,因为它可以减少损 失、降低成本并削减预算。
如果直译成:“产品的革新是国企改革措施之一,因为它可以减 少损失、成本和预算。”那么,句中的“减少”和“成本”的搭 配就不妥当,所以有必要增补相应的汉语词汇。

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Investor confidence is crucial to the success of our economic system. 投资者的信心对于经济体系的成功运行至关重要 。

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Both the buyer and the seller are busy at negotiations of business, contract and draft.
买卖双方正忙于交易磋商,合约谈判和汇票议付 。
如果直译为:“买卖双方正忙于交易,合约和汇票的磋商 。”那么,“磋商”和“合约”及“汇票”的搭配也不准 确,因此,需要译者根据汉语的搭配习惯做出增补。

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2. 增补范畴词
在英译汉过程中考虑到汉语的表达习惯,经常增加的 范畴词有:方法、措施、情况、情绪、状态、现象、 方面、问题、关系、工作等。
? The

changes of requirements for the commodities in the market are affected by the internal and external factors.
影响市场对商品需求的变化情况有内因和外因两方面 的因素。
如果直译就是:影响市场对商品需求的变化有内因和外因两方面 。但若添加范畴词“情况”、“方面”等来修饰相应的抽象名词 ,changes和 factors 更加具体、明确,符合汉语的修辞需要。

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1.

The tension in the Middle East has attracted much attention.
中东的紧张局势已引起了全世界的广泛关注。

2.

The terms of the contract must be clear, definite, certain and complete.
合同条款必须书写清楚、意思明确、语气肯定、内容完备。

3.

Unless these issues are addressed as a matter of urgency, the consequent de-motivation of staff will undoubtedly have a negative impact on the performance of the company.
如果这些问题得不到紧急解决,员工队伍中随之出现的消极 怠工情绪无疑将对公司的整个运营业绩产生负面影响。

confusion

?混乱局面 ?饱和状态 ?废物回收利用 ?准备工作 ?管理部门 ?冗员,多余信息 ?补救措施

saturation
recycling preparation

management
redundancy remedies

solution
modification advantage

?解决方案
?修改方案 . ?有利地位

backwardness

?落后状态

persuasion

?说服工作 ?紧张局势 ?自满情绪 ?疯狂行为 ?敌对态度 ?亵渎行为 ?军事,政治,经济等方面

tension
arrogance madness

antagonism
profanity militarily, politically and

economically

.

3. 增补产品名称
词义对于英文中缺失的产品名称,翻译时有时要根据具 体情况增补出来。如:
? The

price which society pays for the law of competition, like the price it pays for cheap comforts and luxuries, is also great.
社会为竞争法则付出的代价,犹如它为便宜的舒适家 用商品和高档消费品的代价一样巨大。
comfort 和 luxury 都是抽象名词,但在构成复数后,词义就具 体化了。否则该句就会产生这样的误译:社会的竞争法则付出的 代价犹如它为便宜的舒适和奢侈付出的代价一样巨大。

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The five Toyota, twenty Hitachi and thirty Fuji Xerox have long been ready for shipment, but shipment cannot be effected because of the late arrival of your L/C. 5辆丰田牌汽车,20台日立牌电视机和30台富士施乐牌 复印机早已备妥待运,但因你方信用证延迟到达,货 物不能按期装运。
按汉语的习惯用法把他们的产品名称补充完整,才能使译文具体 明了。

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? 原文中Toyota ,Hitachi,Xerox 都为世界知名品牌,在翻译时要

? ?

to leave out some unnecessary words. One of the differences in syntax between English and Chinese is the disparity in wording. What is regarded as a natural or indispensable element in one language may be regarded as superfluous or even “a stumbling block” in the other. For the sake of succinctness, functional words in English such as the article, the preposition are usually omitted in translation. See examples:

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A difference arose between the neighbors over the height of the fence. 邻居之间为了篱笆的高度惹起了一场争论。 邻居为篱笆的高低有过争论。

(思果,《译道探微》,中国对外翻译出版公司, 2002) P149。

Fight when you can win; move away when you cannot win. 打得赢就打;打不赢就走。

It was a keen disappointment when I had to postpone the visit which I had intended to pay to China in May. I was delighted when, as a result of the effort of your company, it proved possible to reinstate the visit so quickly.
原打算五月份访华,后不得不推迟,深感失望。由于贵 公司的努力,访问这么快得以重新安排,非常高兴。
?减词是指将原文中需要、而译文中又不需要的词语省去。减省的 词语应是那些在译文中保留下来反而使行文累赘噜嗦、且不合汉 语语言表达习惯的词语。 ?减词一般用于以下两种情况:一是从语法角度进行减省;二是从 修饰角度进行减省,但总体效果无非是在更透彻地理解原文基础 上更流畅地表达出来。

A teacher should have patience in his work.
(省略冠词)

当老师的应当有耐心。

The products should be sampled to check their quality before they leave the factory. (省略冠词)
产品出厂前应该进行抽样质检。

I framed the words in my mind, “Pardon me, but have I done something to offend you?” (省略介词和名词)
我心里在嘀咕:“对不起,我有什么举止行为冒犯你了吗? ”

With the weather so stuffy, ten to one it’ll rain presently.
天这样闷,很可能就要下雨了。
(省略介词)

University applicants who had worked at a job would receive preference over those who had not.
报考大学的人中,有工作经验的优先录取。

作业
1. Unless you propose something definite together with larger improvement on your price, we are not inclined to place a large order. 2. Neither party shall cancel the contract without sufficient cause or reason. 3. Delivery must be effected within the time stated on the purchase order. 4. We took this opportunity to inform you that we are now in a position to make a prompt shipment of the merchandise.

作业
1. Unless you propose something definite together with larger improvement on your price, we are not inclined to place a large order. 除非你方提供具体建议,并较大幅度地降低价格,否 则,我们是不会大批订货的。 2. Neither party shall cancel the contract without sufficient cause or reason. 双方均不得无故解除合同。 3. Delivery must be effected within the time stated on the purchase order. 必须在购货单规定的时间交货。 4. We took this opportunity to inform you that we are now in a position to make a prompt shipment of the merchandise. 兹奉告,该商品可即期装运。

? ?

We should learn how to analyze and solve problems. 我们应该学会如何分析问题和解决问题。

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? ?

The big company has its disadvantages.
大企业有大企业的难处。 Managing multinationals means handling both national and organizational culture differences at the same time. 管理跨国公司意味着要同时处理民族文化差异与组 织文化差异。

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1. He became an oil baron—all by himself.
他成了一个石油大亨——一个白手起家的石油大亨。

2. Last year, the output of coal in this region amounted to about 20 percent of the whole country, of steel 25 percent, and of cotton 35 percent.
去年,这一地区的煤产量约占全国总产量的 20%,钢产量占 25% , 棉花产量占35%。

3. In fact, the blatant use of money to motivate people either to join an organization or to stay on has created more motivation problems than it has solved.
事实上,大张旗鼓地用金钱来促使人们加入某组织或留下来, 这种做法所引起的激励机制上的问题,远比其所解决的问题 要多。

4. The main difficulty is the shortage of funds, teachers and teaching materials.
主要的问题是经费不足、教员不足、教材不足这几项。

5. We thank you very much for the warm hospitality accorded to our trade delegation during this visit to your country and for the close co-operation in the business discussions.
我们非常感谢你们在我贸易代表团访问贵国期间给予的盛情 款待,感谢你们在业务洽谈中给予的密切配合。

6. With respect to manuscripts and pictures that are provided by the Chinese party, without the consent of the Chinese Party, the other party may not transfer the copyright, or extend the use thereof, or extend the areas where they shall be distributed.
凡我方提出的书稿或图片,未经我方同意,对方不得转让出版 权,不得扩大使用权,不得扩大发行区域。

?词汇翻译
?句子翻译

? 商务英语专业词汇 ? premium
赔偿 indemnities 房屋出租 ? tenacy lease of property 财产出租 ? 普通词汇在商务英语中的意义及用法 ? composition 和解 royalty 提成费 ? appreciation of money 货币升值 accept 兑现 ? dump 倾销 honour 兑付/承付 acquire 收购 ? 一词多义现象 利润;押金;保证金 ? margin ? discount 打折;贴现;贴水 ? articles 商品;条款 ? turnover 营业额;证券成交额;(货物)流动,吞吐;人员更换率 保险费

“草” ? 校草 校花:school babe、campus belle ? school hunk ? 好马不吃回头草 ? Don’t fish the fish you let go. ? 兔子不吃窝边草 ? Don’t fish in your neighbor’s pond. ? 天涯何处无芳草 ? She’s not the only fish in the ocean.

正译法与反译法

正译
? 按照与汉语相同的语序或表达方式译成英语。

反译
? 把句子按照与汉语相反的语序或表达方式译成

英语。
正说反译 ? 反说正译 E.g. ? Excuse me. ? Don’t stop working.
?

对不起。 继续干活吧!