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Grammar

Module 3 Literature

Read the following sentences
1. Conferences like the Earth Summit help people understand that there exist serious problems and that there is still time to take action. 2. Not until we know more will we be able to improve the situation. 3. Among the speakers was China’s then Premier Zhu Rongji, who stressed the need for equality and fairness in the world. 4. A better understanding of the environment is necessary, as is the willingness to act.

5. Only by changing how we live can we save the earth. 6. Had I known that air conditioners cause so much pollution, I would never have bought one. 7. Without international cooperation, developing countries cannot prosper, nor will sustainable development be possible.

? What characteristics do all the sentences have? ? Why do we use sentences like this?

Structure: There are 2 orders in English sentences: 1. Sub + predicate v + other parts. (natural) 2. Predicate v + sub. Our teacher came in. In came our teacher.
Characteristics: 1. Sub must be a n. if not, no inversion. ? Here is the book. ? Away went the man. Here it is. Away he went

Conclusion

2. Usu used in the simple present or past. Here comes the bus. Out rushed the boys. 3. Divided into 2 kinds:
complete inversion: …+pred v +sub Part inversion: … + be/modal v/ aux.v+sub+pred v

1. when there, here, out , in , up, down, away, then, now, often,just,etc (adv or prep phrases of time/place) are put forward Then came 8 years of the Anti Japanese War. Under a big tree ________, half asleep. A. did sat a fat man B. a fat man sat C. did a fat man sat D. sat a fat man

2. In the sentence pattern there be or its varieties ,such as there live/ stand/ come/ lie/ flow/ enter/ rise/appear… There came shouts for help from the river. There lies a large wheat field in front of the house. Many years ago there lived an old man in the wooden house. There flows a stream in front of the tower.
3. Say in direct speech “ All right,” said the manager. “ All right,” he said.

1. neither/ nor +be/modal v/aux v+sub so +be/modal v/aux v+sub You can ride a bike. So can I. He has been to Beijing. So have I. The first one isn’t good, neither is the second. If she doesn’t go, neither will I. If she goes there, so will I. So it is with… /So it is the same with… - She is clever, so she will not lose her way. - So it is with the young man.

2. So+adj/adv+…that clause (

so….that)

Light travels so fast that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed. = So fast does light travel that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed. So easy was the work that they finished it in a few days.

3. Negative words not, never, seldom, nowhere, little , rarely are put forward. We seldom get up at four in the morning. = Seldom do we get up at four in the morning. Not a single word from him could the enemy get. Rarely have I heard of such a silly thing. 他一走出房间,门就关上了。 Scarcely had he gone out of the room when the door closed.

Not only was everything that he had taken away from him, but also his German citizenship. Not only is he busy, but also I have a lot of work to do. Not only does he speak English very well, but also he speaks French well.

5. only+ adverbial Only when he told me the news did I know what had happened. Only in this way can you make progress in your English. Only then did he realize that he was completely wrong.

6. In subjunctive mood when if is omitted, had/should/were are put forword. If I were you, I would take the job. = Were I you, I would take the job. Had I heard the news, I would have come. Should she marry me, I would treat her as a queen.
7. ved =adj as a predicative at the beginning. Gone forever are the days when the Chinese people had to use foreign oil.

1.At the meeting place of the Yangtze River and the Jialing River ___, one of the ten largest cities in China. A. lies Chongqing B. Chongqing lies C. does lie Chongqing D. does Chongqing lie

2. We laugh at jokes, but seldom ___ about how they work. A. we think B. think we C. we do think D. do we think

3. John opened the door. There ___ he had never seen before. A. a girl did stand B. a girl stood C. did a girl stand D. stood a girl

4. Not until he left his home ____ to know how important the family was for him. A. did he begin B. had he begun C. he began D. he had begun 5. So much of interest _____ that most visitors simply run out of time before seeing it all.

A. offers Beijing

B. Beijing offers

C. does Beijing offer D. Beijing does offer

6. Bill wasn’t happy about the delay of the report by Jason, and _____. A. I was neither B. neither was I C. I was either D. either was I 7. ______ you eat the correct foods ______ be able to keep fit and stay healthy. (08江苏) A. only if; will you B. Only if; you will C. Unless; will you D. Unless; you will

8. Seldom ____________ video games ever since they entered college. A. they have played B. they played C. have they played D. they have played 9. Only when I left my parents for Italy _______________how much I loved them. A. I realized B. I had realized C. had I realized D. did I realize

10. It was announced that only when the

fire was under control ___ to return to
their homes.

A. the residents would be permitted
B. had the residents been permitted C. would the residents be permitted D. the residents had been permitted

11. Not until the motorbike looked almost new ___ repairing and cleaning it. A. he stopped B. did he stop C. stopped he D. he did stop 12. If Joe’s wife won’t go to the party,________. A. he will either B. neither will he C. he neither will D. either he will

13. -How was the televised debate last night? - Super! Rarely ______ so much media attention. A. a debate attracted B. did a debate attract C. a debate did attract D. attracted a debate

14. I have been living in the United States
for twenty years, but seldom _____ so

lonely as now.
A. have I felt B. I had felt

C. I have felt

D. had I felt

Emphatic sentencess
It is / was +the emphasized part that/ who …, is used to emphasize any part of a sentence except predicate v. If the emphasized part refers to a person, we can usewho/that; if not ,only that can be used.

Jim shot a bear yesterday. It was Jim who / that shot a bear yesterday. (sub) It was a bear that Jim shot yesterday. (obj) It was yesterday that Jim shot a bear. (adverbial)

1. 我是在公车上遇到她的。

It was on the bus that I met her yesterday. It was when I was in the kitchen that I heard an explosion. 2. 我看见的是那些孩子在池子边玩。 It was those children that I saw playing by the pond. It was stupid students who/that don’t ask questions.

are 3. It is you who _____ wrong. It is I who _____ swimming. am is It is Mr Wilson who/that ___ the chairman. 4. not…until It is/was not until … that …, We didn’t begin studying English until 1972 It was not until 1972 that we began studying English. I didn’t notice it until you told me. It was not until you told me that I noticed it.

5. Is / Was it … that …? Is it Mr Wilson that is the chairman? Is it not until yesterday that you noticed it? When was it that the story took place? What is it that you have to sell?

6. since/as clause can’t be the emphasized because they are known information. But because clause shows unknown information, it can . Since it raised so many difficult questions, the book took a long time to come out. It was because it raised so many difficult questions that the book took a long time to come out. 7. though/although clause can’t , either. The natives were generous although they were poor.

8. How to judge whether it is an emphatic sentence Cross out it is/was and that/who to see whether it is complete. It was Mary that has won the first place. Mary has won the first place. √ It is surprising that Mary should have won the first place. Mary should have won the first place surprising.

It was not until yesterday that I noticed it. Not until yesterday I noticed it yesterday. √ It was those children that I saw playing by the pond. I saw those children playing by the pond. √

1. It was ____ he came back from Africa that year _____ he met the girl he would like to marry. A. when; then B. not; until C. not until; that D. only; when

2. --- I’ve read another book this week. --- Well, maybe ____ is not how much you read but what you read that counts. (09 浙江卷) A. this B. that C. there D. it

3. It was in New Zealand ___ Elizabeth first met Mr. Smith. A. how B. that C. which D. when 4.It was not until midnight __ they reached the camp site.

A. while

B. when

C. that

D. as


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