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2014高考英语一轮复习语法专题课件 11:非谓语动词用法与考点预测_图文

11《谓语动词用法与 考点预测》

一、非谓语动词用法

1、非谓语动词的种类:
不定式(to do)、 现在分词(doing)、 动名词( doing)、 过去分词(V-ed)

2、非谓语动词的功能:
1.不定式相当于名词、形容词或副词的功能。
2.动名词相当于名词或形容词的功能。 3.现在分词相当于形容词或副词的功能。

4.过去分词相当于形容词或副词的功能。

3、非谓语动词在句中所作的成分
成 分 动词形式

主 语
√ √

宾 语
√ √

表 语
√ √

定 语
√ √

状 语


补 语


不定式 动名词

现在分词
过去分词













4、非谓语动词用做定语
1.Please give him something A.eaten B. eating C. to eat C . C . D. to be eaten

2.I need a pen

A. written B. to write
3.The room A. faced B

C. to write with D. writing with

the sea is my grandpa’s D.faces

B. facing C.to face D

4. The woman A. washed

the clothes over there is my aunt. C. To wash D. washing

B. being washed

5.The bridge, A

in 1950,broke down in the flood.

A.built B.had built C. building D. to be built 6.Things D are mighter(强大的)than things

.

A. seen; hearing B.seeing;heard C. to see; to hear D.seen;heard
Translate the following sentences:

1.将要到站的火车是从伦敦来的。 The train to arrive is from London.
2.今天晚上我还有一些家务要做。 I have some housework to do tonight. 3.没有什么值得担心的。 There is nothing to worry about.

4.通向我家乡的那条路非常的窄。 The road leading to my hometown is very narrow. 5.在操场上踢足球的那个男孩是我的同桌。 The boy playing football on the playground is my deskmate.

6.昨晚被警察抓住的那个小偷被投进了监狱。
The thief caught by the police last night was put into prison.

Compare the phrases or sentences below:
1. The rising sun The risen sun 2. The man invited to the party is my boss.

The man inviting many guests is my boss
3. Do you want to see the doctor working on the case report in the office. Do you want to see the doctor to be sent for from Beijing 4.I’m going to buy some picture-books for the children to read I have some clothes to wash .

I have some clothes to be washed.

5.He rushed into the burning house.

The child standing over there is my brother.
6.The problem being discussed now has something important todo with our daily life. The problem discussed yesterday has something important to do with our daily life.

Premier Zhou is a leader loved by the people.

Summarize the usages of nonfinite verbs:
1.位置关系:
1).动词不定式做定语,常放在被修饰词的后面。 2).分词做定语有时放在被修饰词后,有时可以放在其前面

2. 与被修饰词的关系:
1)不定式与被修饰词可能是主谓关系,也可能是动宾关系。 2)V-ing 与被修饰词是主动关系 3)过去分词与被修饰词是被动关系

3.动作发生的时间关系:
1)不定式可以表示发生在主句谓语动词动作之后的动作。

2)现在分词可以表示与谓语动词动作同时发生或正在发生的动作。
3)过去分词可以表示在谓语动词动作之前的动作或永久性的动作。

Do some excises below:
1.She will tell us why she feels so strongly that each of us has a role B in making the earth a better place to live. A. to have played B. to play C. to be played D. to be playing

2.—Where should I send my form? the place B .

-- The personal office is

A.for sending it B. to send it to C. to send D. to send it 3.There was a noise

B

the sudden burst of light.

A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed

Translate some sentences:
1.由于赢得了奖学金,马丁.路德金取得了一次上大学的机会 Winning a scholarship, Martin Lurther King got a chance to go to college. 2.参观里约热内卢的最好时间是在六月和七月。 The best time to visit Rio de Janeiro is in June and July

3.在那边弹钢琴的那个人是我们的音乐老师。 The man playing the piano there is our music teacher.
=The man who is playing the piano there is our music

teacher

5、非谓语动词用做状语:
1.He woke up only to find himself lying on a bed in a hospital.
2.为了在期末考试里取得好成绩,你必须努力学习。 3.There is something for everyone here and few visitors leave Rio

feeling dispointed
4. Given more attention, the trees would grow better. 5.做完他的家庭作业,他去打篮球了。 6..Not having received his reply, he decided to write again

Compare the following sentences:
1.We are glad to hear the news. 2.His family was too poor to support him. 3.They stood by the roadside to talk about the plan.

4.They stood by the roadside talking about the plan.
5.Seeing from the top of the hill,you can find the city more beautiful. 6.Seen from the top of the hil ,the city is more beautiful. 7.Weather permitting, we will go out for a picnic tomorrow. 8.Time permitting, we will go there.

Summarize the usages of nonfinite verbs:
结果和原因。其做结果 1.动词不定式做状语,可以表示目的、 和原因状语时,常置于句子的 后部 ;做目的状语时常置 于 句首 ,也可以置于 句中 。 2.分词做状语常置于句首,可以用来表示 原因、条件、伴随 等。 如果状语所表示的动作和主句谓语动作有先后,应该采用完 成式。

3.不定式和分词做状语都与主句的主语有逻辑上的主谓或动宾
关系。而独立主格结构则有自己的逻辑主语。 4.分词或分词短语做状语可以与 状语从句 相互转换。

Complete the excises below:
1.The news reporters hurried to the airport, only had left. A. To tell B. to be told C. telling D. told A to the notice B. and point angrily 2.Can’t you read? Mary said A.angrily pointing

B

the film stars

C. to point

D.and angrily pointly

Translate the following sentences:
1.为了减肥,她每天只吃一些水果。 In order to lose weight, he just eats some fruits every day. 2.因为病了,他没有来上学。 Being ill, he didn’t come to school.

3.不知道如何去做这事,我向我的老师寻求帮助。
Not knowning how to to it, I asked for help from my teacher. 4.被父亲打了一顿,那个小男孩不敢出门。 Beaten by his father, the boy dared not go out.

解题方法总结
解答考查非谓语动词的题目时,一定要保持头脑冷 静。要遵循以下解题思路: ①解析句子结构,确定设空在句子中充当的功能(如 状语、定语或宾补); ②找准相关动词的逻辑主语,确定该动词与逻辑主 语是什么关系(主动还是被动); ③搜索句子中相关的时间信息,确定非谓语动词的 恰当形式; ④将该选项置入空中,看是否能够做到字从意顺、 或是否能传达有效信息、完成交际任务。

二、非谓语动词考点预测

(一)非谓语动词考点分析
非谓语动词的句法作用及高考热点
非谓语 动词 不定式 动名词 现在分词 过去分词 主语 √ 宾语 √ 表语 √ 定语 √ 宾补 √ 状语 √






√ √


√ √ √ √ √ √

(二)考查动词不定式、动名词作宾语的用法。 1.考查动名词作某些及物动词宾语的固定搭配。
1. (2007 江苏卷)—Can I smoke here? —Sorry. We don’t allow ______ here. A. people smoking B. people smoke C. to smoke D. smoking 2. (2007 辽宁卷)You can’t imagine what difficulty we had ___ home in the snowstorm. A. walked B. walk C. to walk D. walking 常用能接动名词的动词:admit, appreciate, avoid, advise, can’t help, celebrate, consider, complete, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, feel like, finish, forgive, imagine, keep, mention, mind, miss, pardon, permit, practice, prevent, resist, risk, stop, suggest, understand, allow等。

真 题 再 现 知 识 链 接

2.考查动名词作短语动词和介词宾语的固定搭配。

真 题 再 现

1. (2008江苏卷)—They are quiet, aren’t they? —Yes. They are accustomed ______ at meals. A. to talk B. to not talk C. to talking D. to not talking 2. (2006重庆卷)Isn’t it time you got down to ____ the papers. hearing A. mark B. be marked C. being marked D. marking 3. (2006江西/改错)I'm looking forward to hear from you soon. 1. 常见的短语动词有:leave off, put off, give up, can't help, can’t stand, feel like, insist on, think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent…(from), keep…from, stop…(from), protect…from, set about, be engaged in, spend…(in), succeed in 等。 2. 下列短语中的to 为介词,后面只能接动名词或名词:look forward to, be familiar to, owe…to, put one’s mind to, turn to, get down to, attribute…to, live up to, in relation to, admit to, be devoted to, owing to, thanks to, object to, be accustomed to等。

知 识 链 接

3.考查不定式作某些及物动词宾语的固定搭配。

真 题 再 现

1. (2005天津卷) I don’t want _________like I’m speaking ill of anybody, but the manager' s plan is unfair. A. to sound B. to be sounded C. sounding D. to have sounded 2. (2006北京卷) I can’t stand _________ with Jane in the same office. She just refuses _______ talking while she works. A. working; stopping B. to work; stopping C. working; to stop D. to work; to stop 常见的能接不定式作宾语的及物动词有:afford, agree, ask, arrange, attempt, beg, begin, choose, claim, determine, decide, dare, desire, demand, expect, fail, forget, hate, hope, manage, intend, learn, help,like, long, mean, need, offer, plan, prefer, prepare, seek, pretend, promise, refuse, remember, seem, tend, threaten, volunteer, want, wish等。

知 识 链 接

4.考查某些动名词和不定式作宾语意义的差别。

真 题 再 现

1. (2007 安徽卷)—Robert is indeed a wise man. —Oh, yes. How often I have regretted ______ his advice! A. to take B. taking C. not to take D. not taking 2. (2006湖南卷)If you think that treating a woman well means always _____ her permission for things, think again. A. gets B. got C. to get D. getting
接不定式或动名词意义有差别的动词: 1.forget to do sth.忘记去做某事(未做); forget doing sth.忘记做过某事(已做) 2. remember to do sth.记着去做某事(未做); remember doing sth. 记得做过某事(已做) 3. stop to do sth.停下来去做另一件事; stop doing sth.停止做正在做的某事 4. regret to do sth.对尚未做的或正在做的事情表示遗憾; regret doing sth.对已做的事情表示后悔 5. try to do sth努力去做某事; try doing sth.做某事试一试 6. mean to do sth. 打算、意欲做某事; mean doing sth.意味着做某事

知 识 链 接

(三)考查不定式,现在分词,过去分词作定语的用法。
1.考查不定式作定语的用法 真题再现 1. (2008上海卷) If there’s a lot of work ______, I am happy to just keep on until it is finished. A. to do B. to be doing C. done D. doing 2. (2007 全国卷I)—The last one ________ pays the meal. —Agreed! A. arrived B. arrives C. to arrive D. arriving 知识链接
不定式作定语,不定式与被修饰词往往有动宾关系,一般式表示将来, 进行式表示与谓语动作同时发生,完成式表示在谓语动词之前发生。当作 定语的不定式所修饰的名词是不定式动作的承受者时,不定式一般用被动 语态,但to blame的主动形式表示被动意义。

2.考查现在分词作定语的用法 真题再现 1.(2006上海春) There are hundreds of visitor _______ in front of the Art Gallery to have a look at Van Gogh's paintings. A. waited B. to wait C. waiting D. wait 2. (2006辽宁卷)I was told that there were about 50 foreign students _____Chinese in the school, most _______were from Germany. A. study; of whom B. study; of them C. studying; of them D. studying; of whom 知识链接
现在分词作定语表示正在进行的动作或与谓语动词所表示 的动作同时发生。被修饰的名词就是该现在分词的逻辑主语, 逻辑主语是现在分词表示的动作的执行者。单个现在分词作定 语前置,现在分词短语作定语后置。

3.考查过去分词作定语的用法

真题再现

1. (2008上海卷) Throughout history, the language _____ by a powerful group spreads across a civilization A. speaking B. spoken C. to speak D. to be spoken 2. (2008浙江卷)It is one of the funniest things _______ on the Internet so far this year. A. finding B. being found C. to find D. found 3. (2007 上海卷)The Town Hall ______ in the 1800’s was the most distinguished building at that time. A. to be completed B. having been completed C. completed D. being completed 知识链接
过去分词作定语,表示完成或被动的动作,与被修饰名词为被动关系。 被修饰名词是动词的宾语。过去分词做定语相当于一个含被动语态的定语从 句。单个词放在所修饰词前,短语放在所修饰词后。

(四)考查不定式,现在分词,过去分词作宾补的用法。
1. 考查动词不定式作宾语补足语的常见搭配 1. (2007北京卷) —Excuse me sir,where is Room 301? —Just a minute. I’ll have Bob ____you to your room. A.show B.shows C. to show D. showing 2. (2008上海卷) Due to the heavy rain and flooding, ten million people have been forced _____their homes. A. leaving B. to leave C. to be left D. being left 1.需要不定式作宾语补足语的动词:ask, advise, allow, beg, believe,
call on, cause, command, direct, feel, expect, enable, encourage, force, get, hate, intend, invite, lead,like, order, permit, persuade, prefer, request, remind, teach, tell, want, warn, wish等。 2. 要求省掉不定式的to作宾补的动词:feel, have, hear, help, let, listen to, look at, make, notice, observe, see, watch等。

真 题 再 现

知 识 链 接

2. 考查现在分词作宾语补足语的常见搭配 1. (2008上海卷) My sister, an inexpensive rider, was found sitting on the bicycle ____ to balance it . A. having tried B. trying C. to try D. tried 2. (2007 全国卷I) I smell something _________ in the kitchen. Can I call you back in a minute? A. burning B. burnt C. being burnt D. to be burnt 3. (2007 上海卷)After a knock at the door, the child heard his mother’s voice ______ him. A. calling B. called C. being called D. to call 以下动词可以接现在分词作宾补:① see, hear, smell, feel, watch, find, notice, observe, look at, listen to, catch等表 示感觉的动词,现在分词的动作与谓语同时发生或正在进 行的动作。②have, keep, get, set, send, leave等表示“致使” 等意义的动词。

真 题 再 现

知 识 链 接

3. 考查过去分词作宾语补足语的常见搭配 真 题 再 现 1. (2005天津卷)You should understand the traffic rule by now. You’ve had it ______ often enough. A. explaining B. to explain C. explain D. explained 2. (2007 福建卷) Jenny hopes that Mr. Smith will suggest a good way to have her written English ______in a short period. A.improved B.improving C.to improve D.improve
过去分词作宾语补足语用于下列结构 : 1. keep/leave + 宾语 + 过去分词(表状态的动词)。 2. have/get +宾语+过去分词: (A)让/请/叫某人做某事; (B)遭遇到某种不 幸。(C)使某事完成。 3. make + oneself +过去分词。常见的过去分词有:understood, known, heard,respected,noticed等。 4.watch(notice, see, hear, listen to, feel, find) +宾语+过去分词(强调宾语 所处的状态) 5. want (wish, like, expect, order) +宾语+过去分词。

知 识 链 接

(五)考查不定式,现在分词,过去分词作状语的用法。
1. 考查动词不定式作目的状语的常见结构
1. (2008北京卷)–Did the book give the information you needed? –Yes. But ________ it, I had to read the entire book. A. to find B. find C. to finding D. finding 2. (2007 上海春) _______the safety of gas, the government has checked the city’s gas supply system thoroughly. A.To ensure B.Ensuring C.Having ensured. D.To have ensured 3. (2006广东卷)______ this cake, you'll need 2 eggs, 175 g sugar and 175 g flour. A. Having made B. Make C. To make D. Making

真 题 再 现

考点 说明

只有不定式作目的状语,表示在谓语动词动作之后发 生的动作。为了表示强调,不定式前加in order或so as.

2. 考查不定式, 分词作结果状语的常见结构
1.(2006陕西卷) He hurried to the booking office only ________ that all the tickets had been sold out. A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told 2. (2005山东卷)Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, ___ a record US $57. 65 a barrel on April 4. A. have reached B. reaching C. to reach D. to be reaching 3. (2005全国卷I) The storm left , _____a lot of damage to this area. A. caused B. to have caused C. to cause D. having caused

真 题 再 现

考 点 说 明

1.不定式作结果状语的情况较少,主要出现在下列结构 中:(1)too…to do结构; (2) ...enough to do结构;(3) only / just to do…(不料却)。近几年高考命题只考查only/just to do结构, 且是高考热点。 2. 作结果状语的大多是分词,常在句末, 用逗号隔开。

3. 考查分词作原因、条件状语的常见结构
1.(2008重庆卷) ________ to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead. A. Fail B. Failed C. To fail D. Having failed 2. (2006福建卷)._____for the breakdown of the school computer network, Alice was in low spirits. A. Blaming B. Blamed C. To blame D. To be blamed 3. (2007 浙江卷)______ by a greater demand of vegetables, farmers have built more green houses. A. Driven B. Being driven C. To drive D. Having driven

真 题 再 现

考 点 说 明

1. 现在分词和过去分词都可作原因、条件状语。但现在 分词表将来或主动,过去分词表完成和被动。表示原因, 相当于because, since和 as引导的原因状语从句。表示 条件,相当于if条件状语从句。 2. 现在分词有时态和语态的变化,过去分词只有一般式。

4. 考查现在分词和过去分词作时间状语的基本用法
1.(2006浙江卷)When ______ different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities. A. compared B. being compared C. comparing D. having compared 2. (2008安徽卷) _______ in the fields on a March afternoon, he could feel the warmth of spring. A. To walk. B. Walking C. Walked D. Having walked 3. (2007 陕西卷)________that she didn’t do a good job, I don’t think I am abler than her. A. To have said B. Having said C. To say D. Saying 分词作时间状语,相当于when, before, while, after, since引导的 时间状语从句。分词短语有时可由连词while或when引出。如果非谓 语动词与逻辑主语之间是主谓关系,则用现在分词。如果非谓语动词 与逻辑主语之间是动宾关系,则用过去分词。现在分词有时态和语态 的变化,而过去分词只有一般式。

真 题 再 现

考 点 说 明

5. 考查现在分词和过去分词作方式或伴随状语的用法
1. (2008辽宁卷)He was busy writing a story, only ______ once in a while to smoke a cigarette. A. to stop B. stopping C. to have stopped D. having stopped 2. (2006全国卷II) We often provide our children with toys, footballs or basketballs, _______ that all children like these things. A. thinking B. think C. to think D. thought 3. (2006安徽卷)My cousin came to see me from the country, ______me a full basket of fresh fruits. A. brought B. bringing C. to bring D. had brought 4. (2007 重庆卷)The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons _______ for the day. A. finishing B. finished C. had finished D. were finished

真 题 再 现

考点 说明

现在分词和过去分词作方式或伴随状语是高考考 查的重点和热点。特别是历年全国卷中现在分词作方 式状语的用法几乎年年考查。

(六)考查非谓语动词的特殊句型及其它用法。
1. 考查“S + is said to do/to have done.”句型
1. (2007 辽宁卷)The crowd cheered wildly at the sight of Liu Xiang, who was reported ______ the world record in the 110-meter hurdle race. A. breaking B. having broken C. to have broken D. break 2. (2005江苏卷)—Is Bob still performing? —I'm afraid not. He is said___ the stage already as he has become an official. A. to have left B. to leave C. to have been left D. to be left 3. (2006湖北卷)AIDS is said ______ the biggest health challenge to both men and women in that area over the past few years. A. that it is B. to be C. that it has been D. to have been

真 题 再 现

知 识 句型“It is + said/believed/supposed/known/etc.+ that-clause” 可以转换 链 为 “S + is said/believe/supposed/known + to do/to have done”。当不定 接 式表示的动作与谓语动词的动作同时或之后发生,不定式用一般式,
当不定式表示的动作在谓语动词的动作之前发生,不定式用完成式。

2. 考查“情感类使动词”的-ing和-ed形式作形容词的区别
1. (2007 江苏卷)He is very popular among his students as he always tries to make them ______ in his lectures. A. interested B. interesting C. interest D. to interest 2. (2006天津卷)A good story does not necessarily have to have a happy ending, but the reader ______ must not be left. A. unsatisfied B. unsatisfying C. to be unsatisfying D. being unsatisfied 3. (2006四川卷)—Did you enjoy yourself at the party . —Yes. I've never been to ________ one before. A. a more excited B. the most excited C. a more exciting D. the most exciting

真 题 再 现

知 识 链 接

情感类使动词的现在分词形式用来说明事物或人的 特征或性质,常修饰说明表示物的名词。过去分词形式 用来指人的感觉或所处的状态,常修饰表示人或人的表 情的名词。

(七)考查非谓语动词时态、语态和逻辑主语的选择
真 题 再 现
1. (2007 四川卷) The flowers his friend gave him will die unless ________ every day. A. watered B. watering C. water D. to water 2. (2008北京卷) ______ that she was going off to sleep, I asked if she’d like that little doll on her bed. A. Seeing B. To see C. See D. Seen 3. (2008陕西卷) ________around the Water Cube, we were then taken to see the Bird’s Nest for the 2008 Olympic Games. A. Having shown B. To be shown C. Having been shown D. To show 1. 非谓语动词一般式:表示该动作与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生 或将来发生。非谓语动词完成式:说明该动作在谓语动词表示的 动作之前发生。 2.分词短语作状语时,其逻辑主语应该和句子的主语是一致的,即 逻辑主语是该分词短语动作的执行者,用现在分词,若是承受者, 用过去分词。

知 识 链 接

(八)近三年非谓语动词在高考中的复现率
类型 年份 2006 2007 各地 考题 不定 式 动名 词 现在 分词 过去 分词 题数 总量

18
20

12
9

6
4

10
10

8
10

36
33

2008

20

9

6

12

9

36

(九)近三年高考非谓语动词命题趋势
考查热点 1.从内容上来看: 不定式和分词的 用法较多。 2.从形式上来看: 非谓语动词的一 般式占绝大多数。 3.从功能上来看: 主要考查非谓语 动词作状语、宾 语和定语的用法。 命题特点
1. 不定式和现在分词形式多样,结构复杂,内 涵丰富,功能较多, 最能体现英语独特的形式特 征,又极易对中国考生带来麻烦。因此,命题人 热衷于使用它们作为考查武器。 2.考查立意较低,主要考查的非谓语的一些最基 本的用法。 但是题目的设置注重了情景化和结 构复杂化,加大了考生对题干句的理解难度。 3.设问的角度呈现出多样化趋势,不仅仅是非 谓语间的互相干扰,同时利用了祈使句与以非 谓语动词开首的句子结构上相似的特点,对考 生造成了很大的麻烦。 4.2009年对非谓语动词考查密度增大。非谓语 动词的四大分类均出现了较频繁的考查. 总体 来看,考查比较细,比较全。