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牛津高中英语教案_模块二_Unit1_Tales of the unexplained

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Unit 1 Tales of the unexplained Period Three, Word power
How can a space shuttle be sent into space? Can it fly into space by itself? With these two questions, you should focus on reading the poster the scientist is showing to you. By the way, do you know the differences between spaceship and space shuttle? ▲A spaceship is a vehicle for carrying people through space. ▲A space shuttle is a vehicle that is designed to carry people into space and back to the Earth several times to do experiments.

Period four, Grammar and Usage
Present perfect tense 1. Use different methods to present the present perfect tense. Here are some ideas: 1) Please look at the screen. Pay attention to the different forms of the verbs: 2) Let’s complete the following sentences, in which the predicate part is missing. We_____(study) English for about five years. They_____(live) in the south since their daughter was born. I_______ (read) your article three times. It's well written. The student________(finish) her homework already. Eric__________(go) back to his hometown today. Answers: have studied have lived have read has finished has gone

3) Read the following sentences and point out what tense or tenses are used in them and the reasons why they are used. We have studied English for about five years. We began to study it five years ago. They moved to the south in 1990 and have lived there since then. The student is doing her homework. She hasn't finished it yet. Eric left home last year and has just come back. 2. We may wonder why some verbs can't be used in the present perfect tense. Let’s read the following sentences, and try to find different usages of some verbs. Justin has been away from home for several days. He disappeared last Friday. They bought this house three years ago and they have lived here since then. My brother went to see my grandpa last week. He has visited him three times this month. So you see when an action happens over a period of time that began in the past and continues to the present, the present perfect tense is often used. When an action happened at a definite time in the past, the past simple tense is often used.

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3. Read Points 1 and 2 on page 8 to make sure why the present perfect tense is used in these two sentences. 4. Go over Point 3 on page 8 to learn what time expressions can be used with the present perfect tense. Pay attention to the different usages between already and yet, or for and since. 5. Read Point 4 on page 8 to learn that the present perfect tense can be used in a situation where the action was completed only a moment ago. In this case, just is used. 6. Go over Points 5 and 6 on page 8 and note that when we want to express a repeated action, we use the present perfect tense with the time expressions once/twice/three times ... 7. Let’s read the diary entry and then complete it using the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. Answers: (2) saw met (8) has dived (9) has found (10) hasn't found (11) Has, been (3) has visited (4) loves (5) hasn't visited (6) has swum (7) has never

Summary of The Present Perfect tense: 1.We use the present perfect tense to talk about things that happened in the recent past, but are connected to the present. Daniel has lived(live) in Beijing since he came to China. (Connection with the past: Daniel came to China. Connection with the present: Daniel is living in China.) 2.We use the present perfect tense to talk about something that started in t he past, and is still happening now. came has lived

________________________________________ past a short time ago. I went to Egypt in 1986. I we nt to Egypt in 2004.I have been (be) to Egypt twice. 4.We can also use the present perfect tense for repeated actions. Has it ever snowed(snow) in Hong Kong? No, it has never snowed(snow) there. now future 3.We use the present perfect tense to talk about actions that we re completed only

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5.We use the present perfect tense when the exact time of an action is not clear or important. We use it with time expressions such as: already, ever, for, just, lately, never, recently, since, yet Notes: 1. 2. 3. We use already for affirmative statements and yet for negative statements and interrogative sentences. We use for + a period of time and since + a point of time. Structures connected with the present perfect tense: 1) It is (has been) +a pe riod of time +since-clause. 2) This (That/It) is the first (second…) time + that-clause perfect tense). 3) This (That/It) is the only ) … + that-clause (present perfect tense). 4) This (That/It) is the best/ finest /most interesting … + that-clause (present

Resources The present perfect -Three hours ago she baked a cake. And since then let’s see… -…She’s already made the beds, written a letter, gone shopping, and cooked dinner. -And now she’s just answered the telephone for the fifth time.

English has a verb tense, the present perfect, which serves to denote past happenings that are relevant to, or that still have an effect at, the moment of speaking. This tense, formed with the present of have plus a past participle (answered, cooked, gone, written, made, and so on), is really a combination of present and past together. Notice the kinds of adverbs and adverbial phrases that are closely associated with the present perfect.

He’s been a success now, I would say, since 1990. And now he’s just decided to enter politics.

The simple past, denoting past happenings that are localized in the past, contrasts sharply with the present perfect, as can be seen best by the kinds of “time” adverbials that may be used with one tense but not with the other. Simple Past yesterday an hour ago Present Perfect since then so far

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I learned a new song

last night on Monday

I’ve learned another

now in the last hour already

now

now

then (past)

×

then (future)

then (past)

×

then (future)

ast

(Attention is drawn to the present knowledge of the song and not on the previous act of learning it.)

ace.)

Therefore, do not say things like “I’ve learned a new song yesterday”, which is a very common mistake. The speaker chooses among these and other tenses in part according to how he feels himself related to the event. Present perfect continuous tense Here we will look at two situations in which the present perfect continuous tense is used. Note how the tense is formed and try to understand how the tense is used in sentences. We will practise forming verbs in this tense and complete sentences. 1. We sometimes use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about actions that started in the past and are still continuing, or have just finished but are still connected to the present in some way. For example, I've been waiting for an hour and he still hasn't turned up. I'm so sorry I'm late. Have you been waiting long? 2. Go over Points 1 and 2 on page 9 to understand this tense better. 3. Go over Point 3 to see how the tense is formed. 4. Fill in the missing words. Pay attention to the verb form in the example giv en in the first picture (all the verb forms here are the present perfect continuous tense, except for the one in Sentence 5). It is a trap and does not require the present perfect continuous tense. Answers: (2) have been talking (6) have been writing (3) have been taking (4) have been watching (5) have seen

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5. Do with Part C1 on page 82 in Workbook to become familiar with the present perfect tense and the present perfect continuous tense.

Present perfect or present perfect continuous? 1. Go over Point I on page 10 to identify why the two different tenses are used in the two sentences. In the first sentence, the present perfect tense is used, which means that the action read isn't continuing, and Li Jia knows what the book is about now. In the second sentence, the present perfect continuous tense is used, which means that the action read is still continuing. 2. Go over Point 2 on page 10. Note that the present perfect continuous tense can't be used with time expressions such as twice or how many times, because in this tense the action is continuous, not stopped and then started again. 3. Go over Point 3 on page 10 to define the meaning of a state verb or an action verb. Note that a state verb doesn't mean an action, so it can't be used in a continuous tense. 4. Note that the present perfect continuous tense can't be used when the words always, never, yet, already or ever are used in a sentence. 5. Finish the two exercises on page 11. Answers: A (1) heard (2)been doing (3) been researching (4) been doing (5) started (8) found (9) started (10) been doing (11) been making (6) done (7) read

Sample answers: B 1. He has been waiting at an underground station. 2. They have been traveling in a UFO. It looks like a saucer. (Answers may be various.) 3. They probably have talked to animals or plants on the Earth as well as creatures on other planets. (Answers may be various.) 4. They have visited Mars, Venus, Jupiter and some other planets. (Answers may be various.)

6. Do with Part C2 on page 82 in Workbook to have one more chance to practise the usage of the two different tenses.

Resource The Present Perfect Continuous -I still haven’t figured out how she does it all. -I haven’t either, and I’ve been trying now for ten years.

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The present perfect tense, like the simple present and the simple past, has a continuous form as well. The effect of the present perfect continuous is to make past happenings continuous throughout a time span extending up to the present: Simple Past: I learned a new song (three hours ago). now Hours then (past) × then (future)

(past event accomplished, specific time) Present Perfect: hours). now Hours then (past) (past event accomplished, present relevance) Present Perfect Continuous: past hour). now Hours then (past) × then (future) I’ve been learning still another now (for the × then (future) I’ve learned another now (in the past few

(past event not necessarily accomplished, present relevance, possibly still going on at the moment of speaking) Verbs denoting action that can only be momentary or instantaneous (knock, hit, sneeze, interrupt, introducing, and so on) can also occur in the continuous. The meaning, however, is then one of repetition: You’ve been interrupting me now ( for the past five minutes). now

then (past)

×

then (future)

Although this class of verbs also includes arrive, leave, come, go, and so on, the “repetition” with

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the verbs just mentioned cannot be effected by one person alone: The guests haven been arriving now for an hour. But not “The guest has been arriving now for an hour. Consolidation I. Relative items in recent years’ college entrance examinations: 1. My friend, who ____ on the International Olympic Committee all his life, is retiring next month. (2006 浙江) A. served B. is serving C. had served D. has served

2. John and I ________friends for eight years. We first got to know each other at a Christmas party. But we ________each other a couple of times before that. (2002 北京春季招生) A. had been; have seen C. had been; had seen B. have been; have seen D. have been; had seen

3. With the rapid growth of population, the city ________in all directions in the past five years. (2003 北京春季招生) A. spreads B. has spread C. spread D. had spread

4. --How long ________at his job? --Since 1990. (2003 北京春季招生) A. were you employed B. have you been employed D. will you be employed

C. had you been employed

5. How can you possibly miss the news? It ________on TV all day long. (2004 北京春季招生) A. has been B. had been C. was D. will be

6. Now that she is out of a job, Lucy ________going back to school, but she hasn’t decided yet. (2004 北京高考) A. had considered B. has been considering C. considered D. is going to

consider 7. --How are you today? (2000 全国高考) --Oh, I ________as ill as I do now for a very long time. A. didn’t feel B. wasn’t feeling C. don’t feel D. haven’t felt

8. I _______ Ping-pong quite well, but I haven’t had time to play since the new year. (2001 全国高 考) A. played B. will play C. have played D. play

9. I wonder why Jenny ________us recently. We should have heard from her by now. (2002 全国高考) A. hasn’t written B. doesn’t write C. won’t write D. hadn’t written

10. Although he has lived with us for years, he ________us much impression. (2004 上海春季招生) A. hadn’t left B. didn’t leave C. doesn’t leave D. hasn’t left

11. The first use of atomic weapons was in 1945, and their power ________increased enormously ever since. (2004 上海高考) A. is B. was C. has been D. had been

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12. She has set a new record, that is, the sales of her latest book ________50 million. (2004 福建高考) A. have reached B. has reached C. are reaching D. had reached

13. More patients ________in hospital this year than last year. (2004 江苏高考) A. treated B. have treated C. had been treated D. have been treated

14. --The window is dirty. --I know. It ________ for weeks. (2004 广西高考) A. hasn’t cleaned B. didn’t clean C. wasn’t cleaned D. hasn’t been cleaned

15 Years ago we didn't know this, but recent science ______ that people who don't sleep well soon get ill. (2005 广东高考) A. showed B. has shown C. will show D. is showing

16. The coffee is wonderful ! It doesn’t taste like anything I _____ before. (2005 全国卷 I) A.was having B.have C.have ever had D.had ever had

17. My brother is an actor. He _________ in several films so far. (2005 浙江卷) A.appears B.appeared C.has appeared D.is appearing

18. I ____ in London for many years, but I’ve never regretted my final decision to move back to China. (2006 重庆) A. lived B. was living C. have lived D. had lived

19. Although medical science ____ control over several dangerous diseases, what worries us is that some of them are returning. (2006 江苏) A. achieved B. has achieved C. will achieve D. had achieved

20. I won’t tell the student the answer to the math problem until he ____ on it for more than an hour. (2006 湖北) A. has been working B. will have worked C. will have been working D. had worked

II. Translation 1 我已经看了说明,但我还是不理解。

2 你看见过不明飞行物吗?

3 这是我们吃过的最贵的一顿饭。

4 我一直用左手写字。

5 在过去的二十年里我们国家发生了巨大的变化。

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6 迄今为止你读了多少英文小说?

7 他家搬到澳大利亚已经八年了。

8 他父亲去世后,他就一直和他的叔叔住在一起。

Keys: I.1-5 DDDDA 6-10 BBDAB 11-15 CADDB 16-20 CCABA

II. 1. I have read the instructions but I still don’t understand them. 2. Have you ever seen a UFO? 3. This dinner was the most expensive meal we have ever had. 4. I have always written with my left hand. 5. Great changes have taken place in our country in the past 20 years. 6. How many English stories have you read so far? 7. It has been 8 years since his family moved to Australia. 8. He has lived with his uncle since his father died.

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