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定语从句的讲解(超详细)


定语从句(一)
Ⅰ. 回归复习: 1. 什么是定语从句? 在复合句中,修饰、限定名词或带刺的句子。 2. 定语从句的构成: (1) 先行词:被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词。 (2) 关系词:作用:①替代先行词 ② 连接主从句 ③ 在从句中充当句子成分 分类:① 关系代词 ② 关系副词 3.定语从句的分类: (1)限制性定语从句 (2)非限制性定语从句(先行词与从句间有逗号) 区分标准: (1)形式:定从分类有奥妙,限与非限看逗号。 (2)先行词:限制性定语从句的先行词是名词或代词;而非限制性定语从句的先行 词可以是名词或代词,也可以是一句话。 Ⅱ.关系代词: 1.which, who, whom, that, whose, as 成分 先 行 词 人 物 Who/that Which/that Whom/that/who Which/that That That whose whose 主语 宾语 表语 定语

(1) 记忆口诀: which 表物人用 who, 人物都有 that 顾。 who 作主语很称职, whom 用到宾语里。 定从之中少定语, 例句: The boy who/that broke the window is called Tom. The man who/that/whom you met just now is my friend, The play which/that we saw last night was wonderful. That is the girl whose brother works in Beijing. (2) 请选择适当的关系代词填入空中: ①This is the village __which/that__ I visited last year. ②The girl __who/that_ is in red is Mary. ③Is there anyone in your class __whose__family is in the countryside? ④Pass me the book ___whose__ cover is white. 2. that 用法: (1) 指物时下列情况只用 that 而不用 which: 先行若是不定代,that 就把 which 踹 whose 为你唱一曲。

Time makes wonders!

1

时间能创造奇迹!

先行词前有两数,就用 that 定无误 先行词前最高级,还用 that 必无疑 先行主中作表语,that 出现从句里 先行指物又指人,that 必为关系词 Just,the(only, very, last ), 其后也要用 that (2) 下列情况不使用 that: that 用法真有趣,俩个地方它不去 逗号之后它不去,介词之后不考虑 (3) 选择适当的关系代词填入空中: ① Is there anything ___ I can do for you? ② That is the second time ___ I have been to Wuhan. ③ This is the most wonderful time ____ I have ever had. ④ Chifeng is not the city ___it used to be. Your uncle is not the man ____ he was, but your aunt is the woman__she was. ⑤ They are talking about the city and the people ___ they visited last week. ⑥ This is the very book ___ I am looking for. 3. as 用法: (1) as 在限制性定语从句中的用法: ① the same … as … eg: This is the same bike as I lost. This is the same bike that I lost. ② such / so … as eg: They talked in such simple English as children could understand. They talked in such simple English that children could understand it. 对比:such / so … as 和 such / so … that: such / so … as such / so … that ③ as … as… eg:She will marry as rich a man as she can find. (2) as 在非限制性定语从句中的用法(和 which 用法的区别) : ① 位置:先行词时一句话时,as 引导的定语从句可以放在主句的前、中和后面,而 which 引导的定 语从句只能放在主句的后面。 Eg:David, as you know, is a teacher. Liming was late again, which made Mr.Zhang very angry. ② 含义:which 没有意义,指示代替先行词;而 as 有‘像...一样’的含义. ③ 定语从句为否定结构的时候要用 which 引导。 Eg:The result of the experiment was very good, which we hadn’t expected. Ⅲ.链接高考: 1.【2012 天津卷】I wish to thank Professor Smith, without ____ help I would never have got this 宾要弃 宾不离

Time makes wonders!

2

时间能创造奇迹!

far. A. who B. which C. whose D. which

2.【2008 浙江卷】Yesterday she sold her car,___ she bought a month ago. A. when B. where C. that D. which

3.【2011 湖南卷】Julie is good at German, French and Russian, all of ___ she speaks fluently. A. who B. whom C. which D. that

4.【2010 湖南卷】I have become good friends with several of the students in my school ___ I met in the English speech contest last year. A. whom B. where C. when D. which

5.【2010 全国Ⅰ】As a child, Jack studied in a village school, ___ is named after his grandfather. A. which B. where C. what D. that

6.【2010 全国Ⅱ】I refuse to accept the blame for something ___ was someone else’s fault. A. who B. that C. as D. what

7.【2011 浙江卷】English is a language shared by several different cultures, each of ___ uses it somewhat differently. A. what B. which C. them D. those

8.【2011 北京卷】Mary was much kinder to Jack than she was to the others,___ , of course, make all the others upset. A. who B. which C. what D. that

9.【2009 全国Ⅱ】My friend showed me round the town,___ was very kind of him. A. that B. which C. where D. it

10. 【2008 江苏卷】I’d like to buy the same bike ___ you are riding. A. that B. which C. as D. like

定语从句(二) 主讲教师:石静宇 Ⅰ.关系副词:when, where, why 1.记忆口诀: 关系副词 when/where/where,从中作状莫懈怠 时间用 when 原因 why,地点 where 经常在 2.用法:关系副词在定语从句中做状语 When:时间状语 Where:地点状语 Why: 原因状语 Eg:(1)I still remember the day which we spent together. (2)I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing. (3)The factory which/that his father works in is very big. (4)The factory where his father works is very big.

Time makes wonders!

3

时间能创造奇迹!

(5)That is the reason that /which he explained to us. (6)That is the reason why I did the job. 3.关系副词=介词+which This is the house where/in which I lived two years ago. 请将 2 部分中的(2)(4)(6)中的关系副词改为介词+which 的形式: 、 、

Ⅱ.定语从句中的特殊情况: 只记上边不可以, 特殊情况告诉你 先行用做状语,in which/that/略可以 One of + 复做先行, 从中谓语复数名 One 前若有 the only,从中谓语定用单 Ⅲ.链接高考: 1.【2011 浙江卷】A bank is the place ____ they lend you an umbrella in fair weather and ask for it back when it begins to rain. A.when B.that C.where D.there 2.【2011 陕西卷】I walked up to the top of the hill with my friend,____ we enjoyed a splendid view of the lake. A.which B.where C.who D.that 3.【2007 全国一】Some pre-school children go to a day care center,____ they learn simple games and songs. A.then B.there C.while D.where 4.【2007 山东卷】-Where did you get to know her? -It was on the farm ____ we worked. A.that B.there C.which D.where

Time makes wonders!

4

时间能创造奇迹!


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