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Unit One
abandon vt. go away from( a person or thing or place) not intending to return; desert 放弃,抛弃 词组 abandon one‘s home 离弃家园 abandon one‘s wife 遗弃妻子 an abandoned baby 被抛弃的孩子 abandon one‘s research for lack of funds 由于缺乏资金放弃 abandon oneself to 沉溺于 ability 词组 例句 n. capacity or power to do something physical or mental 能力 to the best of one‘s ability 尽自己最大努力 I believe your ability to bring out the best in others. 我相信你有充分发挥别人潜力的能力 adj. having knowledge or skill; capable 有能力的, 能干的 反义词:unable be able to do sth be capable of 有能力做某事 able capable 两个都指“有才能的” , able 所指的意义,高过 capable 一级, 如 an able man 能应付各种事情的人(指非常的) ,而 a capable man 能应付自如的 人(指寻常的) ;capable 也可以用于贬义,表示此人什么事都干得出来。

able 词组 辨析

aboard adv. prep. on or into a ship, an aircraft, a train or a bus 在船(或飞机,车)上; 上船,登机, 在船(或飞机,车)上 词组 go aboard 上船(飞机) welcome aboard 请上船(飞机) about prep. on the subject of (sb/sth); concerning or regarding 关于; around 在周围;在各处;大约 adv. (indicating position, state, etc) here and there in (a place) 各处,周围 be about to 刚要;正准备 He was about to leave when it began to rain. 他刚要离开,这时开始下雨了。 How about…? What about…? 关于…怎么样? How about going to watch a football game? 去看足球赛怎么样? be to do be going to do be about to do be to do 表示计划或安排要做的事; be going to do 表示打算要做但还没有安排好何时做的事; be about to do 表示某时突然想要做某事或表示过去刚要做某事时另一件事发生了, 这时常与 when 词组连用。 We are going to visit our former English teacher this winter holiday. 这个寒假我们打算去看看我们以前的英语老师。 We are to visit our English teacher on Feb 5th. 二月五日我们去看看我们的英语老师。

词组 例句




I was about to leave home when the doorbell rang. 我刚要出门,这时门铃响了。 above 词组 prep. higher than something 在…上面;高于;超过 adv. 在上面 above all 最重要的是 above average 超过平均水平 as indicated above 如上所示 above-mentioned 上述的 反义词:below

absent 词组


adj. not present 缺席,心不在焉 反义词 present v. fml to keep oneself away (正式)缺席,不在 be absent from 缺席 be present at 出席 absent-minded 心不在焉的 absent expression 茫然的表情 in the absence of = in one‘s absence 有谁不在场 in the presence of = in one‘s presence 有谁在场 absence n. 反义词 presence

absolute adj. complete, total 十足的,道地的;绝对的,完全的 词组 an absolute idiot 十足的傻瓜 absolute power 绝对的权利 展开 absolutely adv. 完全地;极其 absorb 词组 vt. take sth in; include sth/sb as part of itself 吸收;接受;把…并入;吸引(注意力,精力等) be absorbed in 全神贯注于 (同)be lost in; concentrate one‘s attention/ mind on focus one‘s mind/ attention on

abstract adj. existing in thought or as an idea but not having a physical or practical existence 抽象的 反义词:concrete an abstract noun 抽象名词 n. 摘要,梗概 词组 in the abstract 抽象地说,一般地说 accept 辨析 v. take (sth offered) willingly 接受,认可 adj. acceptable 可以接受的 receive 表示“收到” ,而 accept 表示“接受” ,其反义词为 refuse I received his invitation yesterday but I did not accept it. 昨天我受到了他的邀请,但是没有接受。 admit 表示“接纳” , “吸收”某人加入某一组织,团体等 Soon he was admitted to British citizenship. 不久之后他便被接受为英国公民。


access 词组 例句


n. means of approaching or entering( a place) 通道; opportunity or right to use sth or approach sth 接近;接近的机会;享用权 a man of easy access 容易接近的人 have access to 可以到达(进入) ;能够使用(接近) The only access to that building is along the muddy track. 进入那幢大楼的唯一通道就是这条泥泞的轨道。 Only a few people have access to the full facts of the case. 只有几个人可以获取这个案例的全部事实。 accessible adj. 容易接近,得到或使用

accident n. event that happens unexpectedly and causes damages, injury, etc.意外事件,事故 词组 a traffic accident 交通事故 by accident 偶然 (同)by chance accidentally (反)on purpose 例句 He owes his success to a mere accident 他的成功出于偶然。 展开 accidental adj. 偶然的 accompany vt. to go with, as on a journey 陪伴,陪同; to happen or exist at the same time 伴随,和…一起发生; to make supporting music for 为…伴奏(或伴唱) I was accompanied to the airport by my wife. 妻子陪我到机场。 Suffering accompanied war. 灾难总是伴随着战争一起。 He sang a folk song, accompanied by his wife at the piano. 他唱了一首民歌,他妻子钢琴伴奏 company n. 陪伴 keep sb. company 陪伴



accomplish v. to succeed in doing; finish successfully; perform 实行,完成 词组 accomplish one‘s purpose 达到目的 accomplish nothing 一事无成 accomplish wonders 创造奇迹 an accomplished young lady 多才多艺的少女 展开 accomplished adj. 熟练的,已完成的,有教养的 辨析 accomplish complete finish achieve fulfil accomplish—指通过努力完成(某一任务,使命) ,取得(成就) ,达到(目的)等 complete— 较 accomplish 更具体,指把建筑,工程,书籍等完成 finish— 指完成日常琐事,接动名词作“结束”讲,而 complete 则不能如此。 另外,finish 指消极性的“完成” 辨析: I have finished the book. 我已读完这本书了。 I have completed the book. 我已写完这本书了。 fulfil— 完成(计划,任务) ,达到(目的) ,强调的是对预期的或保证过的事 情圆满完成,达到预想的目的和要求。 I had fulfilled many of my youthful ambitions. 我已实现了我年轻时的许多抱负。




according adv. 按照;根据 词组 according to accordingly adv.

根据 相应地

account n. a written or spoken report; description 记述,描述,报告 n. a record or statement of money received and paid out, as by a bank or business, esp. for a particular period or at a particular date 账,帐户 n. 解释,说明 vi. account for 说明…的原因,是…的原因 vi. account for (在数量,比例方面)占 词组 give an account of 叙述;报告 pay one‘s account 付帐 keep accounts 记账 on account of 由于;因为 on no account 决不 take…into account = take account of = take into consideration 考虑 of no account 不重要的 on account 以赊帐方式 展开 accountant n. 会计人员 accuse 词组 v. to charge(someone)with doing wrong or breaking the law; blame 指责 accuse sb. of sth.= charge sb.with sth. 控告某人 the accused 被告 the accuser 原告 accusation n. 指责,控告


accustomed adj. being in the habit of; used to 习惯于; regular, usual 通常的,惯常的 词组 表示“习惯于” be (get, become, grow) accustomed to be (get, become, grow) used to (变得)习惯于 adapt oneself to adjust oneself to 使自己习惯于 accustom oneself to 例句 This is her accustomed hour to get up. 这是她惯常的起床时间 ache n. a continuous pain 疼痛 vi. to have or suffer a continuous dull pain 疼痛,酸痛 合成词 toothache 牙疼 headache 头疼 stomachache 胃疼 ache pain hurt


ache 指一种辨析持久的疼痛,或因小病或失调引起的感觉 I have an ache in my stomach. 我胃疼。 He is aching all over. 他浑身痛。 pain 指人体感到不舒服,是一般用语,可指身体或精神方面的痛 I have a sharp pain in the neck.. 我的颈部痛得很。 hurt 指身体或精神的伤害,指“疼痛”时,为不及物动词 What you have said hurt her. 你说的伤到她了。 My fingers still hurt now. 我的手指还在痛。 achieve vt. to finish successfully(esp. something, anything, nothing) 完成,实现,达到 vi. 成功 词组 achieve one‘s aim 达成目标 achieve nothing 一事无成 achieve success 成功 achieve a general increase in production 实现逐步增长 辨析 (见 accomplish 词条) 展开 achievement n. 成就,成绩 acquire vt. to get for oneself by one‘s own work, skill, action, etc.取得,获得;学到 词组 acquire a property 得到一笔财产 acquire a large vocabulary 学到大量词汇 acquire confidence 获得信心 辨析 acquire get obtain gain acquire 指(经过一个过程或通过自己的努力才) “获得” , “习得” get 为一般用语,表示“得” , “取得”等,常用在口语中 obtain 比 get 文雅些,指凭着努力,要求等而“得到” Further information can be obtained from our head office. 可以从我们总部获得更多信息 gain “取得” “赚得(利益等) ” ,含优势和成就等意味。 Nothing can be gained without an effort. 不劳则无获。 across 词组 prep. from one side to the other of 穿过…, 横过…, 在…的对面 adv. 从 边到另一边;宽,横 come across = run across 碰到某人或遭遇某事 get across 惹(某人)不高兴 put across 哄骗(使相信或接受) get sth. across 使人理解,领会 put sth. across 讲清楚,使人听懂 The stream is 6 feet across. 这条小溪六尺宽。 He was unable to get across to the group what he meant.他无法让人了解他什么意思。 We must learn how to put our ideas across. 我们必须学会讲清楚我们的观点。 across through across 指平面的穿过; through 指空间或内部的穿过



across the river/ street/ desert/ plain through the forest/ window/ gate




vi. to take action 行动;做,做事;to represent (a part) or perform by action 表演; vt. 扮演(角色) n. 行为,动作;法令;条例 act on/ upon 1. 根据…行事 2.对…产生影响,对…起作用 act on the teacher‘s instructions 遵照老师的指令 Acids act on metals. 酸对金属起作用。 in the act of 正做…的过程中 an act of great daring 英勇的行为 an education act 教育法 She acted wisely in this matter. 她在这事上做得很明智。 He wasn‘t acting like himself. 他的举止反常。 He acts very well in the play. 他在剧中演得很好 He acted Romeo. 他演罗密欧。 process of doing something n. 行动 take action 采取行动 out of action 不(再)起作用,不(再)运转 go /come into action 开始战斗,开始行动 action act activity act 指短暂,个别的,具体的“行为” ; action 偏重于抽象的,占时较长的“行为” , “行为过程” ,更具有连续性; activity 指活动。 The thief was caught in the very act of stealing. 小偷在行窃时被逮捕。 Firm action must be taken to prevent such an accident from happening again. 必须采取果断措施以防止此类事故再度发生。 classroom activity 班级活动 action 也常指做事的方法或效果 action of a runner/ a medicine 跑步者的动作(药的作用) actions 泛指人们的行为,常与呼应 Actions speak louder than words. (谚语)事实胜于雄辩。 注:我们可以有如下表达 a foolish/ kind/ brave act (or action)= an act( not action ) of foolishness/ kindness/ bravery energetic; quick; lively adj. 积极的,主动的 be active in = take an active part in 积极参加 actively adv. 积极地 v.make something suitable for a new use, situation etc. 使适应,使适合; v. alter or modify(a text) for television, the stage, etc. 修改,改编

action 词组




active 词组 展开 adapt .


adapt oneself to adapt to

使自己适应, 习惯 (见 accustomed 词条) 适应

add 词组


v. put something together with sth. else so as to increase the size, number, amount etc. 加,添加;进一步说(或写) ,附带说明 add up to = amount to = total = come to 合计达,总计 add to 增加 add up 加起来 add to one‘s confusion/ difficulty 增加困惑,困难 Three added to four makes seven. 3 加 4 等于 7 Add all these figures and see what the total is.把这些数字加起来,看看是多少。

addition n. adding, esp. calculating the total of two or more numbers 加;加法 词组 in addition = besides 另外,加之 in addition to = as well as = besides 除…之外(还有) 展开 additional adj. 附加的,另外的 address n. details of where a person lives, works or can be found, and where letters , etc may be delivered 地址,住址; n. speech made to an audience 演说,讲话 vt. (在信封或包裹上)写姓名,地址;向…作(正式)讲话;对…发表演说; 称呼;处理 address oneself to 向…讲话,致力于 address speech lecture report talk address 指较正式隆重场合上所作的“演说” ; speech 普通用语,指在公共场合所作的经过准备的或无准备的“发言” ; lecture 学术性的“演讲” “讲座” ; report 事件及局势的报道(报告)或下级给上级的报告; talk 非正式的讲话,用与较随便的场合。 I went to a lecture he gave on literature. a political report I must have a long talk with him.

词组 辨析

adequate adj. sufficient 足够的,适当的;胜任的 反义词:inadequate 辨析 adequate sufficient enough adequate 着重符合一个客观要求或标准,兼有“适当”之意; sufficient 较偏重分量或数量的“足够” ,多用于书面语; enough 常用语,也较偏重分量或数量的“足够” 。 His wages are adequate to support the family.他的工资足够养家了。 adjust 词组 例句 v. alter (sth) by a small amount so that it will fit or be right for use; regulate 调整;调节 adjust oneself to 调整以适应(见 accustomed 词条) adjust to 适应 The body quickly adjust ( itself ) to changes in temperature.

身体迅速自行调节以适应气温的变化。 admire vt. regard sb with respect, pleasure, satisfaction etc. 赞赏,钦佩 词组 win the admiration of 赢得…的赞赏 be the admiration of 成为(是)...的欣赏对象 have/ display an admiration for 对…非常佩服(欣赏) 展开 admirer n. 崇拜者 admirable adj. 令人敬佩的 admirably adv. 令人敬佩地,非常地 admiringly adv. 钦佩地,赞叹地 admiration n. 欣赏,赞赏 admit 词组 vt. allow sb/ sth to enter 允许进入,使进入;容纳;容许 recognize or acknowledge sth as true, confess sth. 承认+that clause/ doing/ n./ pron. admit to sth/doing sth 承认;同向 admit (having made ) mistakes 承认犯了错误 be admitted into 被…录取 admit of 容许 Only important personages were admitted to the opening ceremony. 只有 VIP 才可参加开幕式。 This matter admits of no delay. 这件事不容拖延。 This ticket will admit three to the concert. 一张票可供三个人听音乐会。 George would never admit to being wrong. 乔治从不认错。 I admit my mistake that I was wrong. 我承认我错了。 admission n. 准许进入,入场费,费用



advance v. come or go forward 前进,向前移动; make progress 取得进展; increase (a price)(价格等)上涨; pay before it is due to be paid 预先发放,预先支付; bring (an event) to an earlier date 提前,使提前发生; make a present (a claim or suggestion, etc) 提出(建议等) n. 前进,前移;进展,改进; (价格等)增加;预付(款等) adj. 预先的,先行的 词组 in advance 在前面;预先,事先 展开 advanced adj. 先进的,高级的;年迈的,后阶段的 advantage 词组 n. condition or circumstance that gives one superiority or success (esp. when competing with others) 优势,好处 反义词:disadvantage take advantage of 利用(某人的处境,弱点等) ; 利用(机会等)= make use of have (give sb.) an advantage over (使某人)在方面辨析有利;胜过 have the advantage of 在某方面有优势 to sb.‘s advantage 对(某人)有利



turn sth. to advantage 使发挥作用,充分利用 His British upbringing gives him certain advantages over other applicants. 他在英国成长受教育,这一背景使他比其他应征者略胜一筹。 He has the advantage of speaking four languages over others. 相比其他人,他有能说四门语言的优势。 The lawyer‘s letter said she would hear something to her advantage. 律师的信上说她会听到对她有利的消息。 advantageous adj. 有利的

adventure n. unusual, exciting or dangerous experience or undertaking 冒险(性) ;冒险活动; 冒险经历;激动人心的活动(经历) ;奇遇 辨析 adventure venture adventure 指如探险等一般性的冒险 venture 尤指在商业方面有风险的计划,投资,事业 his adventures in Africa 他在非洲的冒险经历 He thought the venture far too risky and didn‘t want to become involved. 他认为这个计划风险性太大而不想参与。 展开 adventurous adj. 冒险的 adventurer n. 冒险家 advice 词组 n. opinion given about what to do or how to behave 建议,劝告 (不可数)a piece of advice advise sb. to do sth.= try to persuade sb. to do sth. = try to persuade sb. into doing sth. 建议某人做某事 ask sb. for advice 向某人要建议 follow/ take one‘s advice 听从某人的建议 give sb. some advice on sth. 给某人提建议 it is advisable for sb. to do sth. 。 。 。对某人来说是可取的 advise v. 建议 advisable adj.明智的,可取的,适当的


affair n.thing (to be) done; concern; matter 事情,事件;(pl.) 事务 词组 public affairs 公事 private / personal affairs 私事 national /state affairs 国事 international affairs 国际事务 family affairs 家事 current affairs 时事 辨析 affair matter business event incident affair 涵义最广,可指已经发生的或必须去做的任何事情,也可泛指事务(用作复 数时,指重大的或头绪较多的事情) ; matter 意为事情,指要考虑或处理的(小)事; money matters 钱的事情

What‘s the matter? = what‘s wrong? business 常指生意,商业,还可指任务,责任,正事; do business with 与某人做生意 go into business 经商 business hours 营业时间 mind your own business ( affairs ) 少管闲事 get down to business 干正事 It‘s none of your business. 不关你的事 Business is business. 公事公办 event 指重大事情 historical event 历史事件 track and field event 田径赛 incident 指突发事件,事变或冲突 Xi an incident 西安事变 border incidents 边境事件 affect 词组 展开 vt. have an influence on (sb or sth.) 影响; (在感情方面)打动,震动; 假装 have an affection for 喜欢。 。 。 set one‘s affections on 钟爱某人 effect n. 影响 affection n. 喜爱,慈爱 affectionate adj. 深情的 affectionately adv.深情地 v. have enough money, space, time etc for ( a special purpose) 提供;担负得起(费用) ;抽出时间 afford a holiday 度假 afford the time/ expense 抽出时间(支付费用) afford to do 能够做某事 afford sb. sth. 提供某人某物 afford offer supply provide afford 供给,一般用于抽象名词,常用在 can, be able to 后; offer 主动提供,出价; offer sb. sth. 提供某人某物 offer to do sth. 主动提出做某事 offer some money for sth. 为某物出价 supply 供应,补给(缺乏或不足的东西) (一般指付钱的) ; supply sb. with sth. = supply sth. to sb. 提供 The water works supply water to the people in this town. 水利工程给这个镇上的人们提供水。 provide 往往指免费提供。 provide sb. with sth. = provide sth. for sb. We provide the children with money and clothes. 我们为孩子们提供钱和衣物。

afford 词组



afraid 词组


adj. frightened 怕的(做表语用) be afraid of be afraid to do sth. be afraid that clause 害怕。 。 。 be afraid to do be afraid of be afraid to do 表示害怕不敢做,可以不做。是以人的意志为转移的。 be afraid of 表示害怕某事会发生。 是不以人的意志为转移的 The girl was afraid to go out at night. So she stayed at home. 这女孩晚上不敢出去,因此她呆在家里。 The boy was afraid of being scolded by his father for he failed in the final exam. 这男孩因期末考没通过害怕被他父亲责骂。 later in time prep. /conj. /adv. 在…之后 after all after dark after one‘s heart ask after = inquire after be after day after day ( year ~ year) go after look after one after another run after take after the day after tomorrow ( the week ~ next ) be named after once more, another time adv. 再一次 again and again once again now and again all over again over and over again time and time again

after 词组

毕竟,终究 天黑之后 合…心意的,投合的 问候 想得到,寻求, 追求 日复一日(年复一年等) 追逐,追求,设法得到 照顾,照看,照管 一个接一个地 追求,追捕,追赶 长得像,性格上像 后天(在下一个星期) 以…命名

again 词组

再三地,反复地 再次 不时地,间或 再次,重新 一再地 多次,一再地

against prep. in opposition to (反)对; 以…为抵御…对象;靠着; having as a background 衬着; as a defence or protection from 预防 词组 against one‘s will (wishes) 违反自己的意愿 be against 反对 lean against 斜靠着 例句 We sailed against wind.我们顶风航行。 There were 20 votes for him and 12 against him. 有 20 张投票拥护他,有 12 张反对他。 The skier ‘s red clothes stood out clearly against the snow.

滑雪者红色的衣服在白雪的衬托下分外醒目。 We are all taking medicine against the disease. 我们都在服药防御这疾病。 age n. length of time that a person has lived or a thing has existed 时代;年龄 vi. grow old 变老,长大,老化 vt. 使苍老 at the age of 在…岁的时候 at one‘s age 在…这个年龄(岁数) be of the same age 同龄 be of different ages 不同龄 under the age of 年龄在…以下 be over age 超龄 be under age 未成年,不足龄 aged adj. 有…岁,…年纪的,陈年的;年老的 My son is aged 10 years. 我儿子十岁。 Tinka, aged eleven, was demanding that she be allowed to go to the movies twice a week. 十一岁的女孩 Tinka 要求一周看两次电影。 The sick and the aged need our help. 病人和老人需要我们的帮助。 the middle-aged 中年人 v. say ?yes‘ 同意 agree with



agree 词组



agree to sth. agree on/ upon agree to do sth. agree +that clause Their story agrees with the facts. 他们的叙述与事实相符。 The climate doesn‘t agree with me. 这气候对我不相宜。 I agree with you on the plan. 我同意你对这个计划的观点。 I agree with what you said at the meeting 我同意你会上的发言。 We couldn‘t agree on the date. 关于日期,我们未能取得一致意见。 agreeable adj. 令人愉快的 = pleasant; (欣然)同意的,乐意的 agreement n. 协定,协议;同意 adv. further forward in space or time adv. 在前 ahead of (指时间,空间)在…之前 ahead of schedule (比原计划或规定时间)提前 ahead of time 提前,提早 go ahead 在前进,有进展;继续干,说下去 push ahead 向前进,推行 They began to push ahead with their new policy.他们开始推行他们的新政策。

同意(+某人/ what 引导的从句/ ) ; (气候,食物等)适于…的健康或体质 与…相符,与…相一致; 同意(建议,命令,要求,安排) ; 表示双方在某一点上取得相同意见; 同意做某事。

ahead 词组


aid 词组


vt. help 帮助,援助 n. 帮助,援助(不可数) ;助手,辅助用品(可数) teaching aids 教学设备 hearing aids 助听器 audio and visual aids 视听设备 food and medical aid 食品和医疗帮助 come / go to one‘s aid 来(去)帮助某人 first aid 急救 aid help assist help 常用语,其后可跟一个宾语和带 to 或不带 to 的动词不定式; aid 比 help 较正式, 往往指帮助整体而言.他的宾语后接不定式或 in 加动名词都可; assist 正式用语,往往指帮助个体而言,着重表示“协助”之意。它更多使用的则 是后接 in 加动名词结构。

aim n. purpose, intention 目的,目标(可数) ; action of pointing or directing a weapon or missile at a target 瞄准,射击目标(不可数) vt/vi direct one‘s efforts ( in the specified direction) 以…为目的,目的是,打算,希望; point or direct ( a weapon, blow, missile, etc) towards an object 瞄准,对准 词组 aim at 目的是,打算 aim to do sth. 打算 aim for 希望(达到某个目标) take careful aim at 仔细瞄准 aim high 雄心很大,要求很高 be aimed at 目标是,目的是;针对,对…而发 例句 This education aimed at combining brain work with manual labour. 教育的目的是把体力劳动和脑力工作结合起来。 Mary aimed to please her teacher. 马丽想取悦她的老师。 We should aim for the best results. 我们应该希望得到最好的结果。 These advertisements are specially aimed at young people. 这些广告是特别针对青年的。 展开 aimless adj. 无目的的 aimlessly adv. 无目的地


Unit Two
air 例句 n. mixture of gases surrounding the earth and breathed by all land animals and plants 空气;气氛;飞机;航空 clear the air 消除误会(或猜疑等) in the air 流传中;不肯定,不具体;在谣传中 in the open air 在户外,在露天地里 build castles in the air 空中楼阁,想入非非 by air 乘飞机,由航空 on the air 广播 off the air 停播 up in the air 悬而未决的 合成词 air bath 空气浴 air-cushion 气垫 airflow 气流 airproof 不漏气的 air pump 气泵 air stream 气流 air rifle 气枪 air-conditioned adj.有空调设备的 air-conditioning n. 空调设备/系统 air battle 空战 air attack 空袭 air cargo 空运货物(邮件) airhostess 空姐 airliner 班机,客机 airmail 航空邮件 air alarm 空袭警报 air base 空军基地 air corridor 空中走廊 air force 空军 airline 航线,航空公司 air raid 空袭 airport 机场 n. fear and excitement caused by the expectation of danger 惊恐的情绪(不可数) ; warning sound or signal n. 警告,警报;闹钟的铃(可数) ; vt. give a warning or feeling of danger to (a person or an animal) 使惊慌,使不安。 alarm clock 闹钟 false alarm 虚惊 adj. living, not dead 活着的 alive live living lively alive 活着的,多指状态 the happiest man alive 世上最幸福的人 The driver was still alive after the accident. 出了车祸,司机还活着。 live adj.活的(常指有生命的) ,现场直播 live fish 活鱼 a live TV programme 现场直播的电视 living adj.活的,逼真的 living water living language



alive 辨析

活水 活的语言

living things


lively adj. 充满活力的,生动的,活泼的 a lively dance/ lesson 充满活力的舞(生动的课) 注 有许多词是以 a-开头的形容词,只能做表语,被称为表语形容词: asleep 睡着的 afraid 害怕的 awake 醒着的 alone 单独的 aware 明白的 ashamed 害羞的 alike 相似的 all adv. altogether; completely pron. the whole of n. everything all day (night, etc.) all one‘s life all the time all the way all the while all these(those) days/ years for all above all after all all in all at all not at all first of all for good and all in all once for all all alone all along all at once all of a sudden all out all over all right all round all the more all the same all through 全部的 全体; (整体中的)每一个;一切 所有的一切 整天(夜)地 一生,一辈子 一直地,经常 一路,全程;一直(走完很长一截路) 一直地 这些年(天) 尽管 最重要的是 毕竟,终究 总的来说,总之 究竟(用于疑问句,条件句) 一点也不 首先 永久地,一劳永逸地 总共 一劳永逸地 单独一个人,独自地 一直地,一向 突然;同时,一下子;马上 突然 全力(以赴) 到处 好吧,行; (身体)好了,情况不错 全面地 更加 尽管如此,照旧;全都一样(没有差别) 在整个…期间


allow 结构

vt. permit (sb/sth) to do 允许,准许,承认 allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事 allow doing 允许做某事


词组 展开 almost 辨析

同样用法的词: permit sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事 permit doing 允许做某事 forbid sb. to do sth. 禁止某人做某事 forbid doing 禁止做某事 advise sb. to do sth. 建议某人做某事 advise doing 建议做某事 allow permit allow 强调主观 The nurse allowed the visitors to remain beyond the hospital visiting hours, though it was not permitted. 尽管医院不允许,但护士还是同意探视者逗留超过探视时间。 permit 强调客观 If time permits, we‘ll go for an outing. 如果时间允许的话,我们就去郊游。 allow for 考虑到,顾及,为…留出余地 allow of 容许,容许有…的可能 allowance n. 津贴,补贴 adv. nearly, not quite 几乎,差不多 almost nearly mostly almost 与 no, none, nothing, never 连用 Almost no one believes her. 几乎每人相信她。 nearly 不可与上述词连用,而用 not nearly 根本不是 It‘s not nearly so easy as you think. 远没有你想象的那么简单。 mostly 则等于 almost all The audience are mostly students. 观众大多是学生。 adj. only, exclusively 仅仅(用于名词或代词后) ; without any companions 单独的 adv. 单独地 lonely alone lonely 是形容词有“寂寞的” “孤单的”之意,既可做定语,也可做表语;还表示 “荒凉的,人迹稀少的” Come over and see me. I‘m feeling a bit lonely.过来看我吧,我有点寂寞。 a lonely mountain village 荒凉的山村 alone 往往和心情无关,指独自一人,可做形容词也可做副词,做形容词表示仅仅 She lives on tea and cakes when she is alone.她一个人时就以茶饼当饭。 Man alone has the gift of speech. 只有人类有说话的天赋。 leave alone 不打扰,不惊动 let alone 不打扰,不惊动;更别提,更不用说 prep. from one end to or towards the other end of (sth) 沿着,循着 adv. onward, forward 向前地






all along along with get along

始终,一直 和…一道,和…一起 进行,进展;相处

alternative adj. available in place of sth else; other 两者择一的,供选择的; n. choice of two or more possibilities 两者(或在两者以上间)择一,抉择; 供选择的东西,供替代的抉择 词组 alternative road 另一条路 alternative fuel 可替代燃料 have no alternative but to do = have no choice but to do 别无选择除了做。 。 。 although conj. n spite of the fact that; even if 虽然,尽管 辨析 although though 1. though 可用做副词,做修饰性状语, (一般放在句末) ,表示“但是” ,although 则不能。 He said he would do it; he didn‘t, though. 他说他要做这件事,可是他没有做。 2.as though, even though 结构中不能用 although 注 although 和 though 不能与 but 同用,可用 yet, still, nevertheless 替代 Though he lives alone, yet he is happy. 他虽然独自生活,却很愉快。 amaze 展开 vt. fill (sb) with great surprise or wonder 使惊异,使大为惊奇 同义词:surprise astonish 注: 此三词都是及物动词,但这三个词一般以事物或他人做主语,以人做宾语。 如果以人做主语时用 be + V+ed 形式 I was amazed to find her there. 见到她在那儿,我很惊讶。 amazing adj. = surprising = astonishing amazing news amazingly adv. 惊人地 amazement n. = surprise = astonishment 惊讶 to one‘s amazement/ surprise /astonishment among 辨析 令人吃惊的 令人吃惊的消息


prep. amongst 在…中间;在…之中 among between among 指三者或三者以上 between 指两者之间或两两之间 New York is among the largest cities in the world.纽约是世界上最大城市之一。 drinks between meals 餐间饮料 数量,总数 总计达(见词条 add) 大量的(修饰不可数名词)

amount n. total sum or value vi. 合计 词组 amount to a large amount of



=large amounts of the amount of …的数量(不可数名词) “大量,许多的”词组 a large number of 大量的(修饰可数名词) the number of …的数量(可数名词) a large quantity of = 大量的(修饰可数,不可数名词) large quantities of the quantity of …的数量(可数或不可数名词) a lot of = 大量的(修饰可数,不可数名词) lots of plenty of 大量的(修饰可数,不可数名词) a good / great many 大量的(修饰可数名词) 注:这些词组修饰可数名词做主语,谓语动词用复数,修饰不可数名词,谓语动词 用单数。 但 large quantities of 和 large amounts of 修饰不可数名词, 谓语动词和 amounts, quantities 保持一致,用复数。 Large amounts of waste water have been poured into the river without being cleaned. conj. also, in addition 和 and so on = and so forth and vice versa and yet adj. filled with anger 生气,发怒 be angry with sb. be angry at sth. be angry to do quiver with anger anger n. 怒,愤怒 vt.使发怒,激怒 angrily adv.生气地

and 词组

等等 反过来也一样 但是…

angry 词组

生某人的气 为某事生气 生气地… 因生气而发抖

announce vt. make sth known publicly 宣布,通告 辨析 announce declare announce “宣布” ,含有“预告”之意。如书籍的出版,物品的发售,人的生 死,婚姻,暴风雨和危险的来临等。 declare 公开“宣布” , “宣称” ,如战争,和平,戒严等。 declare war upon 向…宣战 the declaration of independence 独立宣言 展开 announcement n.宣布,通告 announcer n. 广播员,解说员 annoy vt. cause slight anger to sb; irritate 使烦恼,打扰




annoy bother disturb annoy “烦恼” ,指干扰,不顺利或受不了某种外界情况而感到“烦” He was annoyed with his naughty son. 他淘气的儿子令他生气。 bother 指不停的“扰乱” , “麻烦” ,是人不能安宁。它强调动作,不强调由此产生 的心理。 I‘m sorry to have bothered you. 对不起打扰你了。 disturb “干扰” ,妨碍” ,指由于外界的干扰,使本来安宁或正常的秩序被打乱, 而使人一时不能全神贯注地做某事 That thing disturbs my serenity. 那件事扰乱了我的宁静。 annoyance n. 烦恼,讨厌的人或事 annoying adj. 讨厌的

another pron./ adj. an additional (person, thing) 再一个,另一的 词组 one after another 一个接一个;相继 one another 互相(三者以上) each other 互相(两者间) answer vt./ n. thing said, written or done as a response or reaction 回答,答复 同义词:reply 词组 in answer to 作为对…的回答 answer for 对…付有责任 answer the need of 满足…的需要 answer to 符合,适合;对…有反应 anxious adj. feeling anxiety; worried; uneasy 焦虑的,急切的,渴望的 辨析 anxious eager anxious 指因焦虑而担心,因此渴望… eager 仅指渴望…无担心之意 词组 be anxious to do 很想做某事 be anxious for/ about 渴望…,为…而担心 例句 We are anxious to know the result of the Entrance Examination. 我们急着要知道高考的结果。 He is eager for success. 他渴望成功。 anything pron. any one thing, everything 任何事,任何东西 词组 anything but 绝对不(辨析 nothing but 表示“仅仅” for anything (否定句中)无论如何 例句 The novel is anything but vivid. 这部小说一点也不生动。 Alone at home, I felt nothing but lonely. 一个人在家,我就是感到孤单。 I wouldn‘t miss the party for anything. 我无论如何都不会错过那个晚会。 apart 辨析 to or at a distance apart from fall apart adv. 分开,分隔开 除…之外(别无) ,除…之外(还有) 崩溃,破碎


set apart tell/ know apart apologize v. make an apology 道歉 词组 apologize to sb. for sth. make an apology to sb. for sth. 展开 apology n. 道歉 appeal vi.

留出 区分开

为某事向某人道歉 (同上)

词组 例句

make an earnest request 呼吁;控诉; be attractive or interesting (to sb) 有吸引力 n. earnest reply 呼吁;吸引力 appeal to 呼吁,请求;对…吸引力,投…所好 The police are appealing to the public for information about this crime. 警察呼吁公众提供这件罪案的线索。 This picture doesn‘t appeal to the youth. 这张画对年轻人没有什么吸引力。

appear vi. come into view; become visible 出现,显得;好像 辨析 appear look seem appear 强调外表上给人某种印象,有时含有实质上并非如此之意。 He appears to know more than he really does. 他看起来好像懂很多,其实不然。 look 暗示有一定根据的判断。 The problem seems very complicated. 问题仿佛很复杂。 seem 着重由视觉而得出的印象。 He looked as if he was worried. 他看上去仿佛很着急。 展开 appearance n. 出现;外观,外貌 appetite n. physical desire, esp. for food or pleasure 词组 have a poor appetite an appetite for power/ knowledge lose one‘s appetite to one‘s appetite 食欲, 后常跟 for 胃口不好 权势(求知)欲 食欲减退 投其所好

appliance n. instrument or device for a specific purpose 器具,用具,器械 词组 medical appliance 医疗器具 electrical appliance 电器 household appliance 家用器具 辨析 appliance instrument equipment facility appliance 强调器械,用具 instrument 尤指精密仪器,乐器, 如: musical instrument 用具乐器

equipment facility

surgical instrument 外科 是“设备” , “装备”的总称,为不可数名词 kitchen equipment 厨房设备 常用,复数形式,表示提供便利的“设备” , “设施” 。如: public facilities 公共设施 facilities of traveling 旅游设施





make a formal request .申请(for), be relevant (to sb/ sth); have an effect 适用(to) vt. 应用,运用;put or spread sth (onto) sth 敷,贴,涂,施加 apply for 申请 apply theory to practice 把理论应用于实践 apply to 适用于 apply oneself to 致力于 application n. 申请,申请表;应用,实施;敷用,涂抹 applicant n. 申请人 applicable adj. 可应用的,可实施的 choose sb for a job or position of responsibility 任命,委派; fix or decide on sth 约定,确定(时间,地点) appointment n. 任命,委派 He was appointed mayor of the city. 他被任命为该市的市长。

appoint vt. 展开

appreciate vt.




understand and enjoy sth; value 重视,欣赏;领会,充分意识到,体会; feel or show understanding or gratitude 为…表示感激 vi increase in value . 增值 appreciate one‘s kindness/ goodness in doing sth. 感谢你所做的… appreciate it very much if you could 如果…,将不胜感激 appreciate the beauty of 欣赏美丽 … is much appreciated …大受欣赏 I‘d appreciate it very much if you could/would type this letter for me. 如果你能帮我打印这封信的话, 我将不胜感激。 I appreciate your kindness in helping me with my English. 对于你给我英语上的帮助我表示感谢。 I appreciate your problem, but I don‘t think I can help you. 我理解你的困难, 但我爱莫能助。 Houses in that area have appreciated since the new road was built. 自从新马路的建造, 这个地区的地产已增值。 appreciation n. 感激,欣赏,重视 (of ) have an appreciation of 欣赏, 喜欢, 重视…评论 to come near or nearer to (sb/sth) in space or time 接近,靠近;临近;对 begin to tackle (a task, problem etc.) 处理(问题,任务等) act of approaching 接近,靠近;途径;

approach vt./ vi. n.

词组 展开

way of dealing with a person or thing 方式,方法 (to) make approaches to sb. 想法接近(认识)某人 approachable adj. 可以达到的,容易接近的

approve vt./vi say , show or feel that sth is good or acceptable or satisfactory 赞成,同意; confirm (sth); accept v. 批准,核准 词组 approve of 赞成,称许 disapprove of 不赞成,不称许 展开 approval n. 赞成,同意;批准,认可 disapprove vt/vi 不赞成,不同意;不批准 disapproval n. 不赞成,不同意;不批准 area n. extent or measurement of a surface 面积; region of the earth‘s surface district of a city, etc. 地区,地域; range of activity or interest 领域,范围 辨析 area region section district zone area 整体中面积较大且没有明确界限的一部分。还可指较确定的一小部分(相当 于 section)或计算出的面积。 There is a strange smell in the area around the fridge. 冰箱附近有股怪味。 Mary measured the area of the floor before ordering the new carpet. 在订购新地毯之前马丽量了地板的面积。 region 指有共同的政治,经济,文化或自然特点的地区。 the desert region 沙漠地区 the Macau Special Administration Region 澳门特别行政区 Development of the West Region 西部大开发 section 指整体中相对独立的一部分,或指同类人居住的地区。 The student read the introductory section of each chapter. 那位学生阅读了各章内容的简介部分。 the Negro sections of New York 纽约黑人居住区 district 多指一个国家或城市中的行政或地理区域 What district does that representative come from? 那位代表来自哪个区? zone 指有不同于一般的特点或特征的地区,或指某些活动发生的地区。 the war zone 战区 the economic development zone 经济开发区 argue 词组 v. express an opposite opinion; exchange angry words; quarrel 争吵,争论 argue against 拒理反对,争辩说不应该 argue down 驳倒 argue away 把…辩解过去 argue with sb. over sth. 与某人争吵某事 argument n. 争论,辩论 n. either of the two upper limbs of the human body 臂,前肢 arm in arm 臂挽臂

展开 arm 词组


keep at arm‘s length receive with open arms lay down one‘s arms take up arms arms n. 武器

保持距离,避免亲近 热情而高兴地接待(欢迎) 放下武器,投降 拿起武器,准备战斗

around prep.


near a place 在…周围; forming a circle round (sth); following (such a route ) 环绕 adv. 在周围;大约 around the clock 昼夜不停地;二十四小时的 around the corner 在拐角处,即将到来 vt. wake sb from sleep vi. 醒来 arouse one‘s curiosity arouse sb. from sleep arouse the appetite 唤醒,引起 引起某人的好奇心 叫醒某人 引起食欲 (arose, arisen)

arouse 词组

arise 词组 例句

vi. appear; become evident 起立,起身;上升,升起;出现 arise from/ out of 产生,造成,引起 Many problems arise from the lack of communication. 有许多问题是由于缺乏交流而引起的。 同义词组:result from lie in

arrange v. put sth in order; make tidy, neat or attractive 安排 词组 arrange for sb. /sth. to do sth. 安排…做… arrange sth. for sb. = make an arrangement for 为…做安排 arrangement n. 安排,排列 article n. piece of writing 文章,论文; separate clause or item in an agreement or a contract. 条款,条文; particular or separate thing, esp. one of a set (物品的)一件,物件;冠词

artificial adj. made or produced by man in imitation of sth natural; not real 人工的,人造的; affected; insincere; not genuine adj. 假的,矫揉造作的 词组 artificial fiber 人工纤维 artificial smile 做作的笑 as prep. Having the function or the character of 作为,当作;像,如同; conj. when 当…时, 在…的同时, 随着; and so too 如同…那样, in the way in which 以…的方式,像…一样;since ; because of 因为,由于;introduce a clause of concession 尽管,虽然 ad. to the same extent 同样地,一样地;


as for/ to as if / though as a matter of fact as a result as a result of as a whole as… as one can/ as… as possible as follows as/ so far as as…as… not as…as…, not so…as… as regards

至于,关于 好象,仿佛 事实上,实际上,不瞒你说 结果是 由于,因为 一般来说,通常 尽可能,尽量 尽量 远道,一直到;达到(某种程度) 同…一样 不如…那样 关于

ashamed adj. feeling shame, embarrassment, etc about sth/sb or because of one‘s own action 惭愧的,羞耻的,难为情的 辨析 ashamed shameful shameless ashamed 意为“惭愧的” , “羞耻的” ,用于人,后接 of,表示“以……为耻” shameful “可耻的” , “丢脸的” ,用于事物或行为。 He is ashamed of his shameful behavior. 他为其可耻的行为而感到惭愧。 shameless“无耻” ,可指事物,行为,也可指人“恬不知耻” 。 shameless lies 无耻的谎言 shameless traitor 无耻的叛徒 ask 词组 vt. /vi. request information (about sb/sth) from sb. 问,询问;请求,要求;邀请 ask after 探问 ask about 询问 ask for 请求,要求 ask for trouble 自找麻烦 ask the favor of sb. 请求某人帮助 ask sb. to dinner 邀请某人吃饭 adj. not awake; sleeping 睡着的(常做表语) sound / fast asleep 熟睡 fall asleep 入睡 asleep sleep sleepy asleep 睡着的,常做表语 sleep 是动词 sleepy 是形容词,既可做表语,表示“困乏的,想睡觉的” ;也可做定语,表示“贪 睡的,好睡觉的” I slept a good sleep last night. 昨晚我睡得很好。 He was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes open. 他困得很,眼睛都睁不开。

asleep 词组 辨析


aspect 词组

particular part or feature of sth being considered n. 方面;角度;外观,面貌 in all aspects 在各个方面 take on a new aspect/ look 面貌一新

assemble vt./vi. (cause people or things to ) come together; collect 集合,召集,聚集; fit together ( the parts of sth) 装配 辨析 assemble gather collect assemble 指人或组织出于共同目的而聚集在一起 gather 强调把分散的东西集中到一起 collect 指有选择地集中或逐个地慢慢聚集,收集 展开 assembly n. 集会,集合;设备,组装 assign 词组 展开 assist 词组 展开 vt give sth to sb as a share of work to be done of things to be used 分配,选派 assign sb. to do sth. 委任某人做某事 assign sth. to sb. 给某人分派某事 assignment n. (分派的)任务, (指定的)作业;分配,指派 v. help 帮助,协助 assist sb. in assistance n. 帮助,援助 assistant n. 助手,助理

帮助做某事(见词条 aid)

associate vt. join (people or things) together; connect ( ideas, etc ) in one‘s mind 结合在一起 词组 associate…with… 与…交往; 将(不同事物)联系起来,联想 例句 Whisky is usually associated with Scotland. 人们常把威士忌与苏格兰联系起来。 I don‘t like you associating with such people. 我不喜欢你与那些人混在一起。 展开 association n. 联合,联盟;协会,社团 association football 英式足球


Unit Three
assume vt. accept (sth) as true before there is proof 假定,假设;承担,担任 词组 assume a statement to be true 假定一种说法是正确 assume responsibility 承担责任 assuming that… 假定… assumption n. 假定,臆断;担任,承担 assure 词组 辨析 vt tell (sb) positively or confidently 使(某人)相信 assure sb. of sth. 使某人确信… assure sb. that… 向某人保证… assure ensure insure guarantee assure 强调“向…保证” , “使…确信” ,后接人做宾语,否则用被动 ensure 与 insure 一般可以通用,但习惯用 ensure 表示“保证” ,句型为: ensure sb. sth 向某人保证… ensure sth. 保证… ensure that…=make sure that…=be sure that…=see to it that insure 强调“保险” ,名词为 insurance guarantee 指对事物的品质或人的行为“提出担保” 辨析: He assured me that he would help me. 他向我保证他会帮我。 This new treaty will ensure peace between the nations. 这项新条约一定会保证各国之间的和平相处。 Insurance companies will insure ships and their cargoes against loss at sea. 保险公司将给船和货物保海损险。 The watch is guaranteed for two years. 这只表保用两年。 assurance n. 保证 prep. 在…… at a distance at a loss at a time at one time at all costs = at any cost at any rate at best at ease at first sight at hand at heart at home


展开 at 词组

在一定距离 不知所措 一次 曾经 不惜一切代价 不管怎样 在最顺利条件下,说得再好也只是 (口令)稍息 一见面,第一眼 不远,快到,在身边 在内心里 在家;随便,无拘束;对…很熟练

at last at least at leisure at length at (the) most at once at one‘s fingertips at one‘s service at one‘s wits‘ end at present at random at sea at sixes and sevens at the end of at the corner of at the airport at the weekend at a quarter to five aim at shout at fire at smile at laugh at glare at stare at throw at wave at at half price at the speed of be good at/ be clever at/ be skilled at at the risk of at the same time at the top of one‘s voice at the start at times at will at work attach

(经过一段等待或曲折)最后,终于 至少 有空闲,没事;从容地,慢慢地 最后;详细地,充分地 至多 立刻,马上 非常熟悉,精通 听候吩咐,为…服务;供使用 没主意了,计穷 目前,现在 随机地,胡乱地 茫然,不知所措 乱七八糟,意见分歧 在…末端 在角落 在机场 在周末 在四点三刻 旨在 冲…喊叫 朝…开火 朝…微笑 嘲笑 怒视 盯着…看 朝…扔东西 朝…挥手 半价 以…的速度 擅长于,精于 冒…的危险 同时 高声地 从一开始,开始时 有时候,间或 任意地,随意地 干活,起作用


vt. fasten or join sth (to) sth 系,帖,连接; join sb/sth as a (sometimes unwelcome or uninvited) companion or member 使附属;使依恋,使喜爱; attribute sth to sth 认为有(重要性,责任等) attach oneself to (尤指短期地)使参加,使属于 attach to 使附属;系,连接

attach importance/ significance to be/ become attached to

重视,认为…重要 喜欢,…依恋

attempt v. /n make an effort to accomplish (sth); try to do (sth) 企图,试图,试图做 词组 attempt to do sth.= 试图做某事 make an attempt to do sth. attempt sth a vain attempt 妄想 attend 词组 v. go regularly to (a place); be present at 出席,参加 attend to 照顾;处理,办理;专心于,致力于 pay attention to 注意 draw one‘s attention 吸引注意 stand at attention 立正站着 attention n. 注意,注意力 attentive adj. 注意的,关心别人的 attentively adv. 注意地,专注地 态度,看法,姿态 对...的态度


attitude n. way of thinking or behaving 词组 attitude to / towards attract 词组 展开

vt. pull (sth) towards itself / oneself by unseen force 吸引,引起 attract one‘s attention 引起某人的注意 tourist attractions 旅游胜地 attraction n. 具有吸引力的事物 attractive adj. 吸引人的,招人喜爱的

attribute vt regard sth as belonging to, caused by or produced by sb/ sth . 把...归因于,把(过错,责任等)归于 n. quality regarded as a natural or typical part of sb/ sth 属性,特性 词组 attribute… to=owe… to 把...归功于;把...归因于 audience n. group of people who have gathered together to hear or watch sb/ sth 听众,观众 词组 a large /small audience 众多观众,观众少 例句 There was a large audience in the hall. The audience are lost in the music. 大厅里观众很多,他们都投入在音乐声中. available 词组 例句 (of things) that can be used or obtained 可以得到的, 可以使用的; 有效的; (of people) free to be seen, talked to, etc (指人)可以找,可以用 (sth. ) be available to (sb.) (某人)可获得, (某人)可得到 with sth. available 有...可用 There was no hotel available to us for the night. 我们找不到旅馆过夜。 This ticket is available in all parks. 这张票各公园通用。 If I am not available, you can ask him for help. 如果找不到我,可让他帮忙。


average adj. standard or level regarded as usual 词组 average height and weight average number average student with average intellect above the average on average avoid 词组 vt. keep oneself away from (sb/sth) avoid sb.‘s company avoid doing sth.

中等的;平常的;平均的 中等身材 平均数 智力平常的普通学生 在一般水平以上 平均,通常

避免 避免和某人来往 避免做某事

await awake

vt. (of a person) wait for (sb./sth )等待 = wait for adj. (awoke, awoke 或 awoken) not asleep 醒着的 vt. (cause a person or an animal) to stop sleeping 唤醒,叫醒 vi. 醒,觉醒,意识到 awake or asleep 醒着还是睡着 I shall awake my son. 叫醒我的儿子。 I awoke from a deep sleep. 从沉睡中醒来。 awake awaken wake waken 1.这四个词中,wake 最为常用,也只有 wake 可与 up 连用,等于 awake 2.表示“醒来” ,最好用 wake (up ),或 awake, 不要用 waken 或 awaken 3.在被动态中, “被唤醒”一般用 wakened 或 awakened. He was awakened /wakened by the noise. 他被噪音惊醒。 4.比喻说法中的“觉醒” , “被唤起”多用 awake (vi) 和 awaken(vt) The national spirit awoke 民族精神觉醒了。 vt. make an official decision to give sth to sb as a prize, as payment or as a punishment 授予,颁发 (后常接奖金,奖章之类的名词) n. thing or amount awarded 奖,奖品;奖状 award sb. sth. = award sth. to sb. 授予某人...奖 a literature award 文学奖 an Oscar Award 奥斯卡奖 award reward reward 强调“报答,酬谢” reward sb. with sth. for sth. 因某事而酬谢某人 A reward will be paid to whoever gives useful information. 任何提供信息的人都会被给予报酬。 He was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics for his great discovery. 因为他在物理方面的伟大发现,他被授予诺贝尔物理奖。 adj. having knowledge or realization of sb/ sth 意识到 be aware of 知道,明白;觉察到,意识到





aware 词组


展开 away 词组


n. 意识,觉悟

adv. 向远处,离开;向另一方向,向一边 right away 立刻,马上 put away 收拾好,保存 away from 离 give away 背弃,使泄露; 或指婚礼中父亲把女儿交给新郎 get away from 摆脱,逃避 do away with 消灭,取消,废除 n. part of the surface of an object that is furthest from the front 背部;背面,反面 adj. situated behind 后面的 adv. towards or at the rear 向后 v. move backwards 支持;后退 back and forth 来回地 lie on one‘s back 仰卧 at the back of = in the back of 在…后面 back to back 背靠背 back out 退出,撒手 back up (使)倒退 back down 放弃,后退 hold back 踌躇不前;控制住 keep back 保留(未讲) ;忍住眼泪 look back 回顾,回想起 trace back to / date back to 追溯到 adv. very much; to a great extent I need your help badly. The car is badly in need of repair. He is badly ill. badly off 严重到;非常地 我非常需要你的帮助。 这辆车急需修理。 他病得很重。 贫困的,境况不好的,反义词:well off 平衡,均衡 使平衡,使均衡 生态平衡 膳食平衡 保持平衡 失衡



badly 例句

balance n. steadiness; even distribution of weight vt. keep or put (sth) in a state of balance 词组 the balance of nature balanced meal keep balance lose one‘s balance band


n. group of people playing, especially wind instruments 乐队;organized group of people doing sth together with a common purpose 群, 伙;thin flat strip 带, 带状物; range of wavelengths within specified limits 波段,频带 a band of robbers 一群强盗

rubber bands a three-band radio bar

橡皮筋 三波段收音机

n. room in a hotel, public house, etc, in which such drinks are served 酒吧; (a) piece of solid material n.. 条, 块; narrow piece of wood or metal placed (often parallel to others in a grid) as an obstacle in a doorway, window, etc, or to act as a grate in a fire, furnace, etc (门,窗等的)闩,栅栏 vt. fasten ( a door, gate, etc ) with a bar 闩(门,窗等) ,在…设栅栏 词组 snack bar 快餐厅,小吃店 parallel bar 双杠 a bar of soup/ chocolate/ gold/ iron 一条肥皂,巧克力,金条,铁条 a barred window 带栅栏的窗 behind bars 在监狱中 bare adj. without clothing 赤裸的;无遮盖的 vt. uncover sth, reveal 暴露,露出 词组 in bare feet 赤脚 a bare hill 一座光秃的小山 earn a bare living 仅能糊口 a room bare of furniture 无家具的房间 a bare possibility 绝无仅有的可能性 辨析 bare naked naked 指人时常表示全裸,用于物时指缺少必需的遮盖 bare 指人时指一部分裸露,用于物指没有遮盖 Naked babies are playing on the floor. 孩子们光着身子在地板上玩。 I saw the boy running with bare feet. 我看到那个孩子光着脚跑。 展开 barely adv. 仅仅,几乎不 barely had… when = hardly had… when 一…就 bargain n. agreement in which both or all sides promise to do sth for each other (买卖等双方 的)协议,交易;thing bought or sold for less than its usual price 便宜货 vi. discuss (with sb) prices, terms of trade, etc with the aim of buying or selling goods, or changing conditions, on terms that are favourable to oneself 讨价还价 结构 A bargain is a bargain 协议总是协议。 It‘s a bargain 这是便宜货。 make a bargain with sb. about sth. 与…讨价还价 bargain for/ on 企图廉价获取 base 词组 place at which armed forces, expeditions, etc have their stores n.基础,基地 use sth as grounds, evidence, etc for sth else vt. 依…为根据 a missile base 导弹基地 base……on/upon… 把…建立在…基础上 basic necessities of life 生活的基本需求 basic adj. 基本的


basis 词组 辨析

n. main principle that underlies sth.; foundation 基础,根据,前提 on the basis of 根据,以…为基础 base basis foundation base 指具体的“基地” ,特别是军事或工业方面的基地; basis 指“根据” , “基础” ,多用于比喻义; foundation 与 basis 大体同义,但更具体,通常指建筑物的地基,也可引申为“根 据”讲。 The farmers form the basis of a nation. 农民乃国家之本。 The city will become an important industrial base of our country. 这个城市将成为我国一个重要的工业基地。 The report had no foundation / basis. 该报道没有根据。 n. stretch of sand or pebbles along the edge of the sea or a lake 海滨,海滩 the open beach 空旷的海滩 on the beach 在海滩上 beach bank coast shore beach 意为“海(河,湖)滩,指受潮水冲刷而形成的有细纱或卵石覆盖的平缓的 斜坡 bank 意为“河岸,堤岸” ,指河流两旁高出水面的地方 coast 意为“海岸,海岸线” ,是地理名词,指海洋和陆地的分界线,有清晰的边 界概念,不能指河岸或湖岸 shore 意为“岸,滨” ,含义较广,可指围绕海洋,河流及湖泊旁边的陆地,含有 与水相对的意味。 My hometown is on the bank of the Yellow River.我的家乡在黄河沿岸。 lie on the beach 躺在沙滩上 coast cities 沿海城市 coast line 海岸线 make for the seashore 靠岸 vt. (bore, borne/ born) endure (sth); tolerate; stand 忍受,忍耐; take (responsibility, etc)on oneself; shoulder 负担,承担; support sb/ sth; sustain 承受,支承; show(sth); carry visibly; display 带有,怀有;写(或刻,印)有 give birth to 结(果实) ,生孩子; bear hardships 忍受困苦 bear doing/ can‘t bear to do 忍受做某事/难以忍受… bear the cost/ responsibility 承担费用/责任 bear the weight 支撑重量 bear a baby 怀着孩子 bear fruit 结果 bear scars/ signature/ date 有伤疤(签名) (日期) bear/ keep sth. in mind 牢记 bear in mind that 牢记

beach 词组 辨析



be born in be born for business be born into a poor family be born of Jewish parents be born with musical talent a born cook beat n.

出生于 生来做生意的 出生贫寒 犹太出生 天生有音乐天赋 天生的厨师




stroke (e.g. on a drum) or regular sequence of strokes; sound of this (音乐的)拍子;节拍 vt. defeat sb; win against sb 打;打败 vi. (of the heart) expand and contract rhythmical (心脏等的)跳动 beat sb. black and blue 打得某人浑身青紫 the city beat 城市节拍 the beat of the drum 击鼓声 beat down (太阳等)强烈地照射下来;打倒,平息 beat win beat 是“击败,打败”之意,指在战斗,竞赛等方面彻底战胜对方。做此解时, 它是及物动词,宾语一般是人,对手和军队等。 win 是“赢得,获胜”之意,指在战斗,竞赛等方面打败对方后取得胜利。它可做 及物动词也可做不及物动词, 宾语是比赛, 战役, 胜利等。 如果是 win sb. over, 意思是“把…争取过来” 。 win a war 赢得战争 win the victory 赢得胜利 beat the opponent 击败对手 beat their team 击败他们队 beat hit strike beat 指“连续不停地打击” 。它可指太阳,风,雨的“射,吹,打” ,心和脉搏的“跳 动; hit 指重重地打击,侧重“打中” 。它还可表示“撞击” ,及“达到(某水平) ”等; strike 用途最广。钟打点,只能用 strike。它还常用于比喻意义,如“给…以深刻 印象” “灾难袭击” “突然想到”等。 The rain was beating against the window. 雨拍打着窗。 His head hit against the wall. 他的头撞到了墙。 The number once hit 8 million. 数字一度曾达 8 百万。 Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁 It struck me that… 我突然想到 When evening came, we were struck by a snowstorm. 夜晚降临的时候,我们遭遇了暴风雨。 The beauty of the lake struck everybody present. 湖的美丽打动了在场的每一位。

because conj. for the reason that 因为 词组 because of 由于,因为 辨析 because since as for because “因为” ,一般放在主句后,表示直接的原因和理由。 since “既然” ,是一种“附带原因” ,表示事物关系上的自然结果,往往放在句首, 相当于 now that。

as“由于” ,比上两个更弱,多用在日常谈话中。 for“因为” ,表示的是附加的理由,推断的理由,只能放在主句后。 The oil must be out, for the light went out. 油一定没了,因为灯灭了。 bed 词组 n. thing to rest or sleep on 床 go to bed lie in bed make the bed(s) put/ see sb. to bed take to one‘s bed

上床睡觉 躺在床上 铺床 安顿(打发)…睡觉 生病卧床

before 结构


prep./ adv./ conj. earlier than (sb/sth) 在…之前,从前 It won‘t/wasn‘t be long before… 不久…就 It will be/was long before… 很久…才 It will be two months before I graduate. 过两个月我就毕业了。 It was long before he realized what had happened. 过了好一会,他才弄明白发生了什么。 before long long before before long “不久以后” ,是一个副词词组。 long before “很久以前” ,既是副词词组,又是连词词组。 I hope to see you before long. 希望不久之后能见到你。 He said he had seen a tiger long before. 他说他很久以前见过老虎。 I heard about him long before I saw him. 我在没见他之前,就听说过他了。 v. ask for (money, food, clothes, etc) as a gift or as charity; make a living in this way 乞求,恳求 beg sb. to do sth. 乞求某人做某事 beg your pardon. 能重复一遍吗? beg for help 恳求帮助 beggar n. 乞丐 v. start 开始 begin with to begin with at the beginning of from beginning to end beginning n. 开始,开端

beg 词组

展开 begin 词组

由…开始 首先,第一 起初,在开始的时候 从头至尾


behave v. act or conduct oneself in the specified way 词组 behave badly behave oneself behave well be on one‘s good behavior 展开 behavior n. 行为

举止,表现 举止,表现很差 举止,表现乖巧 表现好 循规蹈矩

behind 词组

prep./ adv. in or to a position at the back of (sb/sth) 在…后面;在后,向后 behind the time 落后 fall/ lag behind 落在后面 leave behind 留下,挪下,忘了带 stay behind 留下(不跟着去,不走) n. living creature 人,生物 human being come into being bring sth. into being for the time being

being 词组

人类 出现,形成 使出现,使存在 暂时地

believe 词组 辨析


v. feel sure of the truth of (sth) 相信,认为 believe in 信仰,信任 believe it or not 信不信由你 believe believe in believe 做“相信”解,指相信某人的话,或相信某事是真的。后面接名词或从句, 也可接不定式或形容词作为宾补结构。 believe in “信赖,信任” ,指信任某人的品质,或信仰某种主义,真理,宗教等, 后面只能接名词或代词。 belief n. 相信,信念,信仰 believable adj. 可以相信的 n. profit; gain; 益处,好处;救济金 vt. do good to sb/ sth 有益于 be beneficial to for the benefit/ sake of be of benefit to benefit from I traveled for the benefit of my health. This company benefited from her ingenuity.= Her ingenuity benefited this company. beneficial adj. 有益的,有利的

benefit 词组

对…有益 为了…的好处 对…有好处 从…受益 我为了使身体健康而旅行。 公司受益于她的独到之处。


besides adv./ prep. in addition to (sb/ sth ) 而且,此外(还) ;除…之外(还) 辨析 besides except except for except that besides 指“除…之外(还) ” except 指“除…之外” ,用来表示同类人或物之间的关系,指从总体中排除一部分 except for 指“非同类事物的辨析” except that“除了”加句子 Your composition is quite good except for some spelling mistakes. 你的作文写得很好,就是有些拼写错误。 I know nothing about him except that he is an American. 除了他是美国人外, 我对他一无所知。


best 词组

adj. /adv. of the most excellent, desirable, suitable, etc kind 最好的;最好地 try one‘s best= do one‘s best 尽力,努力 at best 充其量,至多 at one‘s best 处于颠峰, (最好的)状态 have/ get the best of 赢得;在…中取胜 make the best of (遇到不幸或失败时)尽力而为 to the best of one‘s knowledge/ belief/ ability 就某人所知(所信,能力所及) adj./ adv. a more excellent, desirable kind 更好的;更好地 had better do sth. 最好,应该… change for the better 好转,向好的方向的发展

better 词组

beyond adv. at or to a distance 在更远处 prep. at or to a more distant point than (sth) (指空间)在…的那一边;远于 later than ( a specified time) (指时间)迟于; not within the range of (sth), surpassing (指范围)超出 词组 beyond compare 无与伦比 beyond one‘s power 力所不及 beyond praise 夸不胜夸 beyond the visiting hours 过了探望时间 go beyond the mountains 到山的那边去 bind 词组 v. tie or fasten, e.g. with rope v. (bound, bound) 捆,包扎,粘和,约束 bind up a wound / one‘s hair 包扎伤口,束头发 bind one‘s arms 捆住手臂 I am bound by my promise. 我受到诺言的约束。 n. emergence of young from the mother‘s body 出生 give birth to 生(孩子) ;产生 birth rate 出生率 n. small piece or amount (of sth) 一点 a bit not a bit not a little bit by bit wait a bit

birth 词组

bit 词组

一点儿 一点也不 非常 逐渐地 等一会儿

bitter 词组


adj. having a sharp taste like aspirin or unsweetened coffee; not sweet 痛苦的,苦涩的 bitter experiences 痛苦的经历 bitter fighting 苦战 bitter tears 辛酸的眼泪 cry bitterly 痛哭 bitterly adv. 难以忍受地,引起悲伤地

black 词组

adj. of the very darkest colour black and blue black and white black coffee black Monday black-hearted black lead black letter black mark

黑的 青肿的 白纸黑字 清咖啡 黑色星期一 黑心的 笔铅 黑体字 污点

blame 词组


vt. consider or say that sb is responsible for sth done (badly or wrongly) or not done 责怪 blame sb. for sth. 责怪某人某事 blame sth. on sb. 把某事归咎到某人身上 be to blame for 对某事应负责任 He was to blame for the accident. So he was blamed for it. 他应该为次事故受责. 因此他受到了责备


Unit Four
blank n. empty space in a document, etc for writing answers, a signature, etc 空白(处) , 空格 adj. without writing or printing 空白的, without expression, understanding or interest; empty 茫然的 fill in the blank 填空 look blank 脸上毫无表情 a blank check 一张空白支票 My memory is blank. 记忆空白 adj. unable to see 失明的 vt. make (sb) temporarily or permanently blind 使失明 be blind in the right eye 右眼瞎了 blind oneself 把自己弄瞎了 turn a blind eye to 视而不见 turn a deaf ear to 充耳不闻 blindness n. 失明 n. group of buildings bounded by streets on four sides 街区;一排房屋,大楼; large solid piece of wood, stone, metal, etc with flat surface 大块(木料,冰等) ; thing that makes movement or progress difficult or impossible; obstruction 障碍物; vt. make movement or flow difficult or impossible on or in sth; obstruct sth 阻塞,堵塞;阻碍,妨碍 a block of ice/ stone 冰块,石块 a stumbling stock 绊脚石 an office block 办公大楼 block the progress of study 阻碍学习进步 walk three blocks 走三个街区 block off 封锁,封闭 block up 堵塞,挡住 n./ vi. produce flowers 花,开花 pass out of bloom come into bloom in full bloom


例句 blind 词组

展开 block


bloom 词组

过了花期 盛开(花) 盛开(花)



(blew, blown) v. (of the wind or a current of air ) be moving 吹, 吹动; (of an instrument, etc) sound in this way 吹响, 吹奏; break (sth) with explosives (使) 爆炸; send out (a current of air, etc) from the mouth 吹气,充气、 n. sudden shock 一击,打击 blow a horn 吹号角 blow bubbles 吹泡泡

blow up come to blows blue 词组

爆炸;冲气,给打气;大怒 开始互殴

adj. blue color 兰色的 ;feeling sad or depressed 沮丧的; n. 兰色 look blue 面带忧郁 a blue movie/ film 色情电影 pale blue 淡兰色 n. long thin flat piece of cut wood used for building walls, floors, boats, etc 板,木板; 船舷; group of people controlling a company or some other organization; committee; council 董事会 v. get on or into ( a ship, a train, an aircraft, a bus etc)(上船,车,飞机等) a notice board 布告牌 on board 在船上 boarding school 寄宿学校 talk( about one‘s own achievements, abilities, etc) with too much pride and satisfaction 自吹自擂,吹嘘 boast of/ about = brag about 自夸,夸耀 boast brag boast 夸口,吹嘘(意味较 brag 弱) brag 是“大言不惭地自夸” ,带有使人讨厌的含义 vi./vt./n vi./vt. (of a liquid ) bubble up and change to vapour by being heated 煮, 煮沸; 沸腾 boiling water 沸水 boiled water 开水(指烧过的水) boil over 沸溢;激动,发怒 n. number of printed or written sheets of paper bound together in a cover 书;本子 vt. reserve( a place, accommodation, etc) ; buy ( a ticket, etc) in advance 预定(票,座位,房间等) booking office 售票处 book in 为…预定;为…办理登记手续 vt. make (sb) feel tired and uninterested by being dull or tedious 令人厌烦 be bored with = 对…厌倦了 be tired of =. be fed up with boring adj. 令人厌烦的,乏味的,无聊的 receive or obtain (sth) temporarily (from sb/ sth) with the promise or intention of returning it 借 borrow lend



boast 词组 辨析

boil 词组



bore 词组

展开 borrow 辨析


borrow 意为“借入,借进” ,用于借钱借物等。不接双宾语。 用做:borrow sth. from sb. lend 意为“借, ”表示把某物借给他人。它可接双宾语,也可与介词 to 连用 用做:lend sb. sth = lend sth to sb. 这两个词都为瞬间动词,不可与表示一段时间的状语连用。 bother vt. cause trouble or annoyance to sb 打扰,麻烦;使不安,使紧张 vi. 尽力,烦心;担心,烦恼 n. trouble; inconvenience 烦恼,焦急;令人烦恼的人(或事物) I‘m sorry to have bothered you. 抱歉打扰你了。 He has no time to bother with trifles. 他没时间为小事操心。 She never bothered about clothes. 穿衣上她从不费心。 We found the address without any bother. 我们不费劲就找到了这一地址。 His lazy son is really a bother to him. 他那个懒儿子真令他伤脑筋。


bottom n. lowest part or point of sth 底部 词组 at the bottom of from the bottom of one‘s heart from top to bottom stand on one‘s bottom bottoms up! brain 词组

在…底部 衷心地 彻头彻尾 自立 干杯!

n. organ of the body that controls thought, memory and feeling, consisting of a mass of soft grey matter inside the head 脑; (复数)智力 have a clever brain 头脑好使 beat one‘s brains 绞尽脑汁 coin one‘s brains 动脑筋挣钱 brain trust 智囊团 vt. (of a whole object )separate into two or more parts as a result of force or strain 打破;使破裂;损坏 vi. 破裂 n. a rest during the working day or at school 休息时间,暂停 break the egg 打鸡蛋 break the law 触犯法律 break the record 打破记录 break our journey 终止旅行 break away from 挣脱,逃离;与(团体,组织,某种思想 等)脱离,摆脱 break down (因机械,电力等故障)失灵; (计划, 谈判等)失败; (健康,精神)垮掉 break in 闯入;插嘴(in 为副词) break into 强行闯入,破门而入;突然开(大笑,唱 歌,欢呼等)




break off break out break through break up breath 词组 n. single act of taking air into the lungs catch one‘s breath= hold one‘s breath out of breath take one‘s breath away breathe v. 呼吸 adj. lasting only a short time a brief introduction in brief briefly adv. 简单地

停止(中断) (讲话) ;使突然结束;中断 (解除) (关系,约定等) 突然发生, 爆发 (无被动, 为不及物词组) 突破,有重要创建;冲破, (强行)穿过 打碎,拆散;分成部分;使终止(结束) 呼吸 屏息 喘不过气来 使惊羡不已

展开 brief 词组 展开 bright 词组

简短的,短暂的 简要的介绍 简言之,简单地说

adj. giving out or reflecting much light; shining 明亮的;clever; intelligent 聪明的 bright future 前途光明 bright sunshine 灿烂的阳光 a bright boy 聪明的男孩 vt. come carrying sth or accompanied by sb. 带来 bring about =result in =give rise to 导致,引起 =lead to = cause bring down 打倒,使倒下;使降低 bring forward 提出,提议;提前 bring out 推出(新产品等) ;出版;使显出,使明显 bring through 使脱离险境,使渡过难关 bright up 抚养;教育,培养 bring carry take fetch bring 表示, “拿来,带来” ,指从别处把某人某物带来。它表示单程,与 take 方向 相反。 carry 表示“携带,搬运” ,有负担的含义,它指从一地到另一地的运动,但不说明 动作的方向 take 表示 “拿走, 带走” , 指把某物从本处拿走, 或把某人带走。 它指单程, 与 bring 方向相反 fetch 表示“去取来,带走” ,指到别处去把某物取来,或把某人接来。它表示往返, 指双程,相当于 go and bring Don‘t forget to bring your homework with you tomorrow. Why do you carry an umbrella on such a fine day? He rushed home to fetch his laptop. I don‘t know what I should take to the sea when I leave.

bring 词组


broad 词组

adj. large in size from one side to the other; wide 宽的;广泛的 a broad-minded man 心胸宽广的人 as broad as it is long 横竖都一样(表两者无分别) vi. knock or strike sth with a dull-sounding blow; collide with sth bump against / into 碰撞 bump into 偶然遇见,碰见 碰,撞

bump 词组

bunch 词组

n. number of things (usu of the same kind) growing, fastened or grouped together 束,簇 a bunch of flowers 一束花 a bunch of keys 一串钥匙 a bunch of grapes 一串葡萄

burden n. thing or person that is carried; heavy load 重负 v. put a burden on sb/ oneself; load sb/ oneself 是负重 词组 be burdened with worries 忧心忡忡 be burdened with 肩负… burn 词组 vi./vt destroy, damage, injure or mark (sb/sth) by fire, heat or acid 燃烧,发热燃烧 burn down 烧毁;火势渐弱 burn out (指火)因燃料用尽而熄灭;烧光,烧毁 (常用于被动态) burn up 烧光,烧毁;烧起来,旺起来;使发怒 be burnt to ashes 烧为灰烬 vt./vi. break violently open or apart 使爆裂;explode 爆炸,爆裂;挤满,充满; 突然打开;突然发生,突然发作 n. sudden outbreak of sth 爆炸,爆裂;爆发,突发 burst into 闯入,冲进 burst into tears 哭了起来 burst into laughter 大笑起来 burst into flames 烧了起来 burst out crying 大哭起来 burst out laughing 突然大笑 burst open 突然打开 a burst of gunfire 一阵枪声 If you fill too many in your bag, it will burst.如果你塞太多东西,书包会破的。 n. low thickly-growing plant with several woody stems coming up from the root 灌木,灌木丛 beat about the bush 转弯抹角,旁敲侧击 A bird in hand is worth two in the bush. 一鸟在手,胜于二鸟在林。



例句 bush 结构


business n. buying and selling(esp. as a profession); commerce; trade 商业,生意 词组 business hours 营业时间 get down to business 认真着手办事 mind your own business 管好你自己的事,少管闲事 on business 因公,公事 It‘s none of your business. 不管你的事,少管闲事 mean business 是认真的 have no business 无权,没有理由 go out of business 歇业 Everybody‘s business is nobody‘s business. 三个和尚没水喝。 Business is business. 公事公办 busy 词组 adj. having much to do; occupied be busy with sth. be busy doing sth. prep. through the means of 用,通过 by and by by and large by the way 忙的,繁忙的 忙于 忙于做某事

by 词组

不久,不一会儿 总的来说,一般来说 顺便提一句



vt. shout, cry 大声说出;喊,叫;order or ask sb to come by telephoning 打电话给; 把…叫做; make a short visit 拜访 n. (一次)电话 call at 拜访某地 call for 要求;把…召来;需要,要求 call in 收回,回收;请来(某人) call off 取消 call on 拜访某人;号召,要求;恳请(某人)做 某事) call out 大声地说 call up 打电话;召集,征召(入役) ;使人想起 adj. (of the sea) without large waves; still(指海洋)无浪的,平静的; not excited, nervous or agitated; quiet 镇静的 calm quiet silent still calm 表示“平静的,镇定的” ,可以表示人内心的平静状态也可指外界的平静状态 He remained calm in face of danger. After the storm, the sea was rather calm. quiet 表示“安静的,宁静的” 。用于人时,表示性格温和;用于物时,表示相对地 没有嘈声及骚动的安静状态,即使有声音,声音也很低。 He was a quiet man who didn‘t let small things upset himself. She enjoys a quiet life in the small village. silent 表示“安静的,无声的,沉默的” ,主要用于人,表示不说话或很少说话,尤

calm 辨析

指沉默寡言。它强调没有声音,不指任何动作。 He promised to keep silent on the matter. All was silent again after the accident. still 表示“寂静的,静止的,不动的” ,强调人,事物或环境绝对静止。没有动作 与声音。它不能用来指人的心理状态。 Please stand still while I take your photo. campus n. grounds and buildings of a university or college (大学的)校园,学校校园 词组 campus life 大学生活 live on campus 住在校内 candidate n. person who applies for a job is nominated for election 候选人;求职者 词组 candidate for president 总统候选人 candidate for manager 经理应聘者 capture vt. take (sb/sth) as a prisoner 俘虏,捕获;take or win (sth) by force or skill 夺得,占领 n. 虏获,捕获 辨析 arrest capture catch seize arrest 逮捕,拘留 The police arrested the thief. capture 捕获,虏获 We captured him alive. catch 捉,抓住 The boy caught a bird. seize(突然地)抓住 They seized him by he collar. care vi. be worried; concerned 关心;considering how much 介意; look after sb 照顾,护理 n. 照管;关心;关怀;小心 care about 关心; (因关心)而担忧;介意,在乎 care for 照顾,照料; (常用于否定句和疑问句) 喜欢 take care 当心,注意 take care of 照料,照顾;处理 vt. support the weight of (sb/sth) and take (him/it) from place to place 运载;传送;携带;担负 carry away 使失去自制力,使着迷,使忘情 carry on (it) 继续,坚持;从事,经营 carry ( it )out 执行,贯彻;实现 carry through (不顾困难等) 完成; 使度过困难 (危险) (newspaper) carry news (报刊)刊登新闻


carry 词组


case 词组


n. instance or example of the occurrence of sth 事例;案例;情况 in any case 无论如何,不管怎样 in case 假使,以防万一 in case of 假如,如果发生 in no case 无论如何也不,决不 in most cases 在大多数情况下 civil case 民事案件 a case in point 恰当的例子 Take the umbrella, just in case. 带上伞,以防下雨。 Put down my address in case you forget. 写下我的地址万一你忘记。 In case of fire, ring the alarm bell. 如遇火警,请按警铃。 In no case will I go with you. 我决不会跟你走。 He may be late, in which case we‘d better wait. 他或许迟到了,如果这样的话,我们最好等等。 v. throw (sth) esp. deliberately or with force 扔;投;抛 cast away 丢掉 cast sb. into prison(=throw…into prison) 把…投进监狱 cast a shadow on 投下阴影 vt. capture sb/sth after a chase 赶上;抓住; understand 理解;感染; (cause sth to) become fixed, stuck (使)钩住 catch a bus/ train 赶上车 catch sb. smoking/ cheating 无意中抓住某人吸烟(作弊) catch the last word 理解最后一句 catch a cold 感冒 be caught in the rain 被雨淋 be caught on a stone 被石头绊住 catch fire 着火 catch sb. by the arm 抓住某人的胳膊 catch up with 赶上 be caught in the door 被门夹住 n. that which produces an effect; thing, event, person, etc that makes sth happen 原因,起因; vt. aim, principle or movement that is strongly defended or supported n. 事业 使产生,引起 revolutionary cause 革命事业 the cause of the fire 火灾的起因 cause trouble 引起麻烦 cause and effect 因果关系 cause reason cause 指造成一种事实或现象的“原因” ,尤指自然原因或客观原因。 reason 指说明一种看法或行为的“理由” ,它往往是通过逻辑推理而得出的。

cast 词组

catch 词组




Give me your reasons for refusing to go there.告诉你拒绝去的理由。 Heat is the cause of the expansion of matter. 热是物体膨胀的原因。 cease 辨析 v. / n. stop 停止 pause cease stop pause 指行进间的暂停,间歇。 cease 正式用语,指某种状态逐渐或突然终止,含不复存在之意。其后可接 to do 与 doing 形式,但其意义相同。 stop 普通用语,指突然停止或使不动,接不定式表示停下来去做某事,接动名词表 示停止正在做的事。 The old man paused to look around himself.老人停下来环顾了一下四周。 He ceased breathing.. 他停止了呼吸。 He stopped to see the traffic light. 他停下来看看红绿灯。 formal act or series of formal acts performed on a religious or public occasion 典礼;礼节,礼仪 the opening ceremony 开幕式 the graduation ceremony 毕业典礼 Don‘t stand on ceremony. 不必拘礼 n.

ceremony 结构

certain adj. specific but not named or stated 某;sure beyond doubt 确实的,肯定的 词组 be certain to do sth. = be sure to do sth. 肯定… be certain of = be sure of/ about 对…确信,有把握 a certain = some 某个(后接单数名词) It‘s certain that … 肯定会… for certain = for sure 确信地,确定地 with certainty 确信地 展开 certainly adv. 当然 certainty n. 当然 certificate 辨析 n. official written or printed statement that may be used as proof or evidence of certain facts 证书;执照 certificate diploma license diploma 常指经过一段时间的学习和培训而得到的官方学历证明,表示“文凭,毕 业证书” certificate 指证明某人某种事实的证件,证书。 license 指执照,许可证。 a birth certificate 出生证 a marriage certificate 结婚证 a health certificate 健康证 a college diploma 大学文凭 a high school diploma 中学文凭 a diploma in computer 电脑文凭 a driving license 驾驶执照



n. (length of) connected metal links or rings, used for hauling or supporting weights or for fastening or restraining things 链条 series of connected things 一连串,一系列; group of shops or hotels owned by the same company 联号,连锁店 a chain of happenings 一连串事件 a fast-food chain 快餐连锁店 invitation or call( to sb) to take part in a game, contest, fight etc to prove who is better, stronger, more able, etc )挑战,艰巨的任务 vt. invite sb. To do sth. ; question the truth; 向……挑战;对…质疑 vi. 提出挑战 meet the challenge 迎接挑战 challenge the justice 质疑公正性 n. way in which things happen without any cause that can be seen or understood; luck; fortune 机会;可能性 by chance 偶然,碰巧 by any chance 万一,也许 take a chance 冒险,投机 Chances are that… 很有可能… one has a chance or opportunity to do sth. / of doing sth 某人有机会(有可能)做某事 There is a chance/ some possibility that… 很有可能… chance possibility chance 指偶然的,意料之外的机会,侧重无法推测的因素。它的后面可接不定式, 介词短语及从句。 opportunity 指符合人们希望和愿望的机会,含有利于实现抱负的意思。它的后面可 接不定式与介词短语,但不能接从句。 chance 也可做“可能性”解,而 opportunity 不可。 I never miss a chance of playing basketball. I had several opportunities to go abroad; but I gave up all. There is a chance that the sick child will get recovered. n.



chance 词组


character n. mental or moral qualities that make a person, group, nation, etc different from others 品格;性格;person in a novel, play 角色 辨析 character characteristic nature personality feature character 表示“性格,品质” ,指人格,品质,操守等,指道德方面的品质,如坚 强,软弱等。它是不可数名词。 characteristic 表示“特色,特征” ,指区别其他人或事物的独特的特征,可用于人, 也可指物及抽象东西。它是可数名词。 nature 表示“本性,天性” ,强调人或物的本质,有不可改变之意。它可做可数或 不可数名词。 personality 表示“个性,为人” ,是指某个特定人物的特性,侧重指社交方面及人 与人的关系。它既是可数又是不可数名词。 feature 表示“相貌,特征” ,还可做动词用, “为…之特色” 。 He is a man of strong character. 性格坚强的人

展开 charge

character training 性格培养 Windy days are characteristic of March. 多风天气是三月的特点。 Cheerfulness is one of his characteristics. 快活是他的特性之一。 What they had done revealed their real nature. 他们做的揭示他们的真实本性。 The decoration of a room reflects the owner‘s personality. 房间的装饰能反映主人的个性。 a man with handsome features 一个相貌英俊的人 a film that features a new French actress. 一部以一位法国新人女演员为特色的电影 characteristic n. 特色,特征; adj. 特有的 n. price asked for goods or service 费用;act of putting amount of electricity put into a battery 充电;claim that a person has done wrong, esp. a formal claim that he has committed a crime 控告 vt. as an amount as a price 索价;put a charge into sth.充电;accuse sb. of sth.控告 in charge of 负责,主管 in / under sb.‘s charge = in /under the charge of sb.处于(某人)的管理(照看)之下 take charge of 开始管理,接管 free of charge 免费 charge sb. some money for sth. 向某人为某事收费多少 charge sb. with = accuse sb. of 指控某人犯有(…的罪行或过失)


Unit Five


cheat 词组

vt. /n. act dishonestly or unfairly in order to win an advantage or profit 欺骗,作弊;骗子 cheat sb. out of money 骗某人的钱 cheat in the exam 考试作弊 a complete cheat 一个十足的骗子 v./n. make sure of sth by examining or investigating it 检查,核对 check in (在旅馆,机场等)登记,报到 check out 结帐离去,办妥手续离去 check up (on) 检查,核实 in check 受抑制的,受控制的 v. pick out or select (sb/sth that one prefers on considers the best, most suitable, etc) from a number of alternatives 选择 take your choice 随你选 choose to do 愿意做某事,选择做某事 cannot choose but do 除了…别无选择 choose select choose 表示“挑选,选择,选举” ,使用范围最广,指从众多的对象中挑选,这种 挑选常取决于个人的意志与判断, 不强调客观标准。 它所选择的对象可以 是不同种类的,可以是有形的或无形的。它带有最终选定的含义,即表示 选定后不再变化。 select 表示“挑选,精选” ,语气比 choose 重,多用于正式场合。它指仔细地,审 慎地精选,强调客观性,而不是主观性。它所挑选的对象可以是有形的或是 无形的,但一定是同一种类的。 In the new store, there are several models to choose from. He chose Mary for his wife. You have to choose between life and death. The best machines were selected and sent to the exhibition. He selected a birthday present for his wife. selections of works (选集) choice n. 选择,挑选 vt. vi. n. move in a circle, esp. in the air 环绕;圈出 move in a circle 盘旋 curved line every point on which is the same distance from the centre 圆; 环状物; group of people who are connected by having the same interests, profession,etc. 圈子,阶层 circle the answer 圈出答案 circle the earth 绕着地球转 circle over the landing-field 在降落场上空盘旋 sit in a circle 围者圈子坐 a large circle of friends 一大群朋友

check 词组

choose 词组






circumstance n. condition of fact connected with an event or action 情况,情形;环境 词组 under the circumstances 在这种情况下, (情况)既然如此 under no circumstances 无论如何不,决不 civil 词组 adj. of or relating to the citizens of a country civil rights civil war civil society civil aviation civil life civil domestic native civil 见上 domestic 指“家务的;国产的,本国的” native 指“出生地,本性的,本土的” domestic appliances GDP = Gross Domestic Products domestic news native ability native speakers 公民的,国内的,文明的 公民权利 内战 公众社会 民航 平民生活


家用器具 国民生产总值 国内新闻 天生的能力 说本族语的人



vt. demand or request (sth) because it is or one believes it is one‘s right or one‘s property (根据权利)要求;认领; vi. state or declare (sth) as a fact (without being able to prove it) 声称, 提出要求; 主张 n. statement of sth as a fact 要求;认领 demand for a sum of money 索赔,声称,断言 Don‘t claim to know what you don‘t know. 不要不懂装懂。 A Canadian doctor claimed to have found a cure for SARS. 一个加拿大医生声称已经找到非典的治愈办法。 Has anyone claimed this watch? 有人认领这块手表吗? a claim for damage 损坏索赔 adj. easy to see through; free from obstruction 清楚的,清晰的;畅通无阻的 vt. remove sth. from 清扫,清除 clear away 把…清除掉,收拾 clear off 离开,溜掉 clear out 清除,把…腾空;走开,赶出 clear up 澄清,解决; (天)放晴;清理 clear clean 做形容词时, clean 指不含污物的 (反: dirty 肮脏的) ; clear 指干净透明的 (反: muddy 浑浊的) 。clean water 干净的水,clear water 清澈的水。 做动词时,clean 指除去尘埃或脏物;clear 指收拾不要的东西。 clean the room 打扫房间 clear the table (饭后)收拾餐桌 regular pattern of weather conditions (temperature, rainfall, winds, etc) of a

clear 词组


climate n.


particular region 气候 climate weather weather 指特定某日,某一地方的天气变化,为不可数名词。 climate 指一个地区长期的天气状况,气候,为可数名词。 We had fine weather that day. 那天天气很好。 The island has a warm climate 那个岛上气候温暖。 v. (cause sth to) move so as to cover an opening; shut 关,闭 near in space and time adj. 接近的 close to 在…的近旁;接近于 a close game 势均力敌的比赛 close friend 亲密朋友 close down 关闭,歇业 come close to sth./ doing 接近结束 (cause things to )join or mix together to form a whole 结合,联合;使结合, 使联合 combine connect join link combine“结合” ,多用于抽象或无形的东西。 connect 指紧密地“联系” ,所联系的东西仍保持自己的特性。 join 最普通用语 link 除与 connect, join 含有相同的意思,表示“连接”外,还指用环状物等连接, 也可用于比喻意义。 Combine enthusiasm with perseverance, and we will succeed. 有了热情, 再加上努力, 我们就会成功。 The two towns are connected by a railway. 这两个镇有铁路连接。 Join an island to the mainland with a bridge. 用桥梁将岛和大陆连接。 Many people link the number 13 with bad luck.许多人把 13 与不幸联系起来。 combined adj. 结合的 combination n. 组合,结合 vi. move to, towards 来 come about come across=bump into=knock into= meet with=run into=come upon come along come down with come into being/existence come into effect/force come into use come into service come on

close 词组

combine vi. /vt. 辨析


come 词组

(尤指看似不可控制的事)发生 偶然发现(某物) ;偶然遇到(某人) 碰见(困难等) 进展,进行;到来,出现;跟(某人)一 起去,一起来 患…病 开始存在,产生,形成 (法律,规章等)开始生效 开始投入使用 开始运营 (表示催促, 鼓励, 挑战, 恳求等) 来吧, 快点,开始;来临;袭来; (剧,电影等)


come out

come to come up come up with command

上演; (消息,真实情况,秘密等)被揭露,传 出; (结果等)被宣布;出版,发表; (其 后通常接 as 引导的短语或从句) 结果是; (品质等)显现,表露 总数为,合计达;想出,想到,苏醒;达 到(某种状态,情况) 出现,发生;走上前来,走近;发芽 提出;提供(主意,建议,答案等)



vt. (of sb in authority) tell (sb) that he must do sth; order 命令; be in control of 指挥;掌握;deserve and get (sth) 博得 n. control; authority 指挥,掌握 have a good command of 精通,掌握 command one‘s respect 博得尊敬 take command of 指挥,掌握 commander n. 司令员,指挥官

commit vt. do (sth illegal, wrong or foolish ) 犯(错误,罪行) ,干(坏事) ; give or transfer sb/sth to (a state or place) for safe keeping, treatment etc.委托;提交 词组 commit…to 把…托付给,把…置于 commit oneself 使承担义务,使承诺 commit suicide 自杀 commit crime 犯罪 commit mistakes 犯错误 commit murder 谋杀 commit offence 冒犯,得罪 common adj. 词组 usual or familiar happening or found often and in many places 一般的,普通的;共同的,常见的;通常的 common people=ordinary people 普通人 common knowledge=common sense 常识 common disease 常见病 common interest 共同的兴趣 seek the common ground 求同 common language 共同的语言 have sth. in common 有共同之处 ordinary common general usual normal ordinary 指人或事物和普通的没有两样,因而显得平常,随处可见。 common 指许多事物或许多人都有的,平淡无奇。 general 指较少例外。比 common 更普及,大众化。 usual 指由于时间长而形成的,习惯的,通常的。 normal 强调“正常的” The mark shows that he is an ordinary student.成绩表明他是一个普通学生


Snow is common in North China. It‘s a matter of general interest. We‘ll meet at the usual time. ordinary-looking normal people normal temperature communicate 词组

雪在中国北方很常见。 这是一件普遍感兴趣的事情。 我们按老时间见面。 相貌普通的 正常人 体温正常

v. exchange information, news, ideas, etc.通讯,交流; pass on sth; transmit sth 传播 communicate with 与…交流 communicate one‘s idea/feeling/ 把观点/感情/知识/消息传达给某人 knowledge/news to sb. communication n. 传播;交流,交际 group of people united for business or commercial purposes 公司;商号; being together with another or others 陪伴 in sb.‘s company 和某人一道 keep sb. company 给某人做伴 for company 陪伴,做伴 I don‘t want to see a boy of mine in their company. He stayed at home to keep his wife company. As the journey was a long one, I took a friend with me for company. companion n. 伴侣,同伴


company n. 词组



compare vt. examine people or things to see how they are alike and how they are different 辨析,对照 词组 compare sb./sth. with 与…相比较 compare sb./ sth. to 把…比做;与…相比 compare with 可与…相比,可与…匹敌 compared with/ to =in comparison with 与…相比;和…比起来 be comparable to/with 可辨析的,比得上的 beyond compare 无与伦比 No one is comparable to her in beauty. She is pretty beyond compare. Books can be compared to friends. Compared with our small apartment, our uncle‘s house seemed like a palace. He can‘t compare with Shakespeare as a writer of tragedies. 展开 comparison n. 辨析 comparative adj. 相辨析而言的,相对的 comparable adj. 可辨析的,类似的;比得上的 compete v. try to win sth by defeating others who are trying to do the same 竞赛,竞争 词组 compete against 和…(竞)赛


compete for (和…)争夺,比赛…夺取 compete with 和…竞争,竞赛 competition n. 竞争,比赛 competitive adj. 竞争性的,比赛的;喜欢竞争的 competitor n. 参加竞赛者,竞争者 competent adj. 胜任,称职,有能力做某事 competency n. 胜任,能力 vi say that one is dissatisfied, unhappy, etc 抱怨;发牢骚 vt. 抱怨,诉说 complain to sb. of / about sth.= 向某人抱怨某事 make complaints to sb. of /about sth. complaint n. 抱怨

complain 词组 展开

complex adj. made up of( usu. several) closely connected parts 组合的,复杂的 辨析 complex 指“许多简单部分合成的” complicated 指“许多部分互相纠合,难懂,难解” complex sentence 复合句 complicated questions 复杂的问题 展开 complicated adj. 复杂的 compliment n. /v. expression of praise, admiration, approval, etc.赞美 词组 pay a compliment to sb. on sth. 赞美某人 compliment sb. on / for sth. 赞美某人某事 receive / gain /win compliment from sb. 赢得…的赞美 compose vt. (of parts or elements of sth) form ( a whole); constitute write (music, opera, etc) 创作(乐曲,诗歌等) vi. 创作,作曲 词组 be composed of = be made up of = consist of 由…组成 compose a poem 作诗 compose a novel 写小说 展开 composer n. 作曲家 composition n. 作文;乐曲 组成,构成;

conceal vt. keep sth/ sb from being seen or known about; hide sth/ sb 隐藏;隐瞒;掩盖(与 hide 同义,但 conceal 更正式,语气较强) 词组 conceal sth. from sb. 向某人隐藏某事 concentrate v. 词组 focus (one‘s attention, effort, etc) exclusively and intensely on sth, not thinking about other less important things 集中,专心 concentrate on=focus on = be absorbed in 全神贯注于 concentrate/focus one‘s attention /mind/ energy on 集中注意力/精力于 concentration camp 集中营



concentrate focus concentrate 其宾语可以是具体的东西或抽象的东西。 focus 指“光线集中到一个焦点上” ,其引申意义与 concentrate 大致相同,但一般不 同具体事物构成宾语。 concentration n. 专心;集中(注意力)

concern n. thing that is important or interesting to sb.有关的事;worry, anxiety 关心 vt. 1. be the business of (sb)与…有关; 2. worry or trouble (sb) 使关心;使担心 vi. 关心;担心;忧虑 词组 show concern for 对…表示关心 be concerned about/ for 担心的,烦恼的,忧虑的 as far as sth./ sb. be concerned 就…来说;就…而论 be concerned with 关于,与…有关 concern one‘s health 挂念某人的身体 展开 concerning prep. 关于 concerned adj. 担心的; 烦恼的 conclude v. 词组 展开 come or bring (sth) to an end 结束,终结; come to believe sth as a result of reasoning 推断 form/ draw/ come to/ arrive at/ reach a conclusion 得出结论 conclusion n. 结论

condition n. present state of thing 环境;状况;条件 词组 on condition that 如果 out of condition 健康不佳 under favorable conditions 在有利的形势下 living conditions 生活环境 working conditions 工作条件 weather conditions 天气状况 展开 conditions n. 环境,形势 conduct vt. control; manage 管理,处理;direct the performance of ( an orchestra, a choir, a piece of music ) 进行;指挥;(of a substance) allow (heat, electric current, etc) to pass along or through it 传导(热,电) n. person‘s behavior 举止,行为 词组 conduct oneself (行为)表现 conduct a meeting 主持会议 conduct a survey 进行研究,调查 conduct a class 管理一个班级 conduct heat 导热 conduct electricity 导电 the rules of conduct 行为准则 conduct an orchestra 指挥乐队


conductor n. 乐队指挥;售票员

confidence n. firm trust (in sb, in sb.‘s ability, or in what is said, reported, etc ) 信任,信心 词组 have confidence in 对…有信心 lack confidence 缺乏信心 be confident of = be sure of 自信的,有信心的,有把握的 展开 confident adj. 有信心的,自信的 conflict vi. struggle; serious disagreement; argument; controversy 争论;战斗;冲突 n. struggle, fight 冲突 词组 armed conflict 武装冲突 Our accounts conflict. 我们的报道不一致 confuse vt. make (sb) unable to think clearly; puzzle; bewilder 使混乱,使困惑 词组 confuse sth. with 混淆,弄乱 be a confusion of 是一片混乱的 in confusion 乱,处于混乱状态 展开 confusing adj. 令人困惑的,使人糊涂的 confusion n. 混乱,紊乱;无秩序 congratulate vt. tell sb that one is pleased about his good fortune or achievements 祝贺 词组 congratulate sb. on sth. 祝贺某人某事 Congratulations on your success! 祝贺你成功! 展开 congratulation n. 祝贺(经常用做复数) conscience n. person‘s awareness of right and wrong with regard to his own thoughts and actions 良心 词组 a clear conscience 无愧于心 in (all/ good) conscience 凭良心,公平地 congress n. formal meeting or series of meetings for discussion between representatives 代表大会;国会,议会 词组 the National People‘s Congress 全国人民代表大会 辨析 congress council assembly congress 常指正式的评议或立法机构。the United States Congress 美国国会 council 可以指有很多国家代表参加的国际会议。the UN Security Council 联合国安 理会;也可指国家或地区任命的顾问委员会或行政机构。the State Council (中国)国务院,the Council of Ministers 内阁。 assembly 专指多人的集会, 并多是指按照计划召开的会议。 the General Assembly 联 合国大会;在一些国家还专用于立法机关或代表委员会,French National Assembly 法国国民会议。 conquer vt. take possession of (sth) by force 征服,战胜 辨析 conquer defeat overcome

conquer 强调“攻克,战胜” ,常指用武力控制或打败另一方。 defeat 含义广泛,可以是任何意义上的战胜,打败对方,多指暂时性的。 overcome 多用于战胜抽象的事物,即用意志和精神改变现状或战胜对方。 conquer nature 战胜自然 The hard work conquered me. 这困难的工作难住了我。 Some countries may be defeated but never be conquered. 有些国家可能会被打败,但永远不会被征服。 Germany conquered France during World War II.二战期间德国占领了法国。 The visiting team defeated the host team. 客队击败了主队。 be overcome by fear. 被吓破胆 We were overcome with joy. 喜出望外 over obstacles 克服障碍 conscious adj. knowing what is going on around one because one is able to use bodily senses and mental powers 意识到的,神志清醒的 词组 be conscious of = be aware of 意识到的,知道的 展开 consciousness n. 意识 subconscious adj. 潜意识的 consequence n. thing that is a result of an effect of sth else 结果,后果;重要性 词组 in consequence 因此,结果 as/ in a consequence of 由于,因为…的缘故 展开 consequent adj. 作为结果(或后果)的,随之发生的 consequently adv. 所以,因此 consider vt. think about; regard as 考虑, 深思熟虑;认为 结构 1 consider + n./doing ; consider + wh例句 We considered his proposal carefully. 我们仔细考虑了他的提议。 Jason is considering studying abroad. 杰森在考虑出国留学。 We are considering how we should get him out of trouble. 我们正在考虑如何帮他脱离困境。 结构 2 consider + n. + (to be) n./adj. 认为, 将…视为; consider + that…考虑到, 顾及 例句 I consider Julie (to be) my best friend. 我把朱丽视作最好的朋友。 She considers it impolite to talk while eating. 她认为边吃饭边说话是不礼貌的。 He considered (that) his friend‘s words were false. 他认为朋友的话是错的。 结构 3 consider + n. 考虑; Considering + n./that… 考虑到 例句 Everybody should consider the feelings of others. 每个人都应该考虑别人的感受。 Considering that he is only fifteen, the pianist plays amazingly well. 尽管他才十五岁,这个钢琴手弹得非常好了。 辨析 considering 考虑到(尽管) considered 被认为


He is still very strong, considering his age. 考虑到他的年龄,他还是十分强壮的。 Considered (to be) a coward, he felt nothing but sad. 他被认为是个胆小鬼,感到非常伤心。 all things considered 全盘考虑之后, 综观一切 think of all possibilities All things considered, this plan will work perfectly. 全盘考虑之后,这个计划将非常有效。 considerable adj. (数量, 程度等)可观的, 相当的 great, much The expense on the exhibition is considerable. 展览会的费用很可观。 considerate adj. 体贴的 thoughtful of the needs of others consider + of/to/toward + n. He is considerate of/to/toward old people. 他对老年人很体贴。 It is considerate of sb. to do… It is considerate of him to send me the Christmas card. 他给我寄了圣诞卡,真是考虑很周到。 consideration n. [u] 考虑, 深思 thinking about After much consideration he decided to quit this job. 深思熟虑之后,他决定辞职。 be under consideration = being considered Don‘t worry. Your suggestion is under consideration. 不用担心,你的建议我们正在考虑。 show consideration for = care about 体谅, 顾虑 The old couple showed great consideration for their grandsons. 老年人对他们的孙子很关心。 take something into consideration = take something into account 考虑到…; 斟酌 We must take the weather into consideration first when going on a picnic. 去野餐之前我们必须先考虑天气。

consist vi. be made up of 由…组成, 构成 词组 consist of (= be made up of/be composed of) This set of books consists mainly of six illustrated comic series. 这套书主要由六本漫画系列组成。 辨析 consist, be made up of, be composed of 构成, 组成 include 包括, 包含, 指包含内容的一部分 contain 容纳, 含有, 指包含整个内容 辨析下面句子: Your duties will include putting the children to bed. 你的职责包括帮孩子们上床。 The singing group is composed of over 50 members. 这个合唱团由 50 个成员组成。 This hall will contain 2000 people. 这个大厅可以容纳两千人。


constant adj. unchanging 固定的, 不变的;going all the time 连续不断的, 持续的 例句 The weather has been constant this week. 本周天气一直很稳定。 I can‘t bear the constant noise of traffic. 我无法忍受持续的交通噪音。 展开 constantly adv. continuously, frequently 不断地, 反复地, 经常地 She is constantly changing her mind. 她经常改变主意。 construction n. [u] being built 建造, 建设;[c] building 建筑物 词组 be under construction 在建造中 例句 The bridge is under construction. 这座大桥正在建设中。 The construction of the new airport took 7 years. 新机场的建设花了七年。 The new gallery is an unusual construction. 新的美术馆建筑很不同寻常。 展开 destruction (反义词) making useless, breaking to pieces 破坏, 毁灭 construct v. build 建设, 建筑 constructive adj. helping, giving helpful suggestions 建设性的, 结构上的 Thank you for your constructive suggestion. 谢谢你建设性的建议。 destructive (反义词) 破坏性的 causing destruction constructively adv. 建设性地 consume vt. use up 消费…, 耗尽 辨析 consumer 指消费者, 与 producer 相对 customer 顾客, 指具体商店的主顾 展开 consumer n. 消费者 person who use goods contact n. touching or communication 接触, 交往, 联系 vt. communicate (用电话、传话等)联络, 与…接触 词组 be/get in contact with 与…联系 get in touch with keep in contact with 与…保持联系 keep in touch with contact lens 隐形眼镜 例句 I‘ve been trying to get in contact with you since yesterday. 从昨天开始我就试着和你联络了。 contain vt. capable of holding; keep feelings under control 包含, 能容纳; 抑制(感情等) 例句 This box is perfect to contain the child‘s toys. 这只盒子装孩子的玩具非常合适。 How much water does this bottle contain? 这只瓶子可以装多少水? He could hardly contain his anger/himself. 他几乎不能控制怒火/自己 辨析 contain 表示包含整个内容 include 表示包含其中一部分 辨析下列句子: The box contained a dictionary. 那盒子里装的是一本词典 The box included a dictionary. 那盒子里(也)包括了一本词典 展开 container n. 容器; 集装箱 content n. things contained in sth 含量, 容量; (常用复数) 内容; 目录; 容纳的东西 adj. satisfied; willing to do 满足的, 甘心的


The sugar content of juice is no less than normally considered. 果汁中的含糖量不少于一般人所认为的含量。 I couldn‘t understand the contents of his speech. 我无法理解他的讲话内容。 Are you content with your new secretary? 你对你的新秘书满意吗? He was content just to sit in front of the television all day. 他满足于整天坐在电视机前。

contest n. competition 比赛, 竞争 词组 a speech contest 演讲比赛 展开 归纳 –ant 为后缀的名词, 指人 applicant 申请者, 应征者 assistant 助手 participant 参加者, 参与者 contestant n. 角逐者, (比赛的)参加者 continue v. go on 继续, 持续 结构 continue + doing/to do 继续做… To be continued. 未完待续 辨析 continual 指中间有间断的, 反复的, 好象没有停止的意味 continuous 指中间没有间断, 但一段时间后会停止下来 辨析下列用法: continual rain 不停的雨 continual complaints 反复的抱怨 The plane is capable of two days‘ continuous flight. 这架飞机能持续飞行两天。 (这里不能用 continual, 因为飞行不能中断) 展开 continuous adj. 继续的, 连续的 going on without a break continual adj. 频繁的, 反复发生的 going on with short breaks contrary adj. opposite; unfavourable 相反的, 反对的 n. the opposite 相反, 反而 词组 be contrary to 正相反 Contrary to… 与…恰恰相反, 违反 on the contrary, … 相反地, 正相反; 反之(指与前文相反) 例句 My opinion is contrary to yours. 我的想法和你的相反。 Contrary to the doctor‘s advice, he kept smoking. 和医生的意见相反,他继续抽烟。 We thought the test would be difficult. On the contrary, it‘s so easy. 我们认为测试会很难。恰恰相反,测试很容易。 contrast n. comparison of differences 对比, 对照; 不同, 差异 词组 in contrast to 与…相对照 by contrast (with) 与…成对照 例句 In contrast to the city life, time seemed to pass slowly in the country. 和城市生活相对照,乡村里的时间似乎过得很慢。 By contrast with Maggie‘s marks, Tom‘s marks were excellent.

与麦琪比起来, 汤姆的成绩算是上乘的了。 Her gracious behavior was a great contrast to her sister‘s. 她和蔼的表现和她姐姐形成鲜明的对比。 contribute v. help by giving money, idea, suggestions, etc. 捐助,贡献 词组 contribute + n.+ to + n. 向…捐款/提供; contribute to + n. 对…有贡献, 有助于, 成为…的原因之一 例句 He contributed 5000 dollars to the hospital. 他捐了五千元钱给医院。 Max contributed a lot of good ideas to the discussion. 马科斯为讨论出了很多好点子。 A proper amount of exercise contributes to good health. 合理的运动量有助于健康。 展开 contribution n. [u] 捐助 act of contributing [c] 捐献的钱物 sth contributed give contribution to 捐献 I gave a ten-dollar contribution to the church every Sunday. 我每个周日捐给教堂十美元。 make contribution to 贡献 He has made great contributions to the city development. 他为城市发展做出了巨大的贡献。

Unit Six


control n. [u] power or authority to order 支配力, 管制, 控制 [c] (用复数) 控制器 vt. (controlled, controlled, controlling) have power over 支配, 控制, 克制, 抑制 词组 have control over 能够控制 have power over beyond control 无法控制 lose power lose control of 无法控制, 失去控制 lose power of out of control 不受控制 lose power under control 受控制 have power 例句 The teacher has no control over the student. 那位老师管不住学生。 The team is already beyond the captain‘s control. 那个队已经不受队长的控制了。 He lost control of his temper. 他发火了。 The fire got out of control. 火势超出了控制。 The fire was finally brought under control. 火势终于被控制住。 convenience n. [u] [c] 词组 freedom from difficulty or worry 方便, 适宜 useful or helpful appliance or arrangement 便利的事物 It is a convenience to live near the station. 住在车站附近很方便。 at your convenience 在你方便的时候 for the convenience of somebody 为了方便某人 for convenience‘s sake 为了方便起见 Come to my place at your earliest convenience. 请尽早来我处。 More stores have a delivery service for the convenience of customers. 为了方便顾客,更多的商店提供配送服务。 Put the tag on for convenience‘s sake. 为了方便起见,请贴上标签。 convenience food 方便食品 convenience store 便利商店 convenient adj. 方便的,便利的 it is convenient to/for sb … If it is convenient to you, would you please come at 2 p.m.? 如果方便的话,请下午两点来。 it is convenient for sb. to do … It is most convenient for us to meet at the school gate. 在校门口集合最方便。 (反义词) inconvenient adj. 不方便的 cook v. prepare food by heating 煮, 烹调 n. person who cooks food 厨师 例句 Too many cooks spoil the broth. 人多手杂 展开 cooker n. 炊具 cooking n. [u] 烹调法 do the cooking 烹调 cooperate v. work or act together for common purpose 合作 词组 cooperate with 与…合作 cooperate to do 协力做…





Marco is difficult to cooperate with, because he takes ages to make decisions. 马可很难合作,因为他做决定要花很长时间。 All of the class cooperated to perform in the contest. 全班同学都在竞赛中尽力合作。 cooperation n. 合作 in cooperation with 与…合作 cooperative adj. 合作的, 愿意合作的 cooperator n. 合作者

corner n. angle where two lines, walls or sides meet 角, 转角 vt. put into difficult position 把…逼得走投无路, 逼入困境 例句 The dog cornered the rabbit into the barn. 狗把兔子逼到了谷仓中。 辨析 in the corner 在内角, 一隅 at the corner 在外角, 常指物体在街角处, 侧重地点 on the corner 在外角, 常指构成角的部分, 有时也可用 at 辨析下列句子: She is sitting at the table in the corner of the snack bar. 她坐在餐厅角落的桌边。 She is waiting at the corner of the street. 她在街角等。 There is a hair-salon on/at the corner. 街角上有个美发院。 cost n. price paid for sth 代价,费用, (常用复数 costs)成本 v. (cost, cost, costing) 花费(金额、费用), 花费(时间、劳力), 付代价 (不可用被动语态) 词组 at the cost of… 以…的代价 = at the loss of at all costs = at any cost 不惜代价, 无论如何 = whatever the cost may be cost of living 生活费 it costs sb … to do … 做某事花费某人?? 例句 Does the price cover the production costs of these goods? 价格包括货物的制造成本吗? The jacket cost 150 dollars. 这件外套值 150 元。 Careless driving will cost you your life. 不小心驾驶会让你付出生命的代价。 He saved the baby at the cost of his life. 他付出生命拯救了那个孩子。 We should promote the project at all costs. 我们应该不惜任何代价推行这个项目。 It will cost me 500 dollars to repair the car. 修这辆车要花去我 500 元。 count vt. say the number in order; find the total number of 记数,清点 词组 count down 倒计时 count backwards in seconds to zero count on 指望,仰赖 = rely on 例句 We were a party of twenty, counting our teacher. 算上老师,我们是个 20 人的小组。 Can I count on your help? = Can I count on you to help me? 我能指望你的帮助吗? country n. [c] land occupied by a nation 国家,故国 词组 the country 乡下 country 作定语,表示乡下的 country life 田园生活

country music 乡村音乐 couple n. 词组 two persons or things associated 一对,一双,一对夫妇 a couple of 两个(= two);几个(= a few) I have a couple of questions to ask. 我有几个问题要问。 The young couple seems to be happy. (多视为单数)这对年轻夫妇似乎很快乐

courage n.[u] bravery 勇气,胆量 词组 get up/screw up/summon up one‘s courage 鼓起勇气 lose one‘s courage 丧失勇气 recover/regain one‘s courage 恢复勇气 例句 He is a man of courage. 他是个有勇气的人。 He has the courage to sail around the world. 他有胆量驾船环游世界。 It took great courage for me to warn the man not to smoke on the bus. 我鼓足勇气警告那个人不要在公共汽车上抽烟。 展开 courageous adj. 勇敢的 He is courageous enough to tell the truth. 他有足够的勇气说出真相。 It is courageous of you to argue with him. 你和他争辩真是很勇敢。 encourage v. 鼓励 encourage sb. to do sth. 鼓励某人做某事 course n. process; one of the parts of meal 过程; 课程; 一道菜 词组 during/in the course of 在…的过程中 = during of course 当然, 自然 例句 During the course of the day, we visited a lot of places. 在白天的过程中,我们参观了许多地方。 court n. space of certain games; place where law-cases are held 球场; 法院 辨析 court 指网球、篮球、排球、羽毛球等(室内运动)的场地 field 指足球、棒球、垒球等(室外运动)的场地 course 指高尔夫球的场地 cover 词组 v. place over the surface of; include; extend over 覆盖, 遮盖; 扩及, 延展 n. thing that wraps; lid; wrapper or envelope 覆盖物, 盖子, 封皮 cover sth. with sth. else 用某物覆盖 from cover to cover (书)自第一页到最后一页, 从头至尾 under cover 秘密地, 被掩护的 = sheltered, kept secret She tried to cover her mistake. 她想隐瞒自己的错误 This report covered all aspects of the problem. 他的报告涵盖了这个问题的所有层面 The girl covered 1000 meters in less then 4 minutes. 这女孩在 4 分钟内跑完 1000 米 She covered her little daughter‘s ears with her hands. 她用手捂住女儿的耳朵。 The desk is covered with dust. 书桌上覆盖着一层灰。 The whole story is kept well under cover. 整个的故事都被掩盖了。



crash n. violent fall or breaking 相撞; 坠毁; 惊人的响声 v. fall or strike suddenly, violently and noisily 坠毁; 哗啦一声地碰撞 例句 All the passengers were killed in the plane/air crash. 所有的乘客都在空难中丧生了。 The books fell with a great crash. 书哗啦一声倒了下来 He crashed his car into the wall. 他车子撞到了墙壁 crash landing (飞机)紧急迫降 = (plane) land out of control a stock market crash 股市崩盘 = collapse in finance crazy adj. wildly excited, enthusiastic; suffering from mental disorder 疯狂的, 为…狂热的 词组 It is crazy of sb. to do…真是疯狂 be crazy about 疯狂地爱上 例句 It is crazy of you to buy such a car. = You are crazy to buy such a car. 你买这样的汽车真是疯狂。 Quite a lot of girls are crazy about the singer. 许多女孩对这个歌星很着迷。 展开 craze n. 狂热, 风尚 enthusiastic interest that last for a short time They are making big money from the current craze for skiing in Shanghai. 他们在上海近来对滑雪的狂热中挣到了大钱。 crew 辨析 n. all the persons working on a ship, aircraft, etc(船、火车、飞机上的)全体工作人员 归纳 crew, group, staff, group, family, police, team, committee 等表示全体人员的词, 要注意动词的单复数词组。 当表示全体人员整体的时候, 动词用单数; 当表示人员中各个成员时,动词用复数。 试辨析:The crew of the airplane are preparing for the next flight now. (个人) 飞机的机组成员正在为下一次的飞行做准备。 The crew of this plane is large. (整体) 飞机的机组很庞大。

crime n. serious breaking of law 罪,犯罪行为 词组 commit/do a crime 犯罪 展开 criminal n. 罪犯 adj. 犯罪的,犯法的 criticize vt. judge with disapproval 批评,评论 例句 He is always criticizing his friends for being selfish. 他总是在批评他的朋友自私。 展开 criticism n. 批评,评论 unfavorable judgment or expression of disapproval critical adj. 评论的;吹毛求疵的;危急的,决定性的 giving a careful judgment a matter of critical importance 非常重要的问题 He is now in critical condition. 他现在病况危急。 The teacher is too critical of his students. 那老师对学生太过严苛。 critic n. 评论家 cross n. a mark of ―x‖ or ―+‖ 十字形 v. to go, pass or reach across something 穿过,越过,交叉; (划横线)删掉 词组 cross the street 穿过马路 cross … off/out 删掉


cross talk 相声,滑稽对白 the Red Cross 红十字会 crossroads n. 十字路口 crossword n. 纵横字谜

crowd n. a large number of people gathered together 人群 v. come together in large numbers 拥挤,群集 例句 People crowded the street. 街上都是人。 The bus was crowded with students. 公交车上挤满了学生。 cruel adj. causing pain and suffering; very unkind 残忍的,残酷的 例句 He is cruel to his dog. 他对待他的狗很残忍。 It is cruel of you to bully your friends like that. 你如此欺负朋友真是残忍。 展开 cruelty n. 残忍 cultivate v. to plant and grow a crop; to improve or develop by training 耕作,培植,培养 例句 He is trying to cultivate her mind by reading. 他以读书陶冶心性。 展开 cultivation n. 栽培;修养 cultivated adj. 被耕作的;有教养的 culture n. the customs and human thoughts made at a particular time 文化 [u] 文明 词组 develop a culture 发展文化 culture shock 文化冲击 展开 cultural adj. 文化的 cultural studies 人文研究 cultural exchange 文化交流 cross-cultural 文化交叉,文化融合 cure n. return to health after illness; a course of medical treatment 治疗,治疗法 v. bring health to a person who is ill 治疗 例句 An effective cure for cancer has not yet been found. 还没有找到治疗癌症的有效方法。 This medicine will cure your headache. 这种药可以治疗你的头疼。 Moving to the country cured her of the bad habits. 搬到乡村使她改掉了坏习惯。 辨析 cure 强调治愈,treat 强调治疗的过程 辨析下列句子:This medicine will cure soon. 这个药很快能其效。 They treated him with a new drug but it didn‘t work. 他们用一种新药治疗他的疾病,但没有效果。 curious adj. eager to know or learn something unfamiliar 好奇的;奇异的 例句 Children are naturally curious about everything. 孩子对每件事物总是天生很好奇。 I‘m curious to know what is written in his new report. 我很好奇想知道他的新报告中写了些什么。 I‘m curious how he will do it. 我很好奇他会怎么做。 It is curious that he should have failed the test. 他测试不及格真是很奇怪。


curiously adv. 好奇地 curiosity n. 好奇心

current n. a continuously moving mass of liquid or electricity 水流,洋流;电流;趋势,潮流 adj. (more current, most current) belonging to the present time 通用的,现时的 词组 current money 通货 current affairs 时事 the current issue of a magazine 本期杂志 展开 currently adv. 目前 currency n. 货币,流通,普及 custom n. habitual practice of a society 习惯,风俗 词组 break a custom 破坏习俗 establish a custom 树立习俗 keep up a custom 遵从习俗 例句 It is the custom for the Japanese to take off their shoes when getting into a hall. 进门脱鞋是日本人的习俗。 展开 the customs 海关 customer n. a person who buys goods or services from a shop or business 顾客 辨析 customer 指买东西的顾客 client 指银行、律师等的客户 guest 指旅馆的旅客 passenger 指乘客 cut (cut, cut, cutting) v. remove something with a sharp instrument 切,割,削减 n. the result of cutting 切,割伤,削减 词组 cut through/across 穿越,抄近道 cut down 砍倒,砍伐;减少??的量,缩减 cut down on 减少?? cut in (vi.) 插嘴,插队 cut off 切断, 砍掉 例句 The path cuts through the forest. 这条小路穿过森林。 He cut the dead tree down. 他砍倒了枯树。 We cut down our expenses to 2,000 yuan per month. 我们每月把花费削减到了 2000 元。 If you want to lose weight, cut down on sweet things you eat. 如果你想减肥,就减少吃甜食。 The village was cut off by the heavy snow. 这个村庄被大雪切断了与外界的联系。 daily adj. every day 每天的,日常的 n. newspaper printed every day 日报 词组 daily life 日常生活 展开 归纳 weekly 每周一次的,周刊 every week

monthly 每月一次的,月刊 every month yearly 一年一次的 every year damage n. spoiling of something and the loss that results 损害,损坏 v. cause damage to 加害于,损伤 词组 cause/do damage to 使??受到伤害 例句 The bridge was badly damaged by the flood. 大桥被洪水严重损毁。 danger n. the possibility of harm or loss 危险 词组 in danger 在危险中 out of danger 脱离险境 例句 He was sick and in danger of losing his life. 他病了,处于失去生命的危险之中。 展开 dangerous adj. 危险的 (反义词:safe) It is dangerous to swim in this river. = This river is dangerous to swim in. 在这条河里游泳很危险 辨析 He is in danger. 他身处险境。 He is dangerous. 他是危险人物。 辨析 danger 危险 dangerous 危险的,指可能引起危险的事物或人 risk 风险 risky 有风险的,指有危险的行为、事情或活动 dangerous situation/climbing/journey/operation/road/person/book/heart-attack risky situation/climbing/journey/operation date n. the number of the day 日期 v. decide the date of; write the date on; arrange to meet 记载日期;约会 词组 out of date 过时的 up to date 最新式的,最新的 to date 至今为止 = so far date from 回溯 date back to 回溯到??年代 = date from break a date 爽约 have a date with 与??约会 例句 Be sure to date your letters. 不要忘了在信上写上日期。 We are unable to date the fossil. 我们无法确定化石的年代。 th This custom dates from the 12 century. 这种风俗可以回溯到 12 世纪。 This building dates back to 1812. 这栋建筑是 1812 年所建。 展开 dated adj. 跟不上时代的,过时的;有日期的 day n. 天,日子;(the day) 时代; (one‘s day)一生,生涯 词组 all day (long) = all the day 一整天 by day 白天里(常用来与 by night 作对比) He sleeps by day and work by night. 他白天睡觉晚上工作。 by the day 按日计算 day after day 日复一日

day and night day by day every other/second day some day the other day these days to this day

日夜,不分日夜 一天天地,逐日 每隔一天,每两天 (未来的)有一天,总有一天 前些时候,前几天 近来 至今为止

dead adj. no longer alive 死的 辨析 dead adj. 死的,强调状态 die v. 死,强调动作 辨析下列句子:He has been dead for years. 他死了几年了。 He died years ago. 他几年前死了。 展开 die v. 死去 stop living deadly adj. (deadlier, deadliest) 致命的,极度的 death n. 死亡 the end of life deal (dealt, dealt, dealing) vi. take action about 处理,涉及 n. buying and selling 交易 词组 deal with 处理,对付 a good/great deal (of) 大量的(只接不可数名词) 例句 He knows well how to deal with children. 他很了解如何应付小孩。 辨析:I don‘t know what to do with children. 我不知道如何应付小孩。 debt n. something owed to someone else 欠款,债务 词组 be in debt 欠债,欠人情 be out of debt 还清负债 例句 I‘m in debt to him for all his help. 他帮了我,我欠他的情。 deceive v. cheat someone for a dishonest purpose 欺骗,蒙骗 例句 The stone castle deceived him into thinking it was an ancient town. 这栋石头城堡蒙骗了他,使他以为这是一座古城。 decide v. make a choice or judgment 决定 例句 He decided to buy a new house. = He decided that he would buy a new house. 他决定买一所新房子。 I can‘t decide which to choose. 我无法决定选哪个。 It is difficult to decide between the two. 很难在两者之间作决定。 That family decided on spending the vacation by the sea. 那一家子决定在海边渡假。 展开 decision n. 决定 make/arrive at/reach/come to a decision 做出决定 decisive adj. 决定性的 declare vt. to make known publicly or officially 宣布


They will declare the results of the election soon. 他们很快就将宣布选举的结果。 The referee declared him (to be) the winner of the fight. 裁判员宣布他是对决的胜者。 The chairman declared that the country was independent. 主席宣布国家独立了。

decline n. v. refuse politely; go from higher to lower 拒绝,婉拒(较 refuse 婉转的措辞) ;衰落 例句 They asked me to their party, but I declined the invitation. 他们邀请我去他们的晚会,但我拒绝了邀请。 He declined to answer. 他拒绝回答。 His eyesight has begun to decline recently. 他的视力最近开始衰退了。 decrease n. v. become less in amount , strength or quality; reduce 减少,减退 例句 The number of traffic accidents had decreased. 交通事故的数量降低了。 The price decreased to 2500 yuan. 价格降到了 2500 元。 deed n. something done on purpose; an action 行为 词组 do a good deed 行善 an evil deed 恶行 deep adj. going far from the top 深的; 词组 deep into the night be deep in thought 辨析 deep deeply deep 表示实际深度 deeply 表示情感的程度 Still water runs deep. He was deeply moved by my words.

到深夜 陷入沉思中

静水流深。 他被我的话深深地感动了

defend v. keep safe from harm; protect against attack 保卫,防守;为??辩护 例句 He defended me from/against the drunken man. 他保护我免受醉汉的伤害。 They defended very well in that game. 比赛中他们防守得非常好。 He is prepared to defend my ideas. 他准备好为自己的构想辩护。 展开 defense n. 防御;防御措施;辩护 Defence works 防御工事 define vt. give the meaning of; explain the exact qualities or duties, etc. 给??下定义 例句 It is hard to define my duties. 很难说清我的职责。 展开 definite adj. 明确的,确定的 It is definite that he is wrong. 确实是他不对。 definitely adv. 确定地,必定地 I can‘t tell you definitely when I will arrive. 我不能明确告诉你我到达的时间。 definition n. 定义 There is no clear definition for this word. 这个词没有明确的定义。 degree n. unit of measure of temperature or angles; measure of quality 学位;度数;程度

词组 例句

to a (high) degree 非常地;到某个程度 To what degree is he wealthy? 他富裕到什么程度? To our surprise, she got a doctor‘s degree in economics. 令人惊讶的是,她获得了经济学的博士学位。 The temperature was fifteen degrees centigrade this morning. 今天早上温度是 15°C。 His work is at a high degree of excellence. 他的作品已达炉火纯青之境。 He is modest to a (high) degree. 他很谦虚。

delay vt. move to a later time; move slowly 推迟,耽搁,延缓 n. moving to a later time; moving slowly 延迟,延期 词组 without (any) delay 毫不耽搁 例句 The train was delayed one hour by the accident. 火车由于事故延误了一个小时。 We must delay our outing until next week. 我们必须把郊游推迟到下周。 Why have they delayed opening the new hospital? 为什么他们推迟了新医院的开张? I went to their help without any delay. 我毫不耽搁地去帮助他们。 delight n. a great pleasure and satisfaction; joy 欣喜 v. cause somebody great satisfaction 使??喜悦 词组 take/feel delight in 乐于??;嗜好?? 例句 I read your letter with real delight. 拜读大函,至感欣慰。 To my great delight, all my students passed the exam. 学生们都通过了考试, 令我非常高兴。 He often delighted us with his jokes. 他时常用玩笑逗我们高兴。 I take great delight in musical. 我很喜爱音乐剧。 展开 delighted adj. (感到)欣喜的,高兴的(指本人高兴) I was very much delighted with the results. 我对结果非常高兴。 He was delighted to accept the invitation. 他欣然接受邀请。 She was delighted that her son had returned safely. 她很高兴她的儿子安全归来了。 delightful adj. 令人喜悦的,有趣的(指使别人高兴) The little girl is delightful. 这个小女孩讨人喜欢。 deliver vt. send something to the intended place 投递,分送 词组 deliver a speech 发表演说 deliver a blow 加以打击(拳击) 例句 Would you deliver my message to your mother? 你可以帮我传口信给你母亲吗? 展开 delivery n. 投递 special delivery (英:express delivery) 快递 demand 词组 例句 vt. ask for firmly; need urgently 要求;需要;询问;查问 n. an act of demanding; claim 要求,需要 in demand 有需要的,吃香的 He demanded an apology from the manager. 他要求经理道歉。 They demanded to be informed of everything. 他要求被告知每一件事。


They demanded that the company (should) give them an explanation. 他们要求公司给他们一个解释。 The work demands a great deal of care. (= calls for) 这工作需要非常细心。 There is a great demand for these goods. 这些商品的需求量很大。 In the unusual hot summer, air conditioners were in great demand. 在这非同寻常的夏天,空调的需求量极大。 demanding adj. 要求高的,费力的 Contrary to some people‘s understanding, the job of a policeman is rather demanding. 和一些人的理解不同,警察的工作要求相当高。

Unit seven

deny vt. declare untrue; refuse to accept as a fact 否认,拒绝 例句 Do you deny having stolen the bicycle? 你是不是否认偷了自行车? It cannot be denied that he is guilty. 不可否认他有罪。 The boss denied our request for higher wages. 老板拒绝我们加薪的要求。 He denies his children nothing.=He denies nothing to his children. 他对孩子有求必应。 depart vi. leave; go away 出发,离开 例句 He departed early in the morning for Paris. 他清晨出发去巴黎。 The plane departed from L.A. 这班飞机从洛山矶出发。 展开 departure n. 出发,动身 The departure of the plane was delayed. 飞机的起飞被延迟了。 I took my departure for Hong Kong from Shanghai. 我从上海出发去香港。 department n. a division or branch of a government, college, etc 部门;大学的系/科 词组 the personnel department 人事部 the shoe department (百货商店的)鞋子销售部 department store 百货商店 depend 词组 例句 vi. to vary according to; be decided by 视??而定;依靠;依赖 depend on/upon 依赖,指望 You cannot depend on your parents forever. 你不能永远依赖父母。 We can depend on him to finish it on time. 我们可以指望准时完工。 = We can depend on his finishing it on time. You may depend on it that he will join the club. 你可以指望他参加俱乐部。 = You may depend on him to join the club. Our success depends on whether everyone works hard or not. 我们的成功取决于是否每个人都努力工作。 The time of departure depends on the weather. 出发的时间视天气而定。 That (all) depends. = It all depends. (口语)那得看情况而定。 dependent adj. 依靠的,依赖的 (反义词:independent) be dependent on 依赖??,视??而定 Whether we go or not is dependent on his decision. 我们去不去取决于他的决定。 be independent of 独立;不依赖 He is independent of his parents. 他不依赖父母,独立为生。 dependence n.依赖,从属(反义词 independence 独立)


depress vt. cause to feel sad and without hope; discourage 使??沮丧,使??心灰意冷 例句 The death of her dog depressed her. 她的狗死了,令她很沮丧。 展开 depressed adj. (more depressed, most depressed) 精神不振的,忧郁的; (经济)萧条的 He is very depressed because he failed the exam. 他很沮丧,因为他考试不及格。 depressing adj. 令人沮丧的,沉闷的

depression n. [c] 萧条,不景气;[c][u] 意志消沉,郁闷,忧郁 He got into a state of depression. 他心情忧郁。 depth n. the state or degree of being deep 纵深,深度 词组 in the depths of one‘s heart 在内心深处 lack depth 缺乏深度,肤浅 5 feet in depth 5 英尺深 展开 归纳 adj. + ~th 成为 n. deep – depth; wide – width; long – length; warm – warmth; strong – strength; grow – growth describe vt. say what something is like; give a picture of in words 描述 例句 Please describe exactly what happened. 请准确描述所发生的事。 He described himself as an artist. 他自称为艺术家。 展开 description n. 记叙,描写 Please give me a brief/detail description of the accident. 请简要/详细描述一下这起事故。 beyond description 无法形容地,难以描述的 The scenery is beautiful beyond description. 景色美得难以用笔墨形容。 desert n. a large piece of sanding land where there is little rain 沙漠,荒芜之地 vt. to leave completely; leave at a difficult time and not return 离弃,抛弃 例句 He deserted his family. 他遗弃了他的家人。 展开 deserted adj. 无人居住的,荒无人烟的 The house is deserted. 这房子被荒弃了。 deserve vt. have earned by one‘s action; be worthy of 应该得到;值得?? (不用进行时) 词组 deserve attention 值得注意 deserve blame 该受责备 deserve sympathy 值得同情 例句 His brave act deserves praise. 他勇敢的行为值得赞赏。 He deserves to be punished. = He deserves punishment. 他罪有应得。 Your suggestion deserves considering. = Your suggestion deserves to be considered. 你的建议值得考虑。 desire vt. wish or hope for very much 渴望 n. a strong hope or wish 愿望 词组 leave much(something/nothing/little)to be desired 有很多(一点/没有/几乎没有)缺点 例句 We desired to win the game. 我们渴望赢得比赛。 What do you desire me to do? 你期望我做什么? The director desires that you (should) visit him next week. 主管希望你下周拜访他。 = The director desires you to visit him next week. He has a strong desire for success. = He has a strong desire to succeed.

他强烈盼望成功。 The people expressed their desire that the Iraq War (should) come to an end soon. 人们表达了希望伊拉克战争尽快结束的愿望。 despair n. vi. complete loss of hopes or confidence 绝望,不顾一切 词组 in despair 陷于绝望 例句 He is in despair when his son left him. 当儿子离开他的时候,他绝望了。 desperate adj. ready to take any wild act in spite of danger 绝望的,不顾一切的,亡命的 例句 The murderer made desperate efforts to escape.那个凶杀犯拼命地想要逃跑。 He is desperate to pass the entrance exam. 他很渴望通过入学考试。 展开 desperately adv. 绝望地;极度地 He is desperately busy. 他极为忙碌。 destroy vt. to damage so severely that it cannot be repaired; put an end to sth. 破坏;消灭 例句 All my hopes were destroyed by his letter of refusal. 他写信拒绝,破碎了我所有的希望。 展开 destruction n. 破坏 (反义词:construction) destructive adj. 破坏性的 (反义词:constructive) detail n. a single point or fact about something 细节 词组 in detail 详细地 giving all details go into details 详述 talk about something in detail fill in the details 填上细节 detective adj. related to finding out, noticing or discovering 侦探的 n. a person whose job is to find out information 侦探 词组 detective story 侦探小说 determination n. ability of make firm decisions; strong willing to succeed 决心,顽强,确定 例句 He is a man of great determination. 他是个有决断力的人。 His determination to enter university is now much stronger than ever. 他想进入大学的决心比以前更加坚定。 展开 determine v. 确定,决定 He determined to learn French next term. 他决定下学期学法语。 She determined that she would never see him again. 她决心再也不要见他。 They determined the title of the novel. 他们确定了这部小说的书名。 What determined her to become a scientist? 是什么使她立志成为一名科学家? I determined on an early start. 我决定早点出发。 determined adj. 下定决心的 She is determined to go. 她下定决心要去。 辨析 be determined to do 表示下定决心做某事 determine to do = decide to do 表示决定做某事,不强调强烈的决心。

辨析下列句子:We determined to start early. 我们决定提早出发。 We are determined to prove our friend‘s innocence. 我们下定决心为朋友洗清罪名。 develop v. become gradually to a more advanced state 发展,培养,开发,冲洗(底片) 例句 Sports can develop mind and body. 运动有益于身心发展。 She has developed into a beautiful woman. 她长成了一个美丽的姑娘。 I developed habit of washing hands before eating. 我养成了吃东西前洗手的习惯。 展开 development n. 发展,展开,开发, (照片的)冲洗 We can see the rapid development of civilization in those days. 我们可以看到那个时代文明的快速发展。 developing adj. 发展中的 a developing country 发展中国家 developed adj. 发达的,发展的 a developed country 发达国家 devote vt. give completely to 奉献,致力于 词组 devote sth. to sth./doing = give completely to 例句 He devoted his life to promoting world peace. 他为推进世界和平投入了他的一生。 She devoted herself completely to volleyball in her teens. 她十多岁时就全身心地投入排球运动。 He devoted all his time to helping the old.他用全部的时间来帮助老人。 Jenny is entirely devoted to music. 詹尼全身心地投入到音乐中去。 展开 devoted adj. 献身的,忠实的,挚爱的 devotion n. 献身,挚爱 die vi. stop living; become dead; stop operating suddenly; 死;枯萎 词组 die of 因(疾病,衰老,饥饿等内因)死亡 die from 因(外伤,以外等外因)死亡 die a … death 死得??;遭受??形式的死亡 die away (声音、光线、风等)渐弱,渐息 die down (火、兴奋、暴风雨、光线等)渐弱;静下来 die out 死绝; (风俗、习惯等)消失,消灭 例句 She died young. 他英年早逝。 She died of old age. 她终享天年。 It is said that he died from overwork. 据说他过劳而死。 He died a miserable/hero‘s death. 他悲惨地/英雄般地死去。 展开 death n. 死亡 dead adj. 死的,废的 the dead (集合用法)死者 dying adj. 垂死的,正在死去的 These flowers are dying. 这些花正在死去。 be dying for 渴望?? She is dying for a drink. 她很想喝水。

be dying to do 很想做??,渴望做?? Tommie is dying to go abroad. 汤米渴望出国。 diet n. sort of food and drink; limited food and drink allowed 日常饮食,规定饮食 词组 be on a diet 节食疗法 例句 A balanced diet is essential to everybody. 平衡的膳食对每一个人都十分重要。 She is on a diet and wants to lose weight. 她在节食,想要减肥。 differ vi. be not similar in nature, character, type, etc. 与??不同 词组 differ from… 与??有差异 differ … in 在??方面不同 例句 That‘s where we differ from each other. 那就是我们两不同的地方。 He differs from his brother in characteristics. 他和他弟弟性格不同。 展开 difference n. 差别,差异 There is a difference of 10 degrees in temperature between the two places. 这两个地方气温有 10 度的差异。 make a difference 产生差别,有影响 different adj. 不同的,各种各样的 They are quite different in their tastes. 他们口味相当不同。 very/much/quite/entirely/totally different 十分/完全不同 difficult adj. needing a lot of effort; hard to deal with 困难的,艰难的;难以取悦的 例句 The question is difficult to answer. = It is difficult to answer this question. 这问题很难回答。 It is difficult (for me) to learn French. (我)学习法语很难。 I found it difficult to keep up with them. 我发现很难赶上他们。 He is a difficult man to get along with. 他是个很难相处的人。 展开 difficulty n. [u] 困难 I had difficulty (in) remembering their names. 我记住他们的名字很难。 n. [c] 困难的事 We will face many difficulties in the future. 将来我们会遇到很多困难。 cause/make difficulties for 给??带来困难 overcome a difficulty 解决困难 come across/run into difficulties 遭遇困难 digital adj. of a system in which information is represented in electric signals 数码的,数字的 词组 digital camera 数码照相机 digital video 数码摄像机 digital communication 数字通讯 dine v. have dinner 进餐;请??吃饭 词组 dine in 在家吃饭 dining car 餐车 dining table 餐桌

dine out 在外面(餐厅)用餐 dining room 饭厅


dinner n. 正餐,晚餐 dinner party 晚宴 have dinner 吃晚餐

make dinner 做晚餐

direct adj. straight; without any other person or reason coming between 直接的;笔直的 v. control; be in charge of; manage; aim to the direction 指挥,管理,导演,指引方向 例句 He took a direct flight from Shanghai to London. 他从上海直飞伦敦。 This is a direct result of the accident. 这是那事故的直接后果。 He directed the building of the bridge. 他负责指挥这座桥的兴建。 The general directed the terrorists to drop their weapon. 将军命令恐怖分子放下武器。 = The general directed that the terrorists (should) drop their weapon. Can you direct me to the library? 请告诉我图书馆怎么走。 展开 direction n. 方向,指挥; (用复数)指示,使用说明 He drove his car in the direction of Nanjing. 他把车开向南京。 He has a good sense of direction. 他方向感很好。 We did the work under his direction. 我们在他的指导下工作。 Follow the direction for the use of the medicine. 请遵照此药的使用说明。 directly adv. 笔直地,正好,马上; conj. (引导时间状语从句)一??就 = as soon as He went directly home after school. 他放学后直接回家了。 The restaurant is directly opposite our school. 这家餐厅正对着我们学校。 I‘ll be there directly. 我马上到。 She phoned her mother directly she got home. 她一回到家就给她母亲打电话。 director n. (公司的)董事,管理者,导演,指挥 a company director 公司董事 a film director 电影导演 dirty adj. not clean; unpleasant 脏的,卑鄙的,低级的 词组 dirty money 不正当的钱 a dirty talk 脏话 例句 He played a dirty trick on me. 他对我耍了卑鄙的手段。 展开 dirt n. 污垢,坏话 disable v. make a person unable to use his body properly 使某人残废,失去能力 展开 disabled adj. 残障的 the disabled 残疾人 disagreeable adj. unpleasant; unfriendly(指物)令人不愉快的; (指人)难以相处的 展开 disagree v. 与??不一致,不同意 (反义词:agree) disagree with He disagreed with me on the plan. 他对那个计划与我意见相左。 The climate/food disagree with me. 气候/食物对我不适合。 disappear vi. go out of sight; stop existing 消失,绝迹 例句 The tall man disappeared in the dark. 那个高个子消失在黑暗中。

Many wild animals are disappearing because of hunting. 许多野生动物因捕猎而面临绝迹。 disappoint vt. fail to fulfill the hopes of someone 使??失望 例句 The result of the test disappointed us. 测试结果令我们失望。 展开 disappointed adj. 感到失望的 I was disappointed at the news. 我对此消息感到失望。 = I was disappointed to hear the news. We were disappointed that our team had lost the game. 我们队输了比赛,我们很失望。 disappointing adj. 让人失望的,扫兴的 His behavior is disappointing. 他的表现很令人失望。 disappointment n. [u] 失望,扫兴 [c] 令人失望的事 He left in disappointment. 他失望地离开了。 to one‘s disappointment 令人失望的是?? To my disappointment, the picnic was spoiled by the rain. 令我失望的是,大雨破坏了野餐。 disapprove v. have an unfavorable opinion of someone or something 不赞成,反对 例句 His father disapproves (of) his marrying the poor girl. 他父亲不同意他娶那个贫穷的女孩。 展开 disapproval n. 不赞成,非难 She shook her head in disapproval. 她不赞成地摇头。 归纳 以-al 结尾的名词 arrive – arrival propose – proposal approve – approval refuse – refusal dismiss – dismissal try – trial disaster n. sudden serious misfortune causing great suffering and damage 灾难,大祸 词组 cause disaster 惹祸 experience/meet with/suffer a disaster 遭受灾难 an air disaster 空难 a national disaster 国难 展开 disastrous adj. 灾难的,悲惨的 discourage vt. take away courage, confidence or hope from 使气馁,打消??的念头 例句 I was discouraged by the news. 这个消息令我气馁。 Her parents tried to discourage her from becoming a singer. 她父母想劝她打消想当歌星的念头。 展开 反义词:encourage v. 鼓励 discouragement n. 沮丧,令人泄气的事 discouraging adj. 令人沮丧的 discover vt. find something that already existed but was not known about before 发现,察觉 例句 I soon discovered the truth. 我很快发现了真相。



The police never discovered how he died. 警察一直没有发现他是如何死的。 I discovered him to be quite trustworthy. 我发现他很值得信赖。 discovery n.发现 They made such a great discovery that they were awarded the Nobel Prize. 他们作出了如此重大的发现,被授予诺贝尔奖。 discover 指发现原来以存在的东西 invent 指发明出原来不存在的东西 辨析下列句子:The discovery of electricity totally changed people‘s life. 电的发现完全改变了人们的生活。 Who was it that invented the plane? 是谁发明了飞机?

discuss vt. consider something by talking or writing 讨论 词组 discuss freely 自由讨论 discuss fully/thoroughly 充分讨论 discuss keenly 激烈讨论 例句 I‘ll discuss the problem with the principal later. 稍后我将与校长讨论这一问题。 We discussed how to do it and who should do it. 我们讨论了如何做和谁去做这件事。 展开 discussion n. 讨论 They argued about the plan under discussion. 他们对正在讨论的计划有争议。 They had a long discussion about/on the problem. 他们长时间地讨论了这一问题。 heated discussion 热烈的讨论 disease n. illness or unhealthy condition caused by infection; disorder 疾病 词组 skin disease 皮肤病 a disease of mind 心病 a disease of society 社会的弊端 cure a disease 治愈疾病 prevent a disease 预防疾病 catch/come down with a disease 患病 例句 He is suffering from heart disease. 他患有心脏病。 dish n. cooked food; large flat round container in which food is put 一盘菜,菜肴;碟,盘 辨析 dish 指金属制或陶制的大盘子 plate 指每人放置所分得食物的盘子 dislike vt. consider something to be unpleasant; not to like 嫌恶;讨厌 n. feeling of disliking 讨厌的对象,厌恶 词组 likes and dislikes 人的好恶 例句 She dislike his way of speaking. 她讨厌他说话的方式。 He dislikes speaking loudly in public. 他不喜欢在公众场合大声说话。 Many people have a strong dislike of/for snakes. 很多人厌恶蛇。 dismiss 例句 vt. sent away or allow to go; refuse to consider seriously; fire 解散,打消,解雇 More than thirty employees were dismissed from this department.

The teacher decided to dismiss the class early.

这个部门有 30 多名员工被解雇。 老师决定提早下课。

display v. n. arrange or spread out for public view 展示,陈列;显露 例句 The art gallery is displaying the new paintings. 这个美术馆正在展览新的油画。 The students‘ works were displayed on the wall. 学生们的作品在墙上展览。 The child displayed no fear. 这小孩显得一点也不害怕。 Works of young artists are on display on the second floor. 年轻艺术家的作品在二楼展出。 dissolve vi. become liquid by putting into liquid; cause to end 溶解;解散 例句 Salt dissolve in water. 盐可溶于水。 Parliament will dissolve soon. 国会不久将解散。 distance n. the amount of space or time between two points 距离 词组 at a distance 隔开一段距离 from a distance 由相当远处 in the distance 在远处的 within hearing/walking distance 在能听见/步行可及的地方 例句 What‘s the distance from Shanghai to Guangzhou/between Shanghai and Guangzhou? 上海到广州的距离有多少? The airport is a great distance away. 机场很远。 We have covered/run/traveled/walked a distance of 20 miles. 我们已走了 20 英里。 The picture looks better at a distance. 这幅画隔开一段距离看更好些。 A dull thunder came from a distance. 远处传来低沉的雷声。 I saw some smoke in the distance. 我看到远处有些烟。 Now young couples like to live within walking distance of their parents. 现在年轻夫妇喜欢住在离父母步行可及的地方。 展开 distant adj. 远的 The sun is distant from the earth. 太阳离地球很远。 distinct adj. clearly different or separate; clearly seen or understood 有区别的,不同的;清楚的 例句 His hobbies are quite distinct from his work. 他的兴趣完全不同于他的工作。 There is a distinct smell of smoke in the room. 房间里明显有烟的味道。 展开 distinction n. 区别,差异;特征 Can you make a distinction between these two species? 你能区别一下这两个物种的不同吗? He passed the examination with distinction. 他以优异的成绩通过考试。 distinctly adv. 明确地 The little girl can pronounce the word distinctly.这小女孩能清楚地发音这个词。 distinguish v. 区分 I can‘t distinguish between the twin brothers. 我无法区分这对双胞胎兄弟。 Speech distinguishes man from the other animals. 人类因会说话有别于其他动物。 distinguish oneself 使自己脱颖而出

He distinguished himself by winning the prize of best actor. 他因获最佳男演员奖而名声大噪。 distinguished adj.卓越的,杰出的 He is distinguished for his knowledge of dinosaurs. 他因对恐龙的知识而知名。 The young man is distinguished as a violinist. 这个年轻人是个杰出的小提琴家。 distress n. great suffering; pain or great discomfort [u] 痛苦,不幸 [c] 痛苦的事 v. cause great pain or discomfort 使??痛苦 例句 The news caused us great distress. 这消息使我们十分痛苦。 Her illness was a distress to her parents. 她的病对她的父母来说是个不幸。 The news of his death distressed me greatly. 他死去的消息令我非常痛苦。 = I was greatly distressed at the news of his death. disturb vt. interrupt a person who is working or sleeping 妨碍,打扰 例句 The noise in the street disturbed my study. 大街上的噪音妨碍我学习。 She was disturbed to hear of her mother‘s illness. 她得知母亲患病后非常不安。 展开 disturbance n. 打扰,不安 divide v. separate into several parts; share 分开,划分;做除法 例句 Let‘s divide the apple in half. = Let‘s divide the apple into two halves. 我们来把苹果分成两半。 The company will divide the profits among the partners. 公司将在合伙人之间划分利润 She divides her leisure hours between reading and walking. 她把空闲时间分为阅读和散步两个部分。 A long wall divides our school from a park. 一座长长的墙把我们学校和公园划分开。 Divide 12 by 3. 请把 12 除以 3。 12 divided by 3 is 4. 12 除以 3 等于 4。 展开 division n. 划分,区分;部门;除法 the sales division 销售部门 divorce n. v. officially end a marriage 离婚 例句 She divorced her husband two years ago. They were divorced. do v. 词组 to perform an action 做,干 do one‘s duty do one‘s homework do sth. for a living do one‘s hair do one‘s face do sb. good = do good to sb. do sb. harm = do harm to sb. do sb. a favor have sth. to do with

她两年前和丈夫离婚了。 他们离婚了。

尽??的责任/义务 做作业 做??谋生 做头发 化妆 对??有好处 对??有害 帮??一个忙 与??有关


do away with 废除,除 do … up 修改;补妆;梳理(头发) do with vt. 处置,对待 do without 没有??也行,将就 dos and don‘ts 规章制度,注意事项,行为准则 100 dollars will do until payday. 100 元能让我支撑到发薪日。 How are you doing on the new job? 你的新工作顺利吗? We have to do away with the silly regulations. 我们必须废除这些愚蠢的规章制度。 I have to do the skirt up. 我必须修改这件裙子。 She is still doing her hair up. 她仍在梳头发。 He doesn‘t know what to do with the property his father had left. 他不知道如何处置他父亲留给他的财产。 We cannot do without electricity. 没有电是不行的。 There wasn‘t any coffee, so we had to do without. 没有咖啡了,我们只好将就了。

doctor n. a person whose profession is to treat sick people; the highest degree 医生;博士 词组 a doctor‘s degree 博士学位 a Doctor of Law 法学学士 例句 You should see a doctor at once. 你应该马上看医生。 Don‘t worry. We have already sent for the doctor. 不要担心。我们已经去请医生了。 辨析 dentist 牙科医生 surgeon 外科医生 physician 内科医生 document n. an official paper that provides information 公文,文件,证明 词组 official documents 公文 diplomatic documents 外交文件 展开 documentary adj. 文件的,记录的 n. 记录片

Unit Eight

dog n. a common four-legged animal 狗 词组 keep dogs 养狗 walk a dog 遛狗 a hunting dog 猎犬 a police dog 警犬 a guide dog 导盲犬 a pet dog 宠物犬 例句 A barking dog seldom bites. Let sleeping dogs lie.

会叫的狗不咬人。 不要惹是生非。

domestic adj. in the home; within a particular country 家庭的,驯养的,国内的 例句 We both enjoy domestic life very much. 我们都很喜欢家庭生活。 Now comes the domestic news. 下面是国内新闻。 door n. flat surface that opens and closes the entrance to a room 门 词组 knock at the door 敲门 break open a door 撞开门 answer the door 应门 lock the door 锁门 unlock the door 打开门锁 the front/back door 前/后门 be at the door 在门口 live next door 住在隔壁 from door to door 挨家挨户 in doors/out of doors 在室内/在户外 dot n. a small round mark or spot 点;小数点 v. mark with a spot 打点于??;点缀于?? 例句 I watched the plane until it became only a dot in the sky. 我看着飞机, 知道它在空中变成了一个小点。 The lake was dotted with boats. 湖泊上点缀着一些小船。 double adj. consisting of two similar or combined parts; two together 两倍的,加倍的 v. become twice as many 使加倍 词组 a double room 双人房 a double bed 双人床 a double window 双层窗 a double character 双重人格 double over 把??对折 例句 I paid double the price. 我付了两倍的价钱。 The population of Shanghai is double what it was ten years ago. 上海的人口比十年前翻了一倍。 He doubled his income in five years. 他五年内收入增加了一倍。

doubt n. v. be uncertain about; consider unlikely 怀疑 词组 in doubt 可怀疑的,不确定地 no doubt 毫无疑问 without doubt 无疑地 例句 The cause of the accident is still in doubt. 这事件的原因依然尚未确定。 No doubt, he will recover. 毫无疑问,他会恢复的。 I‘ll be back on Friday without doubt. 我周五一定能回来。 I have some doubt about his words. 我怀疑他所说的话。 There is no doubt of his success. 他一定会成功。 There is some doubt about/as to whether he is the best man for the job. 我们怀疑他是否是这个工作最好的人选。 I have no doubt that he will pass the driving test. 我肯定他能通过驾驶考试。 I doubt the truth of the news. 我怀疑这消息的真实性。 I doubted whether he will keep his word. 我怀疑他是否会遵守诺言。 I don‘t doubt that our team will win. 我毫不怀疑我们队会赢。 展开 doubtful adj. 怀疑的,不确定的 He was doubtful about/of her story. 我怀疑她的故事。 It is doubtful whether the old man will recover from the operation. 不太确定那个老人会从手术中恢复过来。 undoubtedly adv. 毫无疑问 Undoubtedly, you will win the contest. 无疑,你会赢得比赛。 down 词组 例句 adv. adj. prep. towards a lower position 向下,在下 be down with 因??而病倒 get down to 静下心来处理??,专心致志于?? The family moved down to the country. 那一家人搬到乡下去了。 Please write down your name on this paper. 请把名字写在纸上。 Please turn the radio down. 请把收音机的音量关小。 He was down with a bad fever. 他发烧病倒了。 He finally got down to his study. 他终于静下心来学习了。

dozen n. a group of 12; lots of 一打,十二个 词组 by the dozen 按打计算 例句 We have got dozens of presents from friends and relatives. 我们从亲友那里得到了几十件礼物。 Go buy two dozen bottles of beer. 去买两打啤酒。 Eggs are sold by the dozen. 鸡蛋按打卖。 drain n. underground pipe carrying waste water; using up of something 排水沟;耗尽,枯竭 v. flow off completely; become gradually used up 排水;耗尽 例句 The huge medication expense is a great drain on the family. 巨大的医疗开支使那个家庭十分窘迫。 It was difficult to drain the flooded area. 将水灾地区的积水排干不容易。

The work drained his strength. 那工作耗尽了他的体力。 The war drained the country of its people and resources. 战争使那个国家的人员和资源耗尽。 draw 词组 例句 (drew, drawn) v. make picture; cause to go by pulling; receive or earn 拉;描写,画 draw a conclusion 得出结论 I drew 2000 yuan from the bank. 我从银行提出 2000 元钱。 It was difficult to draw any conclusion from the discussion. 很难从这次讨论得出结论。 draw one‘s attention 引起注意 He drew my attention to the point I had overlooked. 他要我注意我疏忽的地方。

dream n. thoughts, images, or feelings experienced during sleep 梦,梦想 v. have a dream about something; imagine 梦见 词组 have/dream a … dream 做了一个…梦 例句 She realized her dream of becoming an actress. 她实现了梦想,成了一名演员。 = Her dream of becoming an actress came true. He always dreams of/about his hometown. 他总是梦到他的家乡。 I wouldn‘t dream of cheating you. 我做梦也不会想要骗你。 You can see from his face that he is having/dreaming a beautiful dream. 可以从他的脸上看出来他正在做一个美梦。 dress n. clothing for a woman or girl 服装,女服 vt. put clothes on 给??穿衣 词组 dress up 盛装;打扮 evening dress 晚礼服 例句 You have to dress the kids hurriedly. 你得赶快给孩子穿衣服。 She dressed herself in a red gown. 她穿着红袍。 This girl was poorly dressed. 那女孩衣着寒酸。 He dressed well/badly. 他穿得很得体/很糟糕。 We dressed up for our best friend‘s wedding. 我们盛装参加朋友的婚礼。 辨析 dress 一般作及物动词,表示穿衣服的状态时, 用被动语态; wear 作及物动词,表示穿戴的状态; put on 表示穿戴的动作 辨析下列句子:I wear pajamas at home. 表示每天的习惯动作,用 wear。 He put on the raincoat before going out of the door. 表示动作。 He is now dressed in a formal suit.表示状态 drink (drank, drunk) v. to have liquid; swallow 喝,喝酒 n. liquid suitable for drinking; alcohol for drinking 饮料,酒 词组 bottled drinks 瓶装饮料 food and drink 食物和饮料 drinking water 饮用水 例句 Let‘s drink to Mark‘s health! 为马克的健康干杯!


drunk adj. 喝醉的,陶醉的 She got drunk on beer.


drive (drove, driven) v. n. control a vehicle; force to go 驾驶;驱赶 词组 drive sb. mad 把??逼疯 drive sb. to do… 迫使??做 driving license 驾驶执照 driving test 驾驶执照考试 例句 In Britain, cars drive on the left-hand side of the road. 在英国,车辆靠左行驶。 Could you drive me to the station? 你能开车送我去车站吗? Please drive the dog away. 请把狗赶走。 It‘s only a ten minutes‘ drive to my office. 开车到我办公室只需十分钟的路程。 The terrible noise almost drove me mad. 可怕的噪音几乎把我逼疯了。 Poverty drove him to steal. 贫困迫使他去偷窃。 drop n. a small amount of liquid 滴,一滴;下降 (dropped, dropped) v. fall unexpectedly 滴落,掉下 词组 drop off 让??下车 例句 There is a drop of temperature recently. 近来气温下降。 He dropped some soup down his new suit. 他把汤洒到新西装上了。 The dish dropped down to the floor. 盘子掉到地上。 She dropped the dish on the floor. 她失手把盘子掉到地上了。 Price continued to drop in the past year. 过去一年中价格不断下跌。 I can drop you off at your place. 我可以送你到你的住处(让你下车) 。 drown v. die by being under water and unable to breathe 沉没,淹死 辨析 a drowning child 被水淹着的孩子(还没有死) a drowned child 被水淹死的孩子 drug n. medicine; a substance one takes for pleasure or excitement 药;麻醉药,毒品 词组 drugstore 药店 take drugs 吸食毒品 辨析 drug 现在较多指毒品,指药通常用 medicine due adj. owed or owing as a debt or right; proper or suitable 应得的,应给的 e 词组 due to 由于,因为 = because of 例句 The accident was due to his careless driving. 这次事故是由于他的粗心驾驶。 The sports meeting is postponed due to rain. 这次运动会由于下雨被推迟了。 辨析 due to, because of, owing to 都解释为“由于,因为” ,但要注意 due to 不能用在句首, 而 owing to 不能用做表语;because of 最为口语化。 Owing to the sudden rain, the game was cancelled. 由于突降大雨,比赛取消了。 duty n. something that one should do as a job or moral request 责任,义务 词组 do one‘s duty 尽义务

sense of duty neglect one‘s duty perform one‘s duties customs duties be on duty be off duty

责任感 忽视职责,渎职 尽职 关税 在工作时间内,值班的 不值班的,在工作时间外

each adj. pron. every single one of two or more things considered separately 每个,各个 词组 each other 互相 (one another 也是互相的意思,但一般用于三个人以上) 例句 They respect each other. 他们互相尊重。 eager adj. strongly interested; impatiently desiring 渴望 词组 eager beaver 热心工作的人 例句 He is eager for success. 他非常渴望成功。 Joan is eager for you to come to the party. 乔安非常期望你来参加晚会。 The children are listening to his story with eager attention. 孩子们热切倾听他讲故事。 He is very eager in acting. 他非常热衷于表演。 展开 eagerly adv. 殷切地,渴望地 eagerness n. 热心,渴望 He is longing for the admission with great eagerness. 他殷切地盼望着录取通知。 She is in her eagerness to adopt the doggie. 她急于要收养那条小狗。 early adj. adv. (earlier, earliest) happening before the usual time 早的,初期的 词组 early or late = sooner or later 迟早,早晚 early bird 早起的人 例句 The early bird catches the worm. 早起三分利;捷足先登 earn vt. get money by working; get because of one‘s qualities 赚,挣得 词组 earn one‘s living 维持生计 例句 He earned respect by rescuing a drowning man. 他拯救了落水的人,赢得了大家的尊重。 That show earned him great fame. 那个节目使他名声大噪。 He earns his living by teaching in a language school. 他在一所语言学校教书谋生。 展开 earnings n. 所得,收入,收益 earnest adj. determined and serious 认真的,迫切的,诚恳的 词组 be earnest about 热心于?? 例句 Parents are earnest about their children‘s education. 父母对孩子的教育非常热心。 earth 词组 n. the planet on which we live; soil in which plants grow 地球,土地 the earth 地球 down to earth 实事求是的;实际的

on earth


ease n. the ability to do something without difficulty; the state without worries 容易,不费力 n. make or become less severe; make less anxious; become less difficult 放轻松 词组 feel at ease 心定气闲 at (one‘s) ease 轻松的,安心地 例句 He answered the question with great ease. 他轻易地答复那些问题。 The news that her son passed the exam eased her mind. 她听到儿子通过考试的消息便安心了。 His words eased me of my anxiety. 他的话解除了我的忧虑。 Set your mind at ease. 请你放心。 展开 easy adj. 容易的 The question is easy (for me) to answer. 这问题很容易回答。 = It is easy (for me) to answer the question. Easier said than done. 说比做容易。 Easy come, easy go. 来得容易去得快。 take it easy 从容不迫,放心 easily adv. = without difficulty east n. the direction from which the sun rises 东方 adj. facing or in the direction from which the sun rises 在东方 adv. 朝东方 towards the direction from which the sun rises 词组 the East 东方 the east coast 东海岸 例句 The sun rises in the east. 太阳从东方升起。 The park is located in the east of the city. 公园坐落在城市的东部。 The park is located to the east of the museum.公园坐落于博物馆的东面。 The ship will travel east. (adv.) 船向动航行。 展开 eastern adj. 东方的,东部的 eastward adv. 朝东方 eat v. 词组 (ate, eaten) take food through mouth 吃 eat up 吃完,大量消耗 eat one‘s words (承认错误而)收回前言,为所说的话道歉

economy n. the system by which wealth is produced; the careful use of money 经济;节约 词组 economy class 经济舱 辨析 economic adj. 经济上的,经济学的 economical adj. 节约的,节俭的 辨析下列句子:To buy cheap things is not always economical. 买便宜货不一定合算。 He left school for economic reason. 他因为经济原因而辍学。 the world‘s economic situation 世界经济形势 economic growth 经济增长


economically adv. 节约地,省钱地 economics n. 经济学

educate v. teach or train through formal instruction at a school or college 教育 例句 She is a well-educated lady. 她是位有良好教育的女士。 展开 education n. 教育 receive/obtain education 接受教育 college/university education 大学教育 elementary/primary education 小学教育 higher education 高等教育 effect n. a result or condition produced by a cause 效果,结果,影响 词组 have/produce an effect on… 对??有影响 bring … into effect 实行??,施行(法律等) come into effect 开始实施,开始生效 例句 His new way of teaching produced a good effect. 他的新教学方法造成良好的效果。 The medicine had a good effect on me. 这种药对我有良好的效果。 The new regulations will be brought into effect next month. 新的法规将于下月生效。 展开 effective adj. 有效的,有作用的 efficient adj. working quickly without waste(指物)有效率的; (指人)有能力的 例句 The way you work is far from efficient. 你的工作方法一点也没有效率。 She is an efficient manager. 她是个能干的经理。 展开 efficiency n. 效率 It will improve our efficiency if we introduce this machine. 假如我们引进这台机器,效率将会改进。 effort n. the use of physical strength or power of the mind; trying hard with mind or body 努力 词组 make an effort 尽力 spare no effort 不遗余力 例句 He solved the problem without effort. 他毫不费力地解决了问题。 I made every effort to get it. 我竭尽全力要得到它。 He spared no effort to help the old man. 他不遗余力地帮助那个老人。 elder adj. older of the two 年长的(old 的辨析级,不与 than 连用;older 与 than 连用) 词组 one‘s elder brother/sister 哥哥/姐姐 展开 elderly adj. 年长的,近老年的 the elderly people 老年人 elect vt. to choose someone for an official position by voting 选举 例句 He was elected (as) monitor. 他被选为班长。 They elected me as a member of the committee. 他们选我为委员会成员之一。


electric adj. worked by electricity 电的,有电的 词组 electric power 电力 electric fan 电扇 electric light 电灯 electrical appliance 电气用品 辨析 electric 指带电的 electrical 指与电相关的 展开 electricity n. 电 cut off electricity 断电 electrician n. 电机师 elementary adj. simple and easy 初步的,基本的 词组 elementary school 小学 elementary education 初等教育 embarrass vt. cause to feel anxious and uncomfortable 使人窘迫,使为难 例句 Don‘t embarrass them with personal questions. 不要用个人问题使他们为难。 = Don‘t embarrass them by asking personal questions. 展开 embarrassed adj. 觉得不好意思的,发窘的 embarrassing adj. 令人不安的,令人为难的 emergency n. an unexpected and dangerous happening 紧急情况,危急的形势 词组 emergency exit 紧急出口,太平门 emergency ward 急诊室 emergency measures 紧急措施 例句 Sound the alarm in case of emergency. 紧急情况下请鸣警报。 emotion n. strong feeling of the human spirit 感情,情绪 展开 归纳 emotion 指喜怒哀乐等的情感,包括:joy, delight, pleasure, sorrow, despair, fear, anger, jealousy, love, hatred 等等。 emotional adj. 感情上的 emphasis n. (pl. emphases) special attention given to something 强调,重视 词组 lay/place/put emphasis on 强调 例句 He spoke with emphasis on the medication. 他强调医疗的重要性。 展开 emphasize vt. 强调??,着重 He emphasized that practice was most important. 他强调说实践最重要。 employ v. use the service of a person in return for pay 雇佣,聘请;使用 例句 She was employed as a secretary in the company. 她被聘用为公司的秘书。 You should employ your money more wisely. 你应该更明智地用你的钱。 展开 employee n. 雇员 employer n. 雇主 employment n. 雇佣;就业 unemployment n. 失业 be in/out of employment 有工作/失业 enable vt. make able; give authority to do something 词组 enable sb. to do

使能够 使??能够做??

例句 展开

Coffee enables me to stay awake in these dull afternoons. 咖啡使我得以在这些无聊的下午保持清醒。 able adj. 有能力的 unable adj. 没有能力的

encourage vt. give hope, courage or confidence to; support 鼓励,激励 词组 encourage sb. to do 鼓励??做 encourage sb. in sth. 鼓励某人的?? 例句 The teachers encouraged the boy in his effort to win the speech contest. 老师鼓励这个孩子为赢得演讲比赛做出的努力。 My parents encouraged me to study abroad. 父母鼓励我出国学习。 展开 encouragement n. 鼓励,刺激的话 courage n. 勇气 end n. farthest or last part 末端,终点,结尾 v. come to an end; reach an end 结束,终止 词组 bring sth. to an end 使??终止 come to an end 完毕,结束 from end to end 从头至尾 in the end 最后,终于 at the end of 在??的结尾 on end 笔直地;连续地 end up + n./doing/prep. 最后成为,以??告终 例句 He ended up the head of their group. 结果他成了组长。 If you keep doing so, you‘ll end up in hospital. 如果你继续这样做,你最终会生病住院的. On the contrary, you will end up gaining weight if you skip breakfast. 恰恰相反,如果不吃早饭你最终会增加体重。 I wonder how to bring their fight to an end. 我不知道如何让他们停止吵架。 The meeting came to an end at midnight. 会议在午夜结束。 They came to no conclusion in the end. 他们最终没有得出任何结论。 We‘ll give you the response at the end of this month. 我们将在本月底给你回音。 It has been snowing for a week on end. 已经连续下了一个月的雪了。 endure v. suffer; undergo pain; bear; put up with; continue to exist 忍受,忍耐,持续 例句 The Iraqi people endured many hardships during the war. 伊拉克人民在战火中忍受了许多艰难痛苦。 I can‘t endure to see/endure seeing you so discouraged. 我不忍看到你如此沮丧。 展开 endurance n. 持久力 energy n. force; vigor; capacity to do things and get things done 精力,活力,能量 词组 devote one‘s energy to sth. 致力于?? 展开 energetic adj. 精力旺盛的,精神饱满的 energize vt. 供给??能量;使有活力 engage v. take part in; be busy with 从事于,参加,忙于 词组 engage (oneself) in sth./doing 从事 engage sb. in sth. 使某人参加 be engaged in sth./doing 从事??,忙于?? engage oneself to sb. / be engaged to 与??订婚



The line is engaged. (电话)线路正忙。 He wants to engage (himself) in helping the blind. 他想从事帮助盲人的工作。 We engaged him in conversation. 我们设法使他加入谈话。 I‘m engaged in answering telephone now. 我现在忙着接电话呢。 My daughter is engaged to a young doctor. 我女儿和一个年轻的医生订婚了。 engagement n. 约定;订婚 fulfill an engagement 践约 break an engagement 毁约 enter into an engagement with 与??订约

enjoy vt. get pleasure from; take delight in 喜欢,享受??的乐趣 词组 enjoy oneself 过得快乐 例句 I enjoy swimming very much. 我很喜欢游泳。 Did you enjoy yourself last weekend? 上周末你过得好吗? 展开 enjoyable adj. 愉快的 enjoyment n. 享乐,享乐的事 enlarge v. make or become larger 扩大 展开 归纳 前缀 en- 将形容词或名词变成动词,意思为“使变成??” ,如: large – enlarge courage – encourage able – enable rich – enrich power – empower title – entitle

Unit Nine

ensure vt. make sure; guarantee; make safe 担保,保证 词组 ensure sb. sth. 保证某人?? ensure that … 保证?? 例句 His recommendation will ensure me a job. 他的推荐保证我找得到工作。 I can‘t ensure that she will be elected our monitor. 我不能保证她会被选为班长。 We should ensure ourselves against all possible risks. 我们要保护自己,防备任何危险。 enter v. 词组 例句 come or go into; become a member of 进入 enter for 报名参加 enter into 开始交涉;缔结协定 My child has already entered for the singing contest. 我的孩子报名参加了歌唱比赛。 The two countries entered into an agreement after long-term discussion. 长期商讨后两国订立了协议。 He entered this company 3 years ago. 他三年前进入了这家公司。

entertain vt. receive people as guests; give food and drink to 给??娱乐,款待 例句 She entertained us with refreshments. 她请我们吃点心。 His jokes entertained us throughout the party. 聚会中他的笑话逗乐了我们。 展开 entertainer n. 表演者 entertaining adj. 有趣的,快乐的 entertainment n. 娱乐 entitle vt. give right to; have something as a title 词组 entitle sb. to sth. entitle sb. to do 例句 This ticket entitles you to a free dinner. What entitles you to criticize us? Have you entitled your book yet? 给??权力;冠名 使??有资格 使??有权力做?? 凭这张票你可享用免费晚餐。 你有什么权力批评我们? 你给你的书命名了吗?

entrance n. opening, gate, door, by which one enters; coming or going in 入口,进入 词组 entrance examination 入学考试 entrance to university 大学入学许可 equal adj. the same in amount, degree, value, etc 相等的,平等的 vt. be the same; be equal to 等于 词组 be equal to 与??相等 例句 They are equal in ability. (in 指在某个方面) 他们能力相等。 All men are born equal. 人生来平等。 Two and five equals seven. 二加五等于七。 John is equal to Charles in height. 约翰和查尔斯身高相等。

equip (equipped, equipped) vt. supply something for purpose 配备;使有准备 词组 equip sth. with sth. 为??配备?? be equipped with 配备了?? equip sth. for … / be equipped for 为??做好准备 例句 Our school equipped the laboratories with proper facilities. 我们学校的实验室配备了妥善的设备。 This cruise boat is equipped with newest GPS system. 这条游船上配备了最新的 GPS 系统。 She is fully equipped for the mountain climbing. 她为登山做好了充分的准备。 展开 equipment n. [u] 装备,设备 escape v. n. 词组 get free; get away; find a way out 逸出,逃跑 act of getting free; means of avoiding 逃走,逃避 escape from 从…逃出 escape sth./ doing 脱离 make one‘s escape 逃跑 have a narrow escape 幸免于难 Fortunately, most people escaped from the burning building. 幸运的是,大多数人都逃离了着火的房子。 Finally the kid escaped punishment/escaped being punished. 最终这个孩子免于惩罚。 The robbers made their escape in a car. 劫犯坐车逃跑了。 The Beans family had a narrow escape from the hurricane last year. 比恩一家去年幸免躲过了那场飓风。 I narrowly escaped death by luck. 我侥幸逃过一死全凭运气。


especially adv. to an exceptional degree; in particular 特别地,尤其 辨析 especially = particularly 表示程度深,尤其 specially 表示特别为??准备的,特地地 辨析下列句子:This watch is specially designed for you. 这手表是特别为你设计的。 The weather in Shanghai is not very pleasant, especially in summer. 上海的天气并不好,尤其是在夏天。 essential adj. necessary; most important; fundamental 必要的,实质的 例句 it is essential that… ??是绝对必要的 It is essential that you (should) work hard on vocabulary. 你完全有必要努力学习词汇。 it is essential for sb. to do 做??是绝对必要的 It is essential for us to set a practical goal. 有必要设定一个实用的目标。 展开 essentially adv. 本质上 establish vt. set up; put on a firm foundation 建立,设立 词组 establish oneself as 确立某人作为??的地位



The company was established in 1993. 这家公司成立于 1993 年。 His new research established him as a qualified professor. 他的新研究使他成为合格的教授。 establishment n. 设立,确立

eve n. day or evening before a festival (重要日子的)前夜,前夕 词组 on Christmas Eve 在圣诞夜 on New Year‘s Eve 在除夕 even adv. (used to invite a comparison) which is more than might be expected 甚至,即使 词组 even if = even though conj. 即使,纵使 even so 即便如

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