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Module 1 Happiness.

Unit 1
What is beauty?

Aims and Purposes: ? Learn and master some grammatical rules of inversion ? Help students to make a summary of all kinds of inversion ? Be able to do some exercises related to inversion



Inversion is the changing of the order of the words in the sentence.
When we use inversion, we put the predicate or part of it before the subject.

Partial inversion
部分倒装: 部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分,如助动词或者 情态动词移至主语之前。如果句中的谓语没有 助动词,则需添加助动词do, does, did, 并将其 置于主语之前。

1)so, neither, nor 位于句首作替代词,表 示与上文提到的情况一样或者不同时,引起 部分倒装,分别表示
So:也一样 Neither/Nor: 也不

如,a) Alice was able to swim across the English Channel at the age of sixteen. ---So was Jack. b) Henry couldn’t afford to buy a new house. ----Neither/ Nor could his brother. c) Did you enjoy the trip? --- I’m afraid not. Neither did my classmates. d) Mrs Black is patient and seldom loses her temper. ---So it is with his husband.

注意: 当 so 引出的句子表示对上文 内容的证实 或者肯定,即含义为“确实如此”,不可 以用倒装,必须用正常语序。 Mary sings beautifully. ---- So she does. ----So does Jane.

2) 含有否定意义的一些副词,如hardly, scarcely, seldom, little, rarely, never, not / no / neither / nor/ few / nowhere /in vain(徒 劳) 等位于句首时, 引起部分倒装。
还有一些表示否定意义的介词短语位于句首时,句 子也要求用倒装结构,常见的这类介词短语都还有 “no”, 如,at no time, in no case, by no means, in no way, under/ in no circumstance 等。 in no way/case =on no occasion =by no means=on no account =in / under no circumstances(决不)

如,a) Under no circumstances shall I change my attitude towards beauty. 无论如何我都不会改变自己对美的态度。 b) At no time and in no circumstances should the fire doors of the building ever be locked. 无论什么时候,什么情况下,建筑物的消防通道们都不 能锁上。 c) Not a single mistake did I make. d) In vain(无结果的,徒然) did I try to change his mind. e) Seldom does she show her feelings, even when she is said. f) Not only did he work faster, but also he worked better.

3) 含 not until 的强调句,如果not until位 于句首,句子要求用倒装结构,如果是主从 复合句,倒装结构出现在主句中。 如, a) Not until all the fish died in the river did the residents realize how serious the water pollution was. b) Not until then did he come to realize how serious the situation was. c) Not until it was dark, did we arrive at the village.

4) 在“一… 就 …”, “刚刚….就“ 句型中, 表示
一件事情紧接着另一件事情发生。 如,a) No sooner had we assembled than

the ceremony began. =Hardly … … when…. =Scarcely … … when… =Rarely … … when… b) No sooner had I fallen asleep than I heard a knock at the door. c) Scarcely had it grown dark when she realized it was too late to go to the cinema.

5) only 放在句首,修饰副词, 介词或者庄于从句时, 常引起后面句子部分倒装,only+状语(副词,介短, 状从) Only then was I conscious of my mistake. Only when you are 18, can you enjoy the civil rights. Only with hard work can you learn English well. Only then did she learn about the truth of his leaving the position.. Only修饰主语时不要求倒装。 Only I can finish this task. Only he knows the truth.

6).so, such 等表示程度的副词位于句首 So hard did he work that he achieved his aim. Such a hard-working student was he that he achieved his aim. 7). 用于省略If的虚拟条件句,将 were, had, should提前 If it should rain tomorrow, I should stay indoors = Should it rain tomorrow, Had you not told me about the matter, I should never have known the whole thing.

8) 用于让步状语从句 as=though, 虽然, 表状提前, 表语是名词时,零冠词 Abstract as the theory is, I’ve understood it. Child though he is, he masters science. Try as he would, he might fail again. 9). Sometimes, often, well, many a time, to such a degree, now and then 位于句首时 Well do I remember my childhood now. Many a time did they hold such an activity last year.

10). 特殊结构的让步状语从句, Be 或者动词原形位于句首,相当于让步状语从句 be + 主语+ ever so +adj 无论怎样 如,Be a man ever so clever, he knows nothing if he doesn’t learn. 无论一个人有多聪明, 不学习就什么都不知道。 be + 主语+A or B 无论是A 还是B Be he friend or enemy, the law regarded him as a criminal. 动词+wh--+will/ may 无论 Come what may, we must remain optimistic. = Whatever may come, we must remain optimistic.

Partial inversion

So do I.

So do I .
Partial inversion used in short replies When we agree with statements other people have made, we can use a short reply beginning with so after a positive statement, and neither or nor after a negative statement.

? When we want to agree, we must use the same inverted verb. Work in pairs:
I want to go shopping. I will go shopping. So do I So will I Neither / Nor did I. Neither / Nor can I So am I. So do / have I Neither / Nor have I.

I didn’t go shopping yesterday I can not go shopping today. I am too tired to go shopping I have a new coat. I’ve never been shopping.

Partial inversion used in short replies. ? After a positive statement: So +助动词/情态动词 + 主语 ? After a negative statement Neither / Nor +助动词 / 情态动词 + 主语

Work in groups of three: (p. 6) S1should read the question;

S2 should answer it.
S3 must agree with S2 using so, neither or nor. Follow the example: S1: Do you like to play sports? (Yes) S2: Yes, I do.

S3: So do I.

Partial inversion in long sentences.

1. When the sentence begins with a negative word or a negative phrase such as neither / nor / never / not / seldom / hardly / rarely / at no time etc.

Read the following and pay attention to the order of the verbs.
Neither am I impressed by the paintings nor do I like them.
Never in my life have I seen such wonderful pictures. Not a word did he say about his visit to the art museum.

Seldom does he paint now.
Hardly had I got to Amsterdam when it began to snow. At no time during the tour was I bored.

2. When the sentence begins with only, which modifies the adverbials. ?Only when Mr Baker returns this afternoon will the meeting began. ?Only on such a trip can you learn as

much as about Europeans artists.
?Only then did I realize that I was wrong.

3. When the sentence begins with so; ?So fast does the light travel that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed. ?So sudden was the attack that the people in the building had no time to escape. ?So crowded was the art gallery that I could hardly move about.

Transform the sentences using the words in brackets (p.7) 1.I have seen a handsome man. (seldom / such) Seldom have I seen such a handsome man. 2. We think about what beauty really means. (rarely) Rarely do we think about what beauty really means.

3. She noticed that she was getting fat (only yesterday) Only yesterday did she notice she was getting fat. 4. I go to the gym. (rarely) Rarely do I go to the gym.

5. I have heard a beautiful song. (never / such) Never have I heard such a beautiful song. 6. They understood what the teacher meant. (only then)
Only then did they understand what the teacher meant.

Complete inversion
完全倒装: 完全倒装是指把整个谓语部分放在主语前面。 完全倒装通常只用于一般现在时和一般过去 时。

1) 当状语here, there, now, then (主 语是名词)和表示位置转移的副词如up, down, in, out, off, on, away 位于句首时, 句子的谓语放在主语的前面,即完全倒装。 但当主语为人称代词时,不倒装。 ? 如, ? Here comes the bus. ? Here he comes. ? Out rushed the children.

2) 当表示地点的状语放在句首时,主谓完 全倒装。(主语是名词) ? 如,On the wall hangs a picture. ? 该句型为:地点状语+ be / lie / stand / sit / live / come / go / rise /等不及物动 词+ 主语 ? On the ground lay a peasant boy.

3) 完全倒装还用于句型there + live / lie / stand / stand / exist / exist / remain / be /seem to be / ? happen to be / used to be / ought to be / must be / can’t be…+ 主语 ? 如,There stands a tall tree in front of the classroom.

? 4) 表+主+定语从句 ? Gone are the days when we Chinese used the foreign oil.
? 5). 用于某些表示祝愿的句子 ? Long live sb!(=May sb live long!) ? May you succeed.

? 6). Such was Einstein, a famous but simple man. ? 7). 由于修辞或是平衡句子的原因也可以用倒 装句 ? Next to this one is another grand hotel which is beautifully decorated.

Complete inversion
? We can use complete inversion when a sentence begins with and adverbial expression of place or direction.

Work in pairs. Look at pictures and explain them to your partner using inversion Follow the example.

S1: What is the bag?
S2: In the bag are some black

S1: What are in front of the girl?

S2: In front of her are some
lighted candles.

S1: What are along the river?

S2: Along the river are houses.

S1: What is on the table? S2: On the table is a cup.

S1: What is beyond that mountain? S2: Beyond that mountain is a village.

Arrange these words to make full sentences using complete inversion.

1. Sat / very / a / chair / man / on / fat / was / the On the chair sat a very fat man.

2. Uniforms / students / road / wearing / some / along / bright / the / came Along the road came some students wearing bright uniforms.

3. Big / table / piece / chocolate / is / on /a / the / of On the big table is a piece of chocolate. 4. tree / car / red / a / under / beautiful / the / was Under the tree was a beautiful red car.

5. your / there / brother / goes There goes your brother. 6. salon / sat / hair / in / old / the / with / woman / hairdressing / white / an
In the hairdressing salon sat an old woman with white hair.


一、从A、B、C、D四个选项中选出可以 填入句中空白处的最佳答案。 1. I will never know what was on his mind B at the time, _________ will anyone else. A. either B. neither C. so D. as 2. Alice never does any reading in the D evening, ________. A. so does John B. John does too C. John doesn’t too D. nor does John

B 3. Never in my wildest dreams _________ these people are living in such poor conditions. A. I could imagine B. could I imagine C. I couldn’t imagine D. couldn’t I imagine D 4. Little _________ that we were watching his every move, so he seemed to be going his own way in this business. A. he realized B. he didn’t realize C. didn’t he realize D. did he realize

A 5. So busy ___________ he has no time to spare. A. is the dentist that B. the dentist is that C. has the dentist that D. the dentist has that C 6. Hardly _________ got to the airport ______ the plane took off. A. they had; than B. had they; than C. had they; when D. did they; when

B 7. Seldom _____________ any mistakes during my past few years of working here. A. would I make B. did I make C. I did make D. shall I make

8. I failed in the final examination last term D and only then _____________ the importance of studies. A. I realized B. I had realized C. had I realized D. did I realize

9. —I will never come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible! B —___________. A. Nor am I B. Neither will I C. Same with me D. So do I
A 10. Down the river _________. A. flowed a small boat B. a small boat flowed C. did a small boat flow D. a small boat did flow

二、根据汉语,用倒装完成英语句子。 1. 我非常喜欢看电视,她也是如此。 I like watching TV very much. So does she ______________________________. 2. 我认为这几乎是不可能的。 Hardly did I think it possible ____________________________________ . 3. 当我们到达那儿时,一个吓人的声音从山谷传 来。 From the valley came a frightening sound ______________________________________ when we got there.

4. 我们刚爬山就下起雪来了。 Hardly had we begun the climb ______________________________________ when the snow start to come down. 5. 窗户边坐着一个年轻人,手里拿着一本杂志。 By the window sat a young man _______________________________ with a magazine in his hand.

A 1._____ you eat the correct foods ______ be able to keep fit and stay healthy. (08 江苏 卷) A. Only if; will you B. Only if; you will C. Unless; will you D. Unless; you will
2. Bill wasn’t happy about the delay of the report by Jason, and ______. (08 辽宁卷) B A. I was neither B. neither was I C. I was either D. either was I

2. Bill wasn’t happy about the delay of the report by Jason, and ______. (08 辽宁卷) B A. I was neither B. neither was I C. I was either D. either was I
3. Not until the motorbike looked almost new B _________ repairing and cleaning it. (08 陕 西卷) A. he stopped B. did he stop C. stopped he D. he did stop

D 4. Only when I left my parents for Italy __ how much I loved them.(08 重庆卷) A. I realized B. I had realized C. had I realized D. did I realize C 5. So much of interest ___ that most visitors simply run out of time before seeing it all. (08 上海卷) A. offers Beijing B. Beijing offers C. does Beijing offer D. Beijing does offer

Have an intensive review on “Inversion” yourself, and give a summary on it.

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