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定语从句超详细解析


定语从句

先行词是 先行词是 定语 地点 时间 物 人 状语 状语 主 宾 主 宾 关系 代词 which that who whom whose where when

关系 副词

注:1.介词提前时一般只用which和whom。 2.whose+名词=the+名词+of which/ of whom

关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行

词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词
(who, whom, that, which, whose);

先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词
( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why

原因状语) 。

who, that, whom (1) who指人,在从句中做主语或宾语 Eg. The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman.

(2) whom 指人,在从句中做宾语,常可 以省略。 Eg. The professor (whom) you want to see has gone to Shanghai.

that, which (1) which 指物,在从句中做主语或宾语, 做宾语时可以省略。 Eg. He got back the ring (which) he had lost on the plane.
(2) that 既可以指人又可以指物,在从句 中做主语或宾语,做宾语时可以省略。

Eg. The woman that spoke to me lives next door.

下列情况只能用that

1. 当先行词前有序数词或形容词最高级 修饰时,或先行词就是序数词或形容 词最高级时。 Eg. This is the first/best play that I have seen. Eg. This train is the last that will go to Tibet.

下列情况只能用that

2. 当先行词是不定代词 all, much, little, something, everything, anything, nothing, none, one, somebody, nobody等时 Eg. Is there anything that I can do for you?

下列情况只能用that

3. 当先行词被all,the only, the very, few, little,some,no,any every, each 等修饰时 Eg. There is little time that we can use. Eg. This is the very book that I want to buy. 4. 当先行词既有人又有物时。 Eg. Do you know the things and persons that they are taking about?

下列情况只能用that

5 当先行词为who 或which 时 Eg. Which is the hotel that he stayed at last night? 6 关系代词作表语时 Eg. Linda is no longer the girl that she used to be.

下列情况一般用which

1. 在非限制性定语从句中 2. 关系代词在从句中作介词的宾语时 Eg. The room in which there is a machine is a workshop.

若关系代词which, that , who在定语从 句中作宾语时,可以省略 ? The girl (who) you met is my sister.

Whose用来指代所属关系

既指人又指物,在从句中作定语 Eg. This is the scientist whose name is known by all. Eg. I live in a room whose windows face the south.

关系副词
when指时间

Eg. She came last night when I was out. where 表地点
Eg. I know a place where we can read.

当先行词受such, the same修饰时,常用as I have never heard such a story as he tells. He is not such a fool as he looks. This is the same book as I lost last week.

注意:
She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她在MARY婚礼上穿过的一条裙子。 She wore the same dress as her young sister wore.
她穿着和她妹妹所穿的一样的裙子。

关系代词前介词的确定
1.根据从句中动词与先行词的逻辑关系,请体会: e.g. Is that the newspaper for which you often write articles?

2. 根据从句中动词或形容词的习惯搭配,如: e.g. Can you explain to me how to use these idioms about which I’m sure.
3. 根据先行词与介词的搭配习惯,请体会: e.g. 1949 was the year in which the P.R.C. was founded.

关系代词前介词的确定
4.非限制性定与从句中,要表示先行词的 一部分时,可用“数词/代词 + of + 关 系代词”的结构,如:

e.g. There are 50 students in our class, two-thirds of whom have been to Beijing.

区分定语从句和同位语从句
1.定语从句修饰先行词,它和先行词是修饰关系; 同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容,是补充说明的关系 (1) The plane that has just taken off is for

London. clear.

定语从句 同位语从句

(2) The fact that he has been dead is

2.定语从句由关系代词或者关系副词引导,关系词在 句中充当成分,有时可以省略; 同位语从句主要由that引导,在句中一般不做成分; 句子也可以由when, where, how, why, whether, what等词引导,充当成分 (1) The news he told me is true. (2) The news that he has just died is true. (3) The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money. (4) The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve.

限制性定语从句易错误区
1. It is the factory which my father works. It is the factory where my father works. 2. It was on the morning of May 1st when I met my friend at the airport. It was on the morning of May 1st that I met my friend at the airport.

1. The teacher showed me the way how I could work out the problem.
The teacher showed me the way in which/ that/ \ I could work out the problem.

2. We tried the way in which he told us.
We tried the way that he told us.

1. The reason why he gave for his being late was not sufficient.
The reason that he gave for his being late was not sufficient.

1. Teaching is a job which you are doing something serious but interesting.
Teaching is a job where you are doing something serious but interesting. 2. He grew up in a stage that the whole society was at a mess. He grew up in a stage where the whole society was at a mess.

1. The book I borrowed it from you yesterday is well worth reading. The book I borrowed from you yesterday is well worth reading. 2. The school where he is studying there is a famous one.

The school where he is studying is a famous one.

1. He promised to do all what he could do to help us out.
He promised to do all that he could do to help us out. 2. What do you think of his suggestion the meeting be put off till next week? What do you think of his suggestion that the meeting be put off till next week?

1. This is perhaps the only way which will lead you to success.

This is perhaps the only way that will lead you to success. 2. My hometown is no longer the village which it used to be. My hometown is no longer the village that it used to be.

3. Do you have anything which you want to say about the 29th Olympic Games?
Do you have anything that you want to say about the 29th Olympic Games? 4. I was deeply impressed by the teachers and schools which I had visited. I was deeply impressed by the teachers and schools that I had visited.

1. He could not find a single person to who he could turn for help in the strange town.

He could not find a single person to whom he could turn for help in the strange town.
2. He lent me a spade with that I dug a hole in the ground.

He lent me a spade with which I dug a hole in the ground.

Exercises

1.Mother bought me a dictionary on my birthday, ________made me very happy. A. what B. that C. who D. which 2. Look at the watch. Don’t you see it is _______ watch ________ Helen lost the other day? A. as the same; as B. the same; as
C. the same; which D. as the same ; that 3. ________ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. A. It B. As C. That D. What

4. The weather turned out to be very good, _____ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it 5. After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town, _______ he grew up as a child. A.which B. where C. that D. when 6. He made another wonderful discovery, ________ of great importance to science. A. which I think is B. which I think it is C. which I think it D. I think which is

7. The doctor advised Vera strongly that she should take a holiday, but __________ didn’t help. A. which B. it C. she D. he 8. ________ is reported in the newspaper, talks between the two countries are making progress. A. It B. As C. That D. What 9.Is this the only reason ______ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work? A. that he explained B. what he explained C. why he explained D. which he explained


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