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2014高考英语 阅读理解精英训练题(5)


2014 高考英语阅读理解精英训练题(5)及答案
阅读理解 There is increasing evidence that the impacts of meteorites (陨星) have had important effects on Earth, particularly in the field of biological evolution. Such impacts continue to pose a natural hazard to life on Earth. If an impact is large enough, it can disturb the environment of the entire Earth and cause an ecological catastrophe. The best-documented such impact took place 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period (白垩纪期) of geological history. This break in Earth's history is marked by a mass extinction, when as many as half the species on the planet became extinct. While there are a dozen or more mass extinctions in the geological record, the Cretaceous mass extinction has always intrigued paleontologists (古生物学者) because it marks the end of the age of the dinosaurs. For tens of millions of years, those great creatures had flourished. Then, suddenly, they disappeared. The body that impacted Earth at the end of the Cretaceous period was a meteorite with a mass of more than a trillion tons and a diameter of at least 10 kilometers. Scientists first identified this impact in 1980 from the worldwide layer of sediment (沉积物) deposited from the dust cloud that enveloped the planet after the impact. This sediment layer is enriched in the rare metal iridium (铱) and other elements that are relatively abundant in a meteorite but very rare in the crust (地壳) of Earth. Even diluted (稀 释) by the terrestrial (地球的) material excavated (挖掘) from the crater, this component of meteorites is easily identified. By 1990 geologists had located the impact site itself in the Yucat region of Mexico. The crater, now deeply buried in sediment, was originally about 200 kilometers in diameter. This impact released an enormous amount of energy, excavating a crater about twice as large as the lunar crater Tycho. The explosion lifted about 100 trillion tons of dust into the atmosphere. Such a quantity of material would have blocked the sunlight completely from reaching the surface, plunging Earth into a period of cold and darkness that lasted at least several months. The explosion is also calculated to have produced vast quantities of nitric acid (硝酸) and melted rock that sprayed out over much of
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Earth, starting widespread fires that must have consumed most terrestrial forests and grassland. Presumably, those environmental disasters could have been responsible for the mass extinction, including the death of the dinosaurs. Several other mass extinctions in the geological record have been tentatively identified with large impacts, but none is so dramatic as the Cretaceous event. But even without such specific documentation, it is clear that impacts of this size do occur and that their results can be catastrophic. What is a catastrophe for one group of living things, however, may create opportunities for another group. Following each mass extinction, there is a sudden evolutionary burst as new species develop to fill the ecological niches opened by the event. Impacts by meteorites represent one way that could cause global catastrophes and seriously influence the evolution of life all over the planet. According to some estimates, the majority of all extinctions of species may be due to such impacts. Such a perspective fundamentally changes our view of biological evolution. The standard criterion for the survival of a species is its success in competing with other species and adapting to slowly changing environments. Yet an equally important criterion is the ability of a species to survive random global ecological catastrophes due to impacts. 5. In paragraph 2, why does the author include the information that dinosaurs had flourished for tens of millions of years and then suddenly disappeared? A. To support the claim that the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous is the best-documented of the dozen or so mass extinctions in the geological record. B. To explain why as many as half of the species on Earth at the time are believed to have become extinct at the end of the Cretaceous. C. To explain why paleontologists have always been intrigued by the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous] D. To provide evidence that an impact can be large enough to disturb the environment of the entire planet and cause an ecological disaster. 6. According to paragraph 3, how did scientists determine that a large meteorite had impacted Earth?
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A. They discovered a large crater in the Yucat region of Mexico. B. They found a unique layer of sediment worldwide. C. They were alerted by archaeologists who had been excavating in the Yucat region. D. They located a meteorite with a mass of over a trillion tons. 7. According to paragraph 4, all of the following statements are true of the impact at the end of the Cretaceous period EXCEPT: A. A large amount of dust blocked sunlight from Earth. B. Earth became cold and dark for several months. C. New elements were formed in Earth's crust. D. Large quantities of nitric acid were produced. 8. The phrase tentatively identified in the passage is closest in the meaning to ____________. A. identified without certainty C. occasionally identified B. identified after careful study D. easily identified

9. Paragraph 6 supports which of the following statements about the factors that are essential for the survival of a species? A. The most important factor for the survival of a species is its ability to compete and adapt to gradual changes in its environment. B. The ability of a species to compete and adapt to a gradually changing environment is not the only ability that is essential for survival. C. Since most extinctions of species are due to major meteorite impacts, the ability to survive such impacts is the most important factor for the survival of a species. D. The factors that are most important for the survival of a species vary significantly from one species to another.

参考答案 5-9 CBCAB

第三部分:阅读理解(共两节,满分 40 分)

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阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C、D)中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上 将该项涂黑。 A (2012·四川眉山一诊) Tomato Festival Started in 2005, the Tomato Festival has grown into a local tradition in Malta. In recent years, the festival has added amusement park?style rides and a yearly Creature Feature, which screens old horrible movies.There are also dance competitions, parades and pancake breakfast.Third weekend in August. Address: 833 Tinkham Rd, Fountain Park, Wilbra?ham, Massachusetts 01095 Phone:(413)599?0010 Brat Days Don't mistake this festival for a day filled with poorly behaved children. Begun m 1953, the gathering is the biggest festival in the city each year and features more than 50 stands (摊位) selling the sausage, as well as a contest to see who can quickly eat the most bratwurst (德国式小香肠) in ten minutes.Early August. Address: 17th and New Jersey sts, Kiwanis Park, She boygan, Wisconsin 53081 Phone: (920)457?9491 Hope Watermelon Festival The festival dates back to the 1920s, when many trains went through this small town and local watermelon growers would sell their watermelon to parched travelers.These days, the festival sees a Watermelon Queen crowned( 加 冠 的 ) and sometimes a world?record watermelon grown.There are also more than 300 stands selling arts and crafts from a six?state area, as well as a car show and the Watermelon Olympics.Early August. Address: 108 W 3rd St, Hope, Arkansas 71801 Phone: (870) 777?3640 Oyster Festival (牡蛎节) Featuring appearances from tall ships and oyster boats, this festival has regularly drawn 60,000 visitors a year since it began in 1978.More than 3,000 volunteers (志愿者) make the festival possible each year.Norwalk is less than a two?hour drive from many of New England's larger cities, making it easy to attend the festival during a trip to New York or Hartford.Weekend after Labor Day. Address: Sea view Ave, Veteran's Park, East Nor?walk, Connecticut 06855 Phone: (800) 866?7925 文章大意:本文主要介绍了国外四种节日起源的时间,不同的庆祝方式、时间和地点。
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56.Which of the following festivals has the longest history? A.Oyster Festival. B.Hope Watermelon Festival. C.Brat Days. D.Tomato Festival. 答案:B 对比归纳题。从文中可以得到各个节日的起源时间为:Oyster Festival 1978 年;Hope Watermelon Festival 20 世纪 20 年代;Brat Days 1953 年;Tomato Festival 2005 年.故 B 项的历史最长。 57.The underlined word “parched” in the third passage means________. A.tired C.thirsty B.hungry D.excited

答案:C 猜测词义题。西瓜最好的特性是“甘甜解渴”。故反推得 C。 58.In which of the following activities can you enjoy the frightening films? A.The Creature Feature B.The Watermelon Olympics C.The Eating?bratwurst Contest D.Dance Competitions 答案:A 细节理解题。只有 Tomato Festival 中的第二句提到,其中的 the Creature Feature 里放 old horrible movies“旧的恐怖电影”。 59.If it is August 15 today this year, you might still attend____. A.Brat Days C.Hope Watermelon Festival B.Oyster Festival D.Tomato Festival

答案:D 推理判断题。几个节日的日期只有 Tomato Festival 是在 8 月的第三个星期, 在 8 月 15 日之后。

(201*·浙江卷)A One evening in February 2007 . a student named Paula Ceely brought her car to a stop on a remote in Wales . She got out to open a metal gate that blocked her path . That's when she heard the whistle sounded by the driver of a train.Her Renault Clio parked across a railway line. Second later,she watched kilometre down the railway tracks.
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the train drag her car almost a

Ceely's near miss made the news because she blamed it on her GPS device(导 航仪).She had never driven the route before .It was dark and raining heavily . Ceely was relying on her GPS. But it made no mention of the crossing ."I put my complete trust in the device and it led me right into the path of a speeding train ,"she told the BBC. W ho is to blame here ? Rick Stevenson ,who tells Ceely's story in his book When Machines Fail US, finger at the limitations of technology. We put our faith in digital devices, he says, but our digital helpers are too often not up to the job. They are filled with small problems. And it’s not just GPS devices: Stevenson takes us on a tour of

digital disasters involving everything from mobile phones to wireless key boards. The problem with his argument in the book is that it’s not clear why he only focuses digital technology,while there may be a number of other possible causes. A map-maker might have left the crossing off a paper map. Maybe we should blame Ceely for not paying attention. perhaps the railway authorities are at fault for poor signaling system. Or maybe someone has studied the relative dangers and worked out that there really is something specific wrong with the CPS equipment. But Stevenson doesn’t say. It’s a problem that runs through the book. In a section on cars, Stevenson gives an accout of the advanced techniques that criminals use to defeat computer-based locking systems for cars. He offers two independent sets of figures on car theft; both show a small rise in some parts of the country. He says that once once again not all new locks have proved reliable. Perhaps, but maybe it’s also due to the shortage of policemen on the streets. Or changing social circumstances. Or some combination of these factors . The game between humans and their smart devices is complex. It is shaped by

economics and psychology and the cultures we live in. Somewhere in the mix of those forces there may be way a wiser use of technology.

If there is such a way, it should involve more than just an awareness of the

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shortcomings of our machines. After all, we have lived with them for thousands of years. They have probably been fooling us for just as long . 41 .What did Paula Ceely think was the cause of her accident? A. She was not familiar with the road. B. It was dark and raining heavily then. C. The railway works failed to give the signal. D. Her GPS device didn’t tell her about the crossing 42.The phrase” near miss” (paragraph 2 ) can best be replaced by _______. A. close bit escape D. big mistake B. heavy loss C.narrow

43.Which of the following would Rick Stevenson most probably agree with?

A. Modern technology is what we can’t live without. B. Digital technology often falls short of out expectation. C. Digital devices are more reliable than they used to be. D. GPS error is not the only cause for Celery’s accident. 44.In the writer’s opinion, Stevenson’s argument is________. A. one-sided B. reasonable C.puzzling D.well-based

45.What is the real concern of the writer of this article? A.The major causes of traffic accidents and car thefts. B.The relationship between humans and technology C. The shortcomings of digital devices we use. D. The human unawareness of technical problems.

【答案】DCBAB

(2012·太原调研)

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If it really is what's on the inside that counts, then a lot of thin people might be in trouble. Some doctors now think that the internal fat surrounding important organs like the heart liver could be as dangerous as the external fat which can be noticed more easily. “Being thin doesn't surely mean you are not fat”, said Dr Jimmy Bell at Imperial College. Since 1994, Bell and his team have scanned nearly 800 people with MRI machines to create “fat maps” showing where people store fat. According to the result, people who keep their weight through diet rather than exercise are likely to have major deposits of internal fat, even if they are slim. Even people with normal Body Mass Index scores can have surprising levels of fat deposits inside.Of the women, as many as 45 percent of those with normal BMI scores (20 to 25) actually had too high levels of internal fat.Among men, the percentage was nearly 60 percent. According to Bell, people who are fat on the inside are actually on the edge of being fat.They eat too many fatty and sugary foods, but they are not eating enough to be fat.Scientists believe we naturally store fat around the belly first, but at some point, the body may start storing it elsewhere. Doctors are unsure about the exact dangers of internal fat, but some think it has something to do with heart disease and diabetes(糖尿病).They want to prove that internal fat damages the body's communication systems. The good news is that internal fat can be easily burned off through exercise or even by improving your diet.“If you want to be healthy, there is no shortcut.Exercise has to be an important part of your lifestyle,” Bell said. 文章大意:研究发现,表面瘦的人,内脏不一定不胖。而内脏的胖瘦才是关键的。 60.What is this passage mainly about? A.Thin people may be fat inside. B.Internal fat is of no importance. C.Internal fat leads to many diseases. D.Thin people don't have diabetes. 答案:A 主旨大意题。由前两段可知,本文讲的是瘦人可能内脏肥胖,这也很危险。 61.Doctors have found________. A.the exact dangers of internal fat
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B.being slim is not dangerous at all C.internal fat is the cause of heart disease D.being slim doesn't mean you are not fat inside 答案:D 细节理解题。由第三段“Being thin doesn't surely mean you are not fat” 可知,表面瘦并不意味着内脏瘦。 62.From the last paragraph, we can find that ________. A.internal fat leading to disease has been proved B.thin people usually have internal fat even if they are slim C.it is easier to burn off internal fat than external fat D.exercise plays an important role in people's life for keeping healthy 答案:D 主旨大意题。由最后一段可知,锻炼在人们保健中起着重要的作用。 63.The underlined part “shortcut” in the last paragraph means________. A.a long road C.a clear difference B.an easy way D.a short distance

答案:B 猜测词义题。要想保健,你必须锻炼。没有“捷径”可走。 *****************结束***************结束*************结束

We discuss the issue of when to help a patient die. Doctors of our generation are not newcomers to this question. Going back to my internship(实习)days, I can remember many patients in pain, sometimes in coma(昏迷), with late, hopeless cancer. For many of them, we wrote an order for heavy medication—morphine(吗啡)by the clock. This was not talked about openly and little was written about it. It was essential, not controversial. The best way to bring the problem into focus is to describe two patients whom I cared for. The first, formerly a nurse, had an automobile accident. A few days later her lungs seemed to fill up; her heart developed dangerous rhythm disturbances. So there she was: in coma, on a breathing machine, her heartbeat maintained with an electrical device. One day after rounds, my secretary said the husband and son of the patient wanted to see me. They told me their wife and mother was obviously going

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to die; she was a nurse and had told her family that she never wanted this kind of terrible death, being maintained by machines. I told them that while I respected their view, there was nothing deadly about her situation. The kidney(肾) failure she had was just the kind for which the artificial kidney was most effective. While possibly a bit reassured, they were disappointed. Here was the head surgeon seemingly determined to keep everybody alive, no matter what. Within a few days the patient's pacemaker(起搏器) could be removed and she awoke from her coma. About six months later, the door of my office opened and in walked a gloriously fit woman. After some cheery words of appreciation, the father and son asked to speak to me alone. As soon as the door closed, both men became quite tearful. All that came out was, "We want you to know how wrong we were." The second patient was an 85-year-old lady whose hair caught fire while she was smoking. She arrived with a deep burn; I knew it would surely be deadly. As a remarkable coincidence there was a meeting for discussion going on at the time in medical ethics(道德). The speaker asked me if I had any sort of ethical problem I could bring up for discussion. I described the case and asked the students their opinion. After the discussion, I made a remark that was, when looking back, a serious mistake. I said, "I'll take the word back to the nurses about her and we will talk about it some more before we decide." The instructor and the students were shocked: "You mean this is a real patient?" The teacher of ethics was not accustomed to being challenged by actuality. In any event, I went back and met with the nurses. A day or two later, when she was making no progress and was suffering terribly, we began to back off treatment. Soon she died quietly and not in pain. As a reasonable physician, you had better move ahead and do what you would want done for you. And don't discuss it with the world first. There is a lesson here for everybody. Assisting people to leave this life requires strong judgment and long experience to avoid its misuse. 10. In the early days when a patient had got a deadly, hopeless illness, _____. A. doctors used to ask the patient to go back home and wait for death B. doctors would write all their treatment plan on the patient’s medical record C. doctors would talk about their treatment plan openly
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D. usually doctors would inject more morphine into the patient to end his life 11. The first patient’s husband and son wanted the doctor_____. A. to end her life C. to operate on her at once B. to save her life D. to use an artificial kidney

12. In the second paragraph, why were they disappointed? A. Their wife and mother was going to die. B. They doctor didn’t do as they asked to. C. Their wife and mother had to receive a kidney transplant. D. The doctor scolded them for their cruelty 13. At the meeting, the author discussed with the students_____. A. how to help patients end their lives B. the importance of mercy killing C. the relationship between mercy killing and ethics D. the case about an old lady 14. The author suggested that doctors_____ before they assist a patient in killing himself. A. discuss it with the others first B. make sure there is no other choice left C. be required to do so first by the patient D. give the patient enough morphine 15.Which of the following can best describe the author?K] A. Cruel. C. Experienced. B. Determined. D. Considerate.

参考答案 10---15 DABDBC

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