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Listen this way Book 5


Unit 1 New concepts of Health
Part I Getting ready 1. I'm here to tell you how the patient should wrest control of 夺取对…的控制权 their health away from the practitioners of medicine 医师、医生 and take charge of 负责 their own medical destiny. wrest sth from sb/sth (formal) 夺取 to take sth such as power or control from sb/sth with great effort: They attempted to wrest control of the town from government forces. to take sth from sb that they do not want to give, suddenly or violently: He wrested the gun from my grasp. 区分 wrestling ['resli?] 摔角,扭斗,格斗 wrestle ['resl] practitioner: a person who works in a profession, especially medicine or law: dental / legal practitioners. Doctors are sometimes referred to as practitioners or medical practitioners. (FORMAL) 2. Your exercise regime 锻炼、运动保养法 should be a pleasure, not a penance. regime: [rei'?i:m] a special plan of food, exercise etc that is intended to improve your health = regimen ['red?imen] a dietary regime 养生法,生活规则; 政治制度,政权 penance: something that you have to do but do not enjoy doing. e.g.Working in the garden was a kind of penance. 讨厌但非做不可的事,痛苦的事[工作] 3. Many sports programs are now encouraging players to use cross training techniques 交叉训练技巧, that is, to borrow training techniques from other sports. Cross-training (also known as conditioning) refers to training in different ways to improve overall performance. It takes advantage of the particular effectiveness of each training method, while at the same time attempting to neglect the shortcomings of that method by combining it with other methods that address its weaknesses. 4. Subhealth, also called the third state or gray state, is defined as a borderline state 临界状态 between health and disease. 5. Nutrition experts point out that it is not good to eat too much at one meal because it may cause unhealthy changes in the digestive 消化的 tract 管,径,道. the digestive tract 消化道 6. They all wear locator 定位器, 探测器 badges 徽章, part of a wireless system that tracks their movements on the floor. 7. Annette Bearden is among dozens of nurses at Eden Medical Center who staged 实行, 进行 an active protest two months ago saying the system smacks of Big Brotherism 极权老大哥主义. Smack: if a situation smacks of something unpleasant, it seems to involve that thing 含有?的味道 His opinions ~ed of conservatism.他的意见带有保守主义的味道 8. I think it is one tool that we can use in measuring overall performance but by itself it is not a valid disciplinary tool. 9. If you've ever been kept awake with a headache or toothache, but at six in the evening, between six and seven, the sensitivity to pain is at its lowest. 10. And the other thing is that midday tiredness is at its worst between two and three.

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Part II Preventative medicine 预防医学
A scuba diving: the activity of swimming underwater using special breathing equipment. The equipment consists of cylinders 汽缸 of air which you carry on your back and which are connected to your mouth by rubber tubes. 轻便(潜水器)潜水 snorkeling: when you swim under water using a snorkel We went snorkeling in Hawaii. 潜水 strain: (因过度使用而) 伤害 <身体的某部分>He has ~ed his eyes by reading too much.他因阅 读过度而损伤了眼睛 [~ oneself]过度使用而损害健康~ oneself by overwork 因操劳过度而 损害身体 rowing: a sport in which people or teams race against each other in boats with oars. 划船,划艇,划 舟 squash: 网拍式墙球,回力球(一种两人或四人对打的室内球戏,以长柄圆框球拍互击由围墙上 弹回的橡皮球) stretching: 伸展<手脚等>,伸出 He ~ed his arms and yawned.他伸展双臂打呵欠 flexibility: 灵活性,柔韧性 stamina: physical or mental strength that lets you continue doing something for a long time without getting tired You need stamina to be a long-distance runner. Elaine has the stamina and the determination to succeed. 持久力,耐力,毅力 road work: 越野长跑训练(拳击手等为了调整体能状况而做的长途跑步等) weight training: the activity of lifting specially shaped pieces of metal that weigh an exact amount, as a form of exercise He does weight training at the gym twice a week. hone: to develop and improve sth, especially a skill, over a period of time: His body was honed to perfection. ◆ She honed her debating skills at college. 磨炼 <技术等> Outline I. Factors affecting our health A. self-destructive things 1. drinking too much alcohol 2. smoking heavily 3. having diets heavy in saturated fats 4. not enough exercise B. environmental factors 1. air pollution 2. water pollution 3. too much sunlight II. Ways to improve our fitness A. healthy lifestyle choices: making it fun to keep fit B. reducing sports injuries 1. two kinds of sports injuries a. accidental injuries b. repetitive strain injuries 2. ways to reduce them a. warming up adequately b. borrowing training techniques from other sports
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B 1. Which group in the survey is at higher risk of early death? Young men. especially working class young men. 2. According to the Surgeon-General of the US, how much of our illness could be avoided? 53%. 3. What's the purpose of doing stretching exercise? To increase the flexibility. 4. ls it tree that warm-up exercises are only needed on cool days? No. they are needed both on cool days and on hot days. 5. What cross training techniques do different sportsmen use? Complete the following chart. Sportsmen Cross training techniques Purpose Boxers Doing road work and weight training Building up stamina Table tennis players Running and jogging Improving performance footballers Doing flexibility exercises Helping control the ball better Tapescript: Good morning. I'm Dr. Pat Parker, and I'm here to talk to you about preventative medicine in its widest and most personal aspects. In other words, I'm here to tell you how the patient should wrest control of their health away from the practitioners of medicine and take charge of their own medical destiny. I want to talk about staying out of the hands of the doctor. When the patient takes responsibility for her or his own health--and let's decide the patient is male for now -- men are in fact more at risk than women anyway--when the patient takes over his own health regime, he must decide what he wants to do. Our department has recently completed a survey of men's health. We looked at men in different age groups and occupations, and we came up with a disturbing insight. Young men, particularly working class men, are at considerable risk of premature death because of their lifestyle. As a group, they have high risk factors: they drink too much alcohol, they smoke more heavily than any other group, their diet is frequently heavy in saturated fats, and they don't get enough exercise. We then did a smaller survey in which we looked at environmental factors which affect health. I had privately expected to find air or water pollution to be the biggest hazards, and they must not be ignored. However, the effects of the sun emerged as a threat which people simply do not take sufficiently seriously. Please remember that too much sunlight can cause permanent damage. Given this information, and the self-destructive things which people, particularly young men are doing to themselves, one could be excused for feeling very depressed. However, I'm an optimist, l see things improving, but only if we work very hard. In the second part of the talk I want to consider different things that you as students can do to improve your fitness. In the late 80's the Surgeon-General of the United States said that 53 percent of our illnesses could be avoided by healthy lifestyle choices. I now want to discuss these choices with you. You should try to make keeping fit fun! It's very hard to go out and do exercises by yourself, so it's wise to find a sport that you like and play it with other people, lf you swim, you can consider scuba diving or snorkeling. If you jog, try to find a friend to go with. If you walk, choose pretty places to walk or have a reason for walking. Your exercise regime should be a pleasure, not a penance. The university is an excellent place to find other people who share sporting interests with you, and there are many sports teams you can join. This, unfortunately, raises the issue of sports injuries, and different sports have characteristic injuries. As well as accidental injuries, we find repetitive
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strain injuries occurring in sports where the same motion is frequently performed, like rowing and squash. The parallel in working life is repetitive strain injury which may be suffered by typists or other people who perform the same action hour after hour, day after day. In this context, therefore, the most important thing to remember before any sport is to warm up adequately. Do stretching exercises, and aim at all times to increase your flexibility. Be gentle with yourself, and allow time to prepare for the game you have chosen to play. Don't be fooled by the term "warm up", by the way. It's every bit as important to do your warm-up exercises on a hot day as on a cool one. I think one of the most sensible and exciting developments in the reduction of injury is the recognition that all sports can borrow from each other. Many sports programs are now encouraging players to use cross training techniques, that is, to borrow training techniques from other sports. Boxers have been using cross training for years: building up stamina by doing road work and weight training, while honing their skills and reflexes. Other sports which require a high level of eye-hand coordination are following this trend, so you see table tennis players running and jogging to improve their performance, and footballers doing flexibility exercises which can help them control the ball better. All of these results are good, but the general sense of well-being is best, and is accessible to us all, from trained athletes to people who will never run a 100 meters in less than 15 seconds, Good health is not only for those who will achieve athletic greatness!(764)

Part III Subhealth
A stressed out: very tense and anxious because of difficulties in their lives. (INFORMAL) 紧张的,有 压力的 borderline: the point at which one quality, situation, emotion etc ends and another begins She slipped over the borderline into sleep. exposure: when someone is in a situation where they are not protected from something dangerous or unpleasant. exposure to Prolonged exposure to the sun can cause skin cancer. fatigue: a feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness. 疲倦,疲乏,疲劳 endocrinopathy: [end?ukrai'n?p?θi] n. [医]内分泌病 neurasthenia: [nju?r?s'θi:ni?] n. 神经衰弱症 climacteric: [klai'm?kt?rik] 更年期 insomnia: Someone who suffers from insomnia finds it difficult to sleep. agitation: If someone is in a state of agitation, they are very worried or upset, and show this in their behaviour, movements, or voice.不安,焦虑 cardiovascular: [kɑ:di?u'v?skjul?] adj. 心脏血管的 palpitations: /p?lp?'te???nz/ n [plural] if you have palpitations, your heart beats quickly in an irregular way 急速不规则的跳动;心悸 arrhythmia: [?'riθmi?]名词?医‘心律不整; 心脏跳动不规则 aquatic: living or growing in water, e.g. an aquatic plant trace element: a chemical element such as iron or zinc that occurs in very small amounts in living things and is necessary for normal growth and development. ‘生物’ (动植物所不可欠缺的) 微量元素 indispensable: essential; too important to be without: Cars have become an indispensable part of our lives. digestive tract: 消化道
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People most likely to be subhealthy 1. middle aged people 2. elderly people 3. people in management position 4. students at exam time Subhealth symptoms 1. lack of energy 2. depression 3. slow reactions 4. insomnia 5. agitation 6. poor memory 7. shortness of breath 8. sweating 9. aching in waist and legs 10. cardiovascular diseases The key to preventing and recovering from subhealth 1. forming good living habits 2. alternating work with rest 3. exercising regularly 4. taking part in open air activities 5. having a balanced diet B 1. Synonyms of subhealth: a. third state b. gray state 2. Definition of subhealth: a borderline state between health and disease 3. Clinical names of subhealth: fatigue syndrome, endocrinopathy, neurasthenia, climacteric syndrome 4. Food rich in nutritional elements: fresh vegetables, fruits, fish and aquatic products Feeling stressed out lately? Has the doctor said he cannot find anything wrong with you? Perhaps he sent you to a hospital, but all the fancy equipment there show that there is nothing wrong. Then consider this, you might be in a state of subhealth. Subhealth, also called the third state or gray state, is defined as a borderline state between health and disease. According to an investigation by the National Health Organization, over 45 percent of subhealthy people are middle aged or elderly. The percentage is even higher among people who work in management positions as well as students around exam-time, due to their heightened exposure to stress. Subhealth comes under several clinical names, including fatigue syndrome, endocrinopathy, neurasthenia, and climacteric syndrome. Symptoms include a lack of energy, depression, slow reactions, insomnia, agitation, and poor memory. Other symptoms include shortness of breath, sweating and aching in the waist and legs. In addition, cardiovascular diseases such as palpitations and arrhythmia may appear. The key to preventing and recovering from subhealth, according to some medical experts is to form good living habits, alternate work with rest, exercise regularly, and take part in open air activities. As for meals, people are advised to eat less salt and sugar. They should also eat more fresh vegetables, fruits, fish and aquatic products because they are rich in nutritional elements--vitamins and trace elements--that are indispensable to the body. Nutrition experts point
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out that it is not good to eat too much at one meal because it may cause unhealthy changes in the digestive tract. They also say that a balanced diet is very helpful in avoiding subhealth. Part IV Summary In more than 850 US hospitals, there is a system using infrared signals to track/locate a nurse when his/her service is needed. However, people have very different opinions about the use of such a system. Some people think, with this new technology, nurses can utilize their time in a better way, better patient care can be provided and nurses' overall performance can be measured, while some people think the devices will be used to listen in on conversations and scrutinize their movements. Some nurses even staged a protest against the system which seems to have a taste of Big Brotherism. Tapescript R: When a patient calls for help at Seton Medical Center, "Hi, Mr. Rogers, can I help you?" (says a nurse), it's never a problem finding a nurse. "Do you want him to come in? OK, OK thanks." [It's] because they all wear locator badges, part of a wireless system which tracks their movements on the floor. H: You can even tell when they are walking down the hallway? S: Yes, you can. Yeah, you can. Nancy Martinis? R: This system made by Hill-Rom uses infrared signals to detect when nurses enter a room to answer a call. Staff can tall and listen through a wall unit to nurses or even to patients in other rooms. S: The time we were spending hunting staff down trying to find them and locate them we can put that to much better use. R: Hill-Rom says it has systems installed in more than 850 U.S. hospitals. Some nurses worry that the devices will be used to listen in on conversations and scrutinize their movements. B: I'm not wearing mine. I will still meet my patients' needs but I will not wear this badge. R: Annette Bearden is among dozens of nurses at Eden Medical Center who staged an active protest two months ago saying the system smacks of Big Brotherism. They hid their badges though they were later recovered. B: You know it makes me not feel like a professional. It makes me like someone has to watch me to make sure that ! am doing my job. M: The biggest reason we installed this technology is because our old call system was about 25 years old. R: For hospitals this is a case of technology allowing, perhaps forcing people to better utilize their time. Officials at Eden don't deny they monitor how long it takes nurses to respond to calls but say their main concern is patient care. M: I think it's one tool that we can use in measuring performance, overall performance but by itself it is not a valid disciplinary tool. R: Eden is expanding its system with hopes the nurses will eventually accept the new technology, but back at Seton where it's been in place for about two years, there are no qualms. S: Once the staff actually find out how advantageous it can be for them and the patients, well, actually it became very popular. R: Here Big Brother may be watching, but they say he is also helping out.
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Part V

I: Well, our guest today is Dr. Elizabeth Alan who has just brought out a book called Biorhythms. Just to explain what biorhythms are to anyone not completely sure, they are not extraterrestrial, they are natural rhythms, the, um, biological rhythms of the body. And in Dr. Alan's book, there are suggestions about how to plan our daily activities around our biorhythms, isn't that it, Dr. Alan? A: Yes, it's a book where I've tried to include all the general things that are so far known.., um ... scientifically proven that is, about our biorhythms, and I've written it in a form of general practical advice in non-technical language. I: I, uh, must say the bit of advice I liked best, is about going to the dentist, you know the one about being better to go between four and five o'clock in the afternoon because the pain killing injections will last three times longer. A: Yes, that's very good advice. In the morning, if you go to the dentist in the morning, the injection or the effect of the injection would last about twenty minutes. But between four and five in the afternoon, it lasts an hour. I: Uh, uh, is that for any particular reason? I ... I ... I suppose it is. A: Oh yes. There are some biological reasons for all these things, but I prefer not to go into them now because to describe them would complicate things very much. I: Ah! Uh, well, are ... are ... are there any other ... um ... surprising results of these studies? A: Well, uh ... I don't know about surprising, but for example, there are quite a few things about pain which are quite useful to know. I: About pain? You mean things hurt more at some times of the day? A: Yes. Between one and two in the morning, is the time when the body is most sensitive to pain. I: Ah! A: As you know, if you've ever been kept awake with a headache or toothache, but at six in the evening, between six and seven, the sensitivity to pain is at its lowest. I: And ... uh ... and what about work, um, what's the best time to work? A: Well, the best time for that is in the morning, between ten and twelve. And that's good for heavy
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work because that is when the head, the brain and the body reach their best level of performance together. But there's a curious thing here, something people probably wouldn't expect. And that is, that the best time to read, to study something difficult, seems to be between nine and ten at night, which is when the long term memory works best. I: Uh-huh. Now ... mn ... is it right that the ... uh ... the worst time to work is at night? I mean ... um ... yeah, after midnight? A: Well, it's known in factories that there are more mistakes at night. And it seems that this is connected in some way with low blood pressure. The time when most mistakes are made by night workers is between three and four in the morning, which is when blood pressure is at its lowest. I: Ah. Are there ... uh ... any other times of day when blood pressure is low? A: Yes, it comes down after one o'clock in the afternoon and between two and three it's very low again. I: So the best thing is not to do anything important between them. A: Yes. And the other thing is that midday tiredness is at its worst between two and three. I: The best thing is to do important work in the ... uh ... in the mornings then. A: Well, yes. But there is another time of day when the body and the mind reach another high point together. I: Like the ... like the one in the morning? A: Yes. And that's between five and six in the afternoon. I: Ah, so it goes in cycles, does it? We have two high points a day. A: Yes, that's it. I: Ah ... uh ... just two other questions I'd like to ask, Dr. Alan. What about sports? A: Sports, well, that's another curious one. I: Uh-huh. A: In fact, the time of day when training works best is between seven and eight in the evening. The body uses up less energy then, so you get fit with less effort than at other times. I: Ah. And ... uh ... and sleep, what about sleep? A: Ah. There's one very ... uh ... well no, there are two very interesting things about sleep. One is, that if you're a restless sleeper, the sort of person who moves about a lot in his sleep ... I: The sort ... uh ... who kicks offthe blankets and sheets, aym. Ha, that's me alright. A: Well you be careful between four and five in the morning because that's when the skin is most sensitive to cold. I: Ah, so I suppose I should set the alarm for five, well like four o'clock and make sure I've got the blankets on. But then I'm sure I wouldn't get back to sleep again. A: And the second thing about sleeping is that after a tiring, hard-working day, it really is better to get to bed and sleep before midnight. I: Oh, well, it would be, wouldn't it? Well, that's about the only time of day I can relax a bit with a book or the ... uh ... the TV ... uh. A: Well, that's the price you have to pay for working on the radio in the evening. I: Well, Dr. Alan, it's now exactly five fifty-five and according to what you said, I've just passed through my afternoon high point. And I'm ... I'm ... just about to enter the ... uh ... the hour when things hurt less. A: Not just you, you know, it's me as well. I: Well, thank you very much, Dr. Alan, for coming along to the program and ... uh ... all the best with your book. A: Thank you so much.
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Unit 2 New Developments in medicine
Part I 1. If you have a backache, painkillers will take away the pain, but there's still something wrong somewhere that caused the backache in the first place. 2. If holistic medicine doesn't prescribe drugs, how does it treat illness? 3. A good diet, with lots of fresh food, not processed food with its preservatives and chemicals, is essential. 4. The new drag is unlike other anti-AIDS medications, it attacks HIV before it has a chance to infect other cells. 5. Researchers say T-20 also may offer a second chance to patients who are unable to deal with the bad effects of proteids inhibitors and other anti-AIDS drugs. 6. Rich Rollins, who has become an activist for autism, thinks the vaccine is connected (with it). 7. Byrd applauds the removal last year of a small amount of mercury used as a preservative in some vaccines. 8. To have anything that is potentially harmful packaged with something that is supposed to be entirely good is a bad package. 9. Byrd authored a recent study that ruled out better testing and population increases as possible causes for California's dramatic increase (of autism). 10. But today there is news of a development which may spell the end of the drill. Part II A Comparison Between Western and Holistic Medicine Western medicine 1. treating patients as a series of isolated parts Holistic medicine taking into account the symptoms, age, habits, emotions and lifestyle Western medicine 2. looking at the part which isn't working well Holistic medicine building an overall picture Western medicine 3. trying to remove symptoms, not the cause Holistic medicine treating the cause of illness Western medicine 4. using drag and surgery Holistic medicine preventing illness -- balanced diet & healthy lifestyle 1.(T) 2.(F) 3.(T) 4.(T)5.(F) 6.(F) P: Good morning, and welcome to our program Worldly Wise. Today our attention turns to medicine and health care, and we examine a move which is becoming more and more popular, a move away from western attitudes to medicine towards what is known as the holistic approach. But what is it? What does holistic mean? I spoke to Dr. Henry Wilson, of the National
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Homeopathic Center.
a system of medicine in which a disease is treated by giving extremely small amounts of a substance that causes the disease

W: Well, holistic means "whole", or more than that. But in terms of health care, what it means is looking at the whole body, the whole person when it comes to treating them. P: And how does that differ from a more western approach? W: Modem medicine treats patients as a series of parts that are all isolated. It looks at the part which isn't working and tries to remove the symptoms until everything's working well again a bit like a mechanic repairing a car. The opposite of holistic is symptomatic. Too often, modem medicine treats the symptoms and not the cause of an illness. Drugs and surgery can remove the symptoms ... P: But what's wrong with that? Surely that's what a person who's ill wants, isn't it to feel better, not to have the pain any more? W: Yes, but as I said, the cause remains. If you have a backache, painkillers will take away the pain, but there's still something wrong somewhere that caused the backache in the first place. P: So what does the holistic approach think about illness? W: Well, it takes into account not only the symptoms, but also the age, habits, emotions and lifestyle of the individual, and tries to build an overall picture. You see, being healthy means there is a balance, or a harmony, between your mind and your body. When you're ill, it's because there's an imbalance somewhere, and this imbalance is shown by symptoms. The symptoms themselves aren't very important. For example, two people suffering from headaches might be given very different treatment, because the cause 6fthe headache is not the same. P: You mentioned treatment. If holistic medicine doesn't prescribe drugs, how does it treat illness? W: It's important to understand that what holistic medicine tries to do above all is prevent illness, and we all know that prevention is better than cure. A good diet, with lots of fresh food, not processed food with its preservatives and chemicals is essential; and a healthy lifestyle, without too much pressure and worry, and lots of exercise and rest, not too much, not too little -- these are things that will prevent illness. Part III T-20 Experiment Report Project: development of anti-AIDS medicine – T-20 Researchers: Dr. Michael Saag and others at the University of Alabama Subjects: 16 men infected with HIV Procedure: A. Subjects were divided into four groups. B. Two groups were given the lowest amount of T-20. C. The third group was given more of T-20. D. The fourth group was given the highest amount of T-20. Observations: A. The first two groups showed almost no reaction. B. The amount of HIV in the blood of the third group fell by ten times. C. The amount of HIV of the fourth group could not be measured in two weeks. Findings: A. T-20 attacks HIV before it has a chance to infect other cells. B. T-20 has no major bad effects.
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B 1. In about 18 months. 2. A virus that causes AIDS. 3. Proteids inhibitors. 4. It’s difficult to take because it is not a pill. A promising new drug is being developed by American doctors that attacks the AIDS virus very soon after a person is infected. The drug is known as T-20. It is being tested in humans. Scientists say if everything goes well, the experimental medicine may be ready to be sold in about 18 months. The new drug is unlike other anti-AIDS medications, It attacks HIV before it has had a chance to infect other cells. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. Dr. Michael Saag led the study at the University of Alabama in Birmingham. He says the findings offer the first proof that it is possible to fight HIV very soon after infection. In the study, T-20 was given by injection to 16 men infected with HIV. The men were divided into four groups. The two groups that were given the lowest amount of the drug showed almost no reaction to it. The third group of men was given more of the drug. Dr. Saag says the amount of HIV in the blood fell by ten times in that group. The fourth group was given the highest amount of T-20. In that group, the amount of HIV fell so low within two weeks of treatment it could not be measured. Dr. Saag say she is excited about T-20. He says it offers another treatment choice for patients in whom older drugs no longer work. Many new drugs have been used to treat the AIDS virus. Experts say drugs currently used can suppress the AIDS virus to very low levels in infected people. These drugs include proteids inhibitors. They help the immune system remain reasonably strong enough to fight other infections. Without proteids the HIV virus is unable to leave the cells where' it reproduces. So it cannot enter a person's blood and infect other cells. Researchers say T-20 also may offer a second chance to patients who are unable to deal with the bad effects of proteids inhibitors and other anti-AIDS drugs. Experts say there were no major bad effects of T-20 in their study. Researchers say T-20 appears to be at least as effective as existing anti-AIDS treatments. However, some say they are concerned that the drug is difficult to take because it is not a pill that can be swallowed. Researchers are doing more studies tosee if T-20 in a pill form would be as effective. Part IV
自闭症是一个医学名词,又称孤独症,被归类为一种由于神经系统失调导致的发育障碍,其病征 包括不正常的社交能力、沟通能力、兴趣和行为模式。自闭症是一种广泛性发展障碍,以严重的、广 泛的社会相互影响和沟通技能的损害以及刻板的行为、兴趣和活动为特征的精神疾病。

Measles ['mi:z?lz] n.麻疹 an infectious illness in which you have a fever and small red spots on your face and body. People often have measles when they are children. Mumps [m?mps] n. 腮腺炎 disease with painful swellings in the neck, caught esp by children Rubella [ru:'bel?] n. [医]风疹 an infectious disease that causes red spots on your body, and can damage an unborn child Vaccination [`v?ksi`nei??n] n.预防注射,种痘 Listlessness 无精打采的 feeling tired and not interested in things Epidemiologist [.epi.di:mi'?l?d?ist]n. 流行病学家 the study of the way diseases spread, and how to control them Pediatrician n.小儿科医生 a doctor who deals with children and their illnesses Genetics [d?i'netiks] n. 遗传学 the study of how the qualities of living things are passed on in their genes
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Summary Russell Rollins is suffering from autism, a brain development disorder. The father thinks that the measles, mumps and rubella vaccines his son had at 15 months are connected to the disease because his physical reactions to those vaccines like high-pitched screams, crying and listlessness continue ten years later. However, according to a recent study in Denmark, no links between measles vaccinations and autism have been found. Some researchers believe there could be a connection between genetics and the environment as far as autism is concerned. Tape script Picture perfect, a happy healthy baby. Then at fifteen months, just like every other baby, Russell Rollins got his measles, mumps and rubella vaccination. Rick Rollins: He had a very physical reaction to those vaccines including a high pitched scream and days of high-pitched crying and listlessness. (baby crying...) Hey, you're OK? Ten years later those problems continue. Russell Rollins is autistic. Rusty Dornin: How do you describe what you go through as the parent of an autistic child? Rick Rollins: It's a living hell. It's a living hell for everyone involved. It's a living hell for my son, who suffers terribly from this disorder. Teacher: Touch the pizza! And it's a straggle that most autistic kids go through in the classroom. Here at the ABC School for Autistic Children, classes are full. Rusty Dornin: Are you seeing bigger numbers? More kids knocking at the door to get in places like this? School director: Yes, both in our school and in our in-home services, even in comparison to last year, we probably have fifteen more kids than we had the year previous. And parents are asking questions. No one knows what causes the brain development disorder. But Rick Rollins, who's become an activist for autism, thinks the vaccine is connected. Rick Rollins: Thirty-three percent of new families with children with autism believe that the vaccine's played a role in the development of their child's autism. But a recent well-respected Danish study found no links between vaccinations and autism. Epidemiologist and pediatrician Robert Byrd doesn't believe the measles vaccine is a problem. But he says concern about what's in some vaccinations is justified. Byrd applauds the removal last year of a small amount of mercury used as a preservative in some vaccines. Robert Byrd: To have anything that's potentially harmful packaged with something that's supposed to be entirely good is a bad package. Byrd authored a recent study that ruled out better testing and population increases as possible causes for California's dramatic increase. He believes what's happening here is probably happening nationwide. California has the only system for registering autistic children. There is no biological test for autism. Some researchers believe there could be a connection between genetics and the environment. Rick Rollins says he knows vaccines are only one possibility. Rusty Domin: Do you believe there could be other factors? Rick Rollins: Absolutely! You know, I don't think anyone in any area of research in autism believes there is one single cause. We worry day and night about his future. Who is going to take care of him when we are gone? Give me a kiss! (sound of kissing...) Good job!
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Part V Towards independent listening Product: chemical jelly Producer: a medical technology company in Sweden Function: removing decaying tissue from teeth Advantages: A. a lot less drillings needed B. better for the teeth C. less painful for the patients Price: 10 to 20 pounds more than that in the past The time when available: A. in Sweden: now B. in Europe: next year C. somewhere else: waiting a little bit longer R: A dentist's drill for many of us is the stuff of nightmares. But today there is news of a development which may spell the end of the drill -- a medical technology company in Sweden says it has developed a type of chemical jelly which can remove decaying tissue from teeth without the need for a drill. So I asked the company's clinical research manager, Irene Herman, "Does it really mean no more drills ever?" H: No, it does not quite mean no more drilling, but it means quite a lot less drilling and it means no drilling while it really hurts. R: And that ... those circumstances are when exactly? H: You have to drill when you have to open up to get to there ... decayed area of the tooth if it is in between two teeth for instance. Or if you have an old filling that has to be removed, you have to use the drill, because this substance does not affect untouched tooth substance. R: That's the most common way, though, in which drills are used by dentists, isn't it? H: To take away old filling? R: Yes. H: Yes, you always have to take away them. But then when the part comes when their sensation ... the bad sensation comes ... is when you have to remove the filling and you start to take away the decayed area of the tooth. R: So the likelihood is then if this new technique shows that it's effective, if it is adopted by dentists around the world, most patients, when they go to the dentists, will find there is a lot less drilling awaiting them. H: That's exactly the way it will be. R: And is the reason why you are hoping to develop this, because it is better for the teeth or because it's less painful for the patient? H: I think the purpose is because it's better for the teeth, because if you save substance, their filling will probably last much longer in the future. But of course, the extreme advantage for the patient is that it's less painful. R: Is it more expensive than using a drill? H: Yes, of course. I mean a drill will cost hardly anything and you can use it over and over again. But it's still a cheap treatment. It will only add like 10 to 20 pounds to a treatment. R: So how soon will I and everybody else who hate dentists' drills actually see this in our dental surgeries?
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H: It depends where you live. If you live in Sweden, you can get it now. If you live in Europe, we hope to have it out in Europe next year. And if you are from somewhere else, you'll have to wait a little bit longer.

Unit 3 Genetics ABC
Part I 1. Scientists hope that it could lead to finding tests for treatments for genetic diseases. 2. Some experts say a general map of all the chromosomes in a human cell could be ready next year. 3. DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid, a molecule found in the nucleus ['nju:kli?s] of all cells, is responsible for this tremendous variety. 4. Sugars and phosphates form the backbone of each chain and they are united through their basis in a determined fashion. 5. Based on a study of eight families in which one or more members have a serious snoring problem, the doctors say that snoring could be genetically inherited. 6. The next step is for blood samples to be taken to determine if a gene is involved. If it is, it could help diagnose people with the condition earlier. 7. As genetic research advances, some people caution that knowing too much about the makeup of the human body poses a number of ethical questions. 8. Biometric technology is not completely new, some devices were developed in the late 1970s. Part II Human chromosomes A Particle: 分子,粒子,微粒,颗粒. ~s of sand 砂粒,细砂 Human Genome Project I. Major task mapping the position of every human gene on every chromosome II. Research & new findings A. nationalities of the researchers: British, Japanese and American B. magazine which published the new findings: Nature C. chromosome 22: 1. property: one of the smallest chromosomes in a human cell 2. the number of genes identified on it: 545 3. the number of disorders caused by abnormal genes On it: 35 a. birth defects b. some forms of heart disease c. schizophrenia [skiz?u'fri:ni?] d. several kinds of cancer III The next step identifying the remaining chromosomes

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B The Structure of a Human Cell A Human Cell 46 (in number) 23 pairs (in number) Chromosome 22 Chromosome 23 Chemical 1 Chemical 2 with parts called genes Chemical 3 Chemical... decide physical appearance risk of developing some diseases Tapescript Researchers announced recently that they have produced a map of a human chromosome for the first time. Scientists around the world praise the work as a major development. Scientists hope that it could lead to finding tests for treatments for genetic diseases. The chromosome map represents an important step in the Human Genome Project. The Human Genome Project is a long-term international effort to map the position of every human gene. Humans have one hundred million million 100,000,000,000,000 cells. Most human cells have 46 chromosomes. Each chromosome is an extremely small line of chemicals with parts called genes. The hundreds of genes on each chromosome decide our physical appearance and risk of developing some diseases. Other research teams have identified the place and structure of many individual genes. However, there is no map that shows every gene on every chromosome, That is the goal of the Human Genome Project. The new findings were reported by researchers from the Sanger Center in England, Keio University in Japan, and the University of Oklahoma and Washington University in the United States. They published their findings in Nature magazine. The researchers have identified almost every chemical structure in chromosome 22. It is one of the smallest chromosomes in every human cell. The Nature magazine report says the researchers identified 545 genes on the chromosome. About half of the genes were already known to scientists. The other half were identified for the first time. The researchers say, the map of chromosome 22 is 97% complete. About 35 disorders are believed to be caused by abnormal genes on chromosome 22. They include birth defects, some forms of heart disease, the mental disorder schizophrenia and several kinds of cancer. Chromosome 22 represents only about 2% of the estimated 80 000 - 100 000 human genes. The next step is to identify the remaining chromosomes. Some experts say a general map of all the chromosomes in a human cell could be ready next year. Part III Human genes Questions: 1. What are the two functions of DNA? a. protein synthesis b. maintain constant/genetic information 2. How does DNA perform the first function mentioned in the passage? Complete the chart below.
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Chromosome 1



DNA molecule

RNA leaves the nucleus read instructions in the ribosomes form proteins 3. How does DNA perform the second function mentioned in the passage? duplication/in cellular division Why do we have different colors of skin, hair and eyes? Why do beings so different from one another exist? DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid, a molecule found in the nucleus of all cells is responsible for this tremendous variety. George Mendel was the first person to investigate genetic inheritance. He deduced that characteristics are inherited through physical units which he called genes. Nowadays we know that all cells contain chromosomes which are made up of DNA molecules. Sugars and phosphates form the backbone of each chain and they are united through their basis in a determined fashion. These two chains curl around themselves forming a double spiral. DNA has a specific role to play in the cell, that of protein synthesis. To make it, the DNA molecule makes an almost exact copy of itself called RNA. The copy leaves the nucleus and reads the instructions in the ribosomes. It's here where proteins, so essential to living beings, are formed, since they are responsible for controlling the many chemical reactions which keep us alive. The other important mission of DNA is maintaining constant the genetic information of the species during thousands of years through its duplication during cellular division. B 1. How many men in Britain snore? Six percent of all men. 2. How many men in Britain suffer from sleep apnoea? Two percent of all men. 3, What are the symptoms of those people who suffer from sleep apnoea? a. They snore loudly. b. They can stop breathing for more than ten seconds as much as ten times an hour. 4. What may sleep apnoea lead to? a. Disturbed sleep. b. A risk of depression. c. The danger of falling asleep while driving. 5. What might cause sleep apnoea? a. Having a short jaw. b. Being overweight. c. Some genetic element Doctors in Britain think they may have discovered why some people snore when sleeping. Based on a study of eight families, in which one or more members have a serious snoring problem, the doctors say that snoring could be genetically inherited. If that theory is correct, it could explain why some people suffer more than others from the condition. It's estimated that six percent of all men in Britain snore but two percent suffer from what's known as sleep apnoea. Those with the condition snore very loudly and can stop breathing for more than ten seconds as much as ten times an hour. Sufferers are often unaware of their condition, but it does lead to disturbed sleep, a risk of depression and even the danger of falling asleep while
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(makes)

driving. It's thought it could be caused by having either a short jaw or by being overweight. But doctors of the Royal Halemshire Hospital in Sheffield believe there may be a genetic element. They are studying eight families where one or more members have the condition. So far they've found evidence that sleep apnoea can run in families. The next step is for blood samples to be taken to determine if a gene is involved. If it is, it could help diagnose people with the condition earlier. Part IV rench = wrench n. 扳钳, 扳手 screw driver: 螺丝刀、改锥、起子 唐氏综合症(DownSyndrome)又称蒙古症,由于此症首先为英籍医生 Dr.J.L.Down 评述,此 外患者的外貌又酷似西方人心目中的东方人、因而得名。 Summary With the advancements in genetic research and our knowledge of the human body come several ethical questions. Among the academics at a recent seminar, Ted Peters worries that geneticists may feel they can change our evolutionary future and remake humanity. He also worries that wealthy people may use genetics to enhance and improve the physical traits of their children. While in Ray Boiman's opinion, genetic technology itself is neutral. Whether it's good or evil depends on how we people put it into practice. For Eric Landers, ethical concerns regarding creating super humans are far from realization. He thinks the biggest worry today should be the invasion of privacy of those individuals who are considered as being at greater risk for certain genetic ailments ['eilm?nt]. So laws should be made to empower those individuals to seek treatment for ailments and protect that information from being misused by insurance companies or employers. Tapescript As genetic research advances, some people caution that knowing too much about the makeup of the human body poses a number of ethical questions. At a recent seminar near Chicago on the ethics of genetic advancements, some academics warned about the misuse of such information. Ted Peters is the director of the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences in California. "We tend to believe that if we can get our geneticists to go into the DNA, with their renches and with their screw drivers, they can manipulate that DNA and we can take over our own evolutionary history, take over our own evolutionary future, that we can remake humanity." Some scientists and ethicists worry that information uncovered by genetic research could be used by some people, especially the wealthy, to create and enhance children taller, stronger with certain hair and eye color or any number of improved physical traits. Ray Bolman says such enhancements would be immoral, but he supports the overall work involved in genetic research. "We have to avoid the conclusion that technology in and of itself, whether it's genetic technology or anything else, is good or evil. Technology is neutral. What determines whether it's good or evil is the ultimate world view of the culture that puts it into practice." And Dr. Allen Verhey fears that decisions or procedures made possible by increased genetic knowledge, could one day become socially if not legally expected of us. "The people will begin to ask questions like 'What? You had the possibility of making a diagnosis of a Down Syndrome child and you didn't ... and then you didn't abort it? And now you expect us to help yod care for the child?' " Eric Landers is the director of the White Head MIT Center for Genome Research and a
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professor of Biology at MIT. He tells Date Line the ethical concerns about creating super humans are valid but far down the road in terms of realization. Professor Landers says the concern now should be for those individuals who might be genetically identified as being at greater risk for certain ailments which could affect their ability to get a job or health insurance. "The important misuse that we have to worry about is the invasion of privacy, because that's potentially the here and now. Em, we need laws to protect the privacy of this information, so each individual can seek his or her own genetic information to empower him or her to seek treatment as necessary and not as to worry about whether insurance companies or employers will also gain access to that information. So I think we are falling down on the job as a society to protect the privacy of this tremendously valuable genetic information for each individual." Part V Outline I. Biometric devices A. function: use computers/lock and unlock doors B. working procedure 1. reading a physical signal (e.g, voice/hand shape/design of blood vessels in eyes) 2. opening the door if correct II. Disadvantages of biometric devices A. being too costly: as much as $6 000/each door B. none working perfectly III. Advantages of biometric devices A. making keys or cards unnecessary B. programming faster C. reading thousands of signals D. fooling computer/difficult A new computer technology may make locks, keys and security cards unnecessary. The technology is called biometrics. Biometric devices use computers to lock and unlock doors. They permit people to use a physical signal instead of a key. For example, the signal can be the sound of a person's voice or the shape of his or her hand. A person gives the signal to the device. He or she may say his name aloud, or they may place their hand on it. The device reads the signal. If it is correct, the device opens the door and permits the person to enter. Biometric technology is not completely new, some devices were developed in the late 1970s. Today, more than twenty factories in the United States make the devices, There also are many kinds to choose from. One of the latest systems works by examining the design of blood vessels in a person's eyes. Biometric security systems are costly. Some cost as much as $6 000 for each door. Newer devices work better, but none work perfectly. Usually, the only businesses that use biometrics are those that need very tight security. For example, some government offices and military buildings in the United States now have biometric door c0ntrols. Few private home owners use them because of the cost. Experts think the number will increase as the price goes down. Biometric technology makes keys or plastic security cards unnecessary. Keys and cards can be lost or stolen. Replacing them or changing locks takes time and money. Programming biometric computers is faster. Each computer can read thousands of signals. Fooling the computer with a false signal is difficult. Experts think biometrics will become much more common, but they say it will take time.
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Unit 4

Safe Food?

Part I 1. As sugar is a good source of calories, it can easily be a problem if we tend to be overweight. 2. Plaque is a sticky coating that prevents the bacteria being removed by saliva, the acid attacks the tooth itself. 3. One of the major problems around takeaway food is that restaurants and fast food outlets are not actually required by law to disclose the ingredients in their dishes. 4. The thickness of milkshakes is attributable to additives like emulsifiers and wood pulp. 5. Public health officials say over the past ten years, the incidents of drug resistant human infections, in particular those involving food-borne pathogens, has risen dramatically in the United States. 6. The FDA and other federal agencies would also step up their nationwide surveillance of anti-microbial resistance, especially among food-borne pathogens. 7. America's powerful Food and Drug Administration is coming under pressure to take a harder line on genetically modified food. 8. GM seeds save the farmer money because they have built-in pesticides and produce larger crops. Part II Sugar Recommendation 劝告, 建议 Consumption 食用 Decay n.腐朽, 腐烂 Feed on 以...为食 Carbohydrate 碳水化合物 Starch 淀粉 Plaque 齿菌斑:牙齿表面一层粘液和细菌的 膜 Acid 酸

Crevice 裂缝 Fluoride['flu(:)?raid]氟化物 toothpaste Sweet tooth 对甜食的喜爱或爱好 Steadily 总是 Unlearn v. 忘却 Sweetener 甜味剂 Cracker 薄脆饼干 Raisin 葡萄干

Program report Program: The Food We Eat Sponsor: Safeway Advice given: eating less sugar Reasons for the advice: A. for the sake of our teeth B. for the sake of our body's weight How our teeth decay: Bacteria in the mouth feeding on carbohydrates forming plaque acid preventing the bacteria attacking the tooth itself being removed by saliva
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Ways to save teeth: A. avoiding sticky foods B. regular brushing C. avoiding nibbling sweet things between meals D. gradually cutting down the sugar in tea and coffee E. choosing snacks with a Lower sugar content F. looking for reduced sugar alternatives G. gradually cutting back on the sugar you use in cooking Welcome to The Food We Eat, sponsored by Safeway. Increasingly, we know more about the effects of our eating habits and lifestyles on our health. While new information can change old ideas, the new stories can often be confusing. At Safeway we try to help customers not only in the range and types of food offered, but also by providing up-to-date, reliable information in areas we know are of interest and which relate to the diet we eat. Today we are going to talk about sugar. Recently, doctors have been advising us to eat less sugar. The health recommendation to use less sugar is for two reasons. Firstly, for the sake of our teeth: since the amount and frequency of sugar consumption links to decay. Secondly, as sugar is a good source of calories, it can easily be a problem if we tend to be overweight. The dental risk is because bacteria which occur naturally in our mouth feed on carbohydrates — sugar and starch — to form plaque and acid. Plaque is a sticky coating that prevents the bacteria being removed by saliva, the acid attacks the tooth itself. This takes time, however, so the trick is to avoid sticky foods like sweets which stay around in crevices feeding the bacteria. Regular brushing, preferably with a fluoride toothpaste, helps remove particles and resist acid. The worst thing you can do is nibble sweet things between meals — it puts your teeth under constant attack. A sweet tooth develops gradually.., and you might be surprised at how you can steadily "unlearn" the taste, taking in fewer calories, and saving your teeth. Here are some ways: ? Gradually cut down the sugar in tea and coffee till you can stop altogether, or switch to sweeteners. ? Choose snacks with a lower sugar content -- fresh fruit, raw vegetables, crackers, milk or low-fat, natural yogurt. Remember some fruits, like raisins, have lots of sugar. ? Look for reduced sugar alternatives: there are more and more around, from diet drinks to yogurts, even jams anal sauces. ? Try, gradually, to cut back on the sugar you use in cooking especially in baking. Part III Good food? Chlorofluorocarbon: ['klor? flu?r?kɑrb?n] 含氯氟烃(即破坏臭氧层的 CFC) A Mr. Peter Stanton's major point of view: Fish and chips is still the most popular takeaway meal in Britain.
Takeaway meals fish and chips hamburgers Chinese & Indian takeaway meals fried chicken Sales volume per year 450 million portions 380 million 200 million meals 140 million meals
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pizzas Sum of money spent per year Sum of money spent per head per year

180 million £1.8 billion £36 Sales volume per week 20 million meals

1. P: S:

P: Presenter S: Mr. Peter Stanton Fish and chips is the traditional British takeaway meal it's a complete hot meal that can be taken home to eat or eaten in the street, and it's still the most popular, isn't it, Peter Stanton? It certainly is, yes. Er ... the figures speak for themselves. For instance, the fish and chip market represents 450 million portions of fish and chips sold per year. This compares with only 380 million takeaway hamburgers a year. Um ... also looking at the ethnic takeaway meal, specially ... um ... Chinese and Indian, that accounts for 200 million meals per year. The fried chicken market, Kentucky and otherwise, that's 140 million meals a year -- 80 million takeaway pizzas per year. And that means that in Britain 20 million takeaway meals are sold per week and as a total, the British spend 1.8 billion pounds per year on takeaway meals and that works out at 36 pounds per head.

B Fast food outlets 速食商店/销售点 Disclose 透露 Additive ['?ditiv] 添加剂 Lean meat 瘦肉 Milkshake 奶昔

Artificial 人造的 Attributable to? 可归于。。的 。 Emulsifier 乳化剂 Wood pulp 木浆 Vegetarian 素食者

Dr. Marshall's major point of View: Takeaway meals are stuffed full of fat, sugar and additives
Takeaway food a half-pound hamburger a portion of Chinese sweet and sour chicken milkshakes Content a small percentage of lean meat, 25% pure fat, other parts of the animal four ounces of pure fat rarely contain fresh milk and \ 2 052 calories 830 calories Calories

icecream, but have artificial flavor, additives made browner by colorine, fried in beef fat

chips

\

2. P: Presenter M: Dr. Janet Marshall P: But takeaway meals may not be very good for our health, according to Dr. Janet Marshall. M: One of the major problems around takeaway food is that restaurants and fast food outlets are not actually required by law to disclose the ingredients in their dishes –– unlike for instance supermarkets –– and ... er ... takeaway meals are stuffed full of fat and sugar and additives. And of course high fat means a large amount of calories. If we look at some of the ... er... th ... the calorific e... er ... quantities in some of these takeaway foods, for instance hamburgers, which only contain a small percentage of lean meat –– the rest being fat and other parts of the animal –– well, a half-pound hamburger contains 25% pure fat. which works out at 830 calories––which is in fact half a typical woman's daily requirement. And ... um ... if we look
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at ... er ... a typical portion of Chinese sweet and sour chicken for instance, that would contain four ounces of pure fat, Which works out at 2052 calories! Milkshakes ... um ... very rarely contain fresh milk or icecream and their flavors are generally artificial. And their thickness is attributable to ... er ... additives like emulsifiers and wood pulp. And then the chip, which ... er ... we all know and love, is often made to look browner through coloring and ... er... chips are often fried in beef fat, which ... er ... is something vegetarians perhaps should be aware of as well. C Misgiving n.疑惧, 疑虑 CFCs: chlorofluorocarbons 氟氯化碳

Packaging n. 包装

Mr. Terry Green's major point of view: Takeaway meals cause serious pollution and destroy our environment. the use of more and more beef in hamburger making cutting down tropical rainforests to make room for cattle greenhouse effect the packaging parts of uneaten hamburgers thrown away

huge mountains of rubbish

3. P: Presenter G: Mr. Terry Green P: Terry Green of Friends of the Earth also has misgivings about takeaway food. G: Well ... er ... the meat that they use in these hamburgers is often beef that they get from Latin America and ... er ... the beef that they export to the United States and Japan and Europe is produced by cutting down tropical rainforests to make room for the cattle. OK, to produce a single hamburger, five square meters of rainforest have to be destroyed. Now the problem with this is that people all over the world are being encouraged to eat more and more beef and the only way they can raise this beef is by cutting down more rainforests. Now the packaging of the hamburgers has got CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) in it, and we all know ... er ... those contribute to the greenhouse effect. But I guess the most noticeable thing about these fast food places is the huge mountains of rubbish ... er ... from the packaging and the parts of uneaten hamburgers thrown all over the street. It's really disgusting. P: But is this a typically British phenomenon? ls it just the British way of eating that is becoming more and more dominated by takeaways? Peter Stanton again. S: No, every country seems to have its own "typical" fast foods. For example, if we look at the various ... Part IV Antibiotics & Livestock Production Routine 习惯性的;常规的: Antibiotic drugs 抗生素药物 Livestock production 畜牧生产 Drug resistant human infection 抗药性人类感染 Food-borne pathogen 食物中产生的病原体/病菌

Estimate n. 估计,评估 Daily feed additive 饲料添加剂 Boneyard n. 墓地; 收集牛马骨骸的地方 Step up 逐步增加,提高 Surveillance n. 监视, 监督
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Anti-microbial resistance 抗菌剂, 杀菌剂 Veterinary 医牲畜的, 兽医的 Curb v.控[抑]制; 约束 Petition v.请求, 恳求, 请愿 Growth promoter 生长促进剂 Hygiene condition

Husbandry practice 耕作方法 Reformulate v.重新形成 Entrenched 确立的,不容易改的(习惯) Tighter curb 更严密的控制/约束

Summary Due to the overuse of antibiotics in feeding animals, the power of these drugs to treat human disease is greatly reduced. Thus the FDA puts forward a proposal for stricter animal drug use. Towards this proposal, different people have different attitudes. According to Mr. Richard Conavalli, most animal drug makers support the proposal although he doesn't think it is an effective way to curb antibiotic resistance. For the public health activist Patricia Lieberman, she is also in favor of the idea. Blat she thinks the reproval standards for animal use of antibiotics should be even stricter. However, some other health experts are not very optimistic about the proposal. They don't think the US livestock industry will stop using antibiotics unless they are no longer useful to sick animals. R1--Reporter1 R2--Reporter 2 L--Miss Patricia Lieberman R1: There is growing evidence that the routine use of antibiotic drugs in US livestock production is reducing the power of those drugs to treat human disease. In response, the Federal Food & Drug Administration has proposed stricter rules for approving animal drug use. R2: Public health officials say over the past ten years, the incidents of drug resistant human infections, in particular those involving food-borne pathogens, has risen dramatically in the United States. It's a trend many experts blame on the overuse of antibiotics in both human and livestock populations. According to one estimate, nearly 40% of the 20 million kilograms of antibiotics produced in the United States each year are given to farm animals. Most take the form of daily feed additives designed not to treat specific illness, but to suppress boneyard infections and to speed the animals' growth. Dr. Steven Sundioph, director of the Food & Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine, says FDA's proposed rules would for the first time consider the impact of animal drug use on both antibiotic resistance and human health. Dr. Sundloph says the FDA and other federal agencies would also step up their nationwide surveillance of anti-microbial resistance, especially among food-borne pathogens. Animal drug makers agree that better surveillance is a good idea. Richard Conavalli of the Animal Health Institute and Industry Lobby Group says drug makers also support voluntary guidelines designed to limit veterinary use of the most important human antibiotics. But Mr. Conavalli believes the FDA's proposal for stricter animal drug approval rules is the wrong approach to curbing antibiotic resistance. But public health activist Patricia Lieberman with the Center for Science and Public Interest thinks the FDA's proposed rules will work though she would like to see even stricter reproval standards for animal use of antibiotics. Her group and more than 40 other public health organizations recently petitioned the FDA to ban the use of any human antibiotic drag as a livestock growth promoter. And Miss Lieberman believes the US livestock industry should learn from the experience of cattle and poultry producers in Sweden and other countries that have banned all veterinary antibiotics. L: And initially they had to learn that there were different things you needed to do to compensate for taking out the antibiotics. They had to improve the hygiene conditions and the husbandry practices that they did. They also had to reformulate their feed to... to maximize the growth potential of the animals without these drugs. But they, they also do it... practice intense farming
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in these countries and have been able to make a shift. R2: Other health experts observed that the US livestock industry's use of antibiotic drugs is a deeply entrenched practice. They predict it will continue despite human health concerns and tighter curbs until the drugs no longer work on sick animals. Part V Towards independent listening Genetically modified food 转基因食品 Public controversy 公众争议 Public hearing 公听会,公开的听证会 Label v.标签标注 Allay [?'lei] v. 使...镇静, 使...缓和 Outcry n.大声疾呼 Bio-engineered seed 生物改造过的种子 Built-in pesticide 先天杀虫剂 GM seed:genetically modified (GM) seed 转基因种子 News headline: The FDA holds a public hearing in Washington today to allay public fears about GM food. Outline I. GM food in US — America being the world's largest producer A. 1/3 of American corn being grown from bio-engineered seed B. about 300 food products in US supermarkets containing bio-engineered substances II. Different views at the hearing A. FDA: no scientific reason to question GM food B. environmental groups 1. not enough research done 2. labeling needed for GM food C. American farmers 1. being nervous about planting GM crops 2. not going to plant GM seeds next year Concern is growing in America about the use of genetically modified food. The Food and Drug Administration holds a public hearing in Washington today to try to allay public fears. America is the world's largest producer of genetically manufactured products. A third of American corn is grown from bio-engineered seed. But a number of American farmers say they are not going to plant GM seeds next year because of the public controversy. America's powerful Food and Drug Administration is coming under pressure to take a harder line on genetically modified food. Around 300 food products in American supermarkets contain bio-engineered substances mainly by products of corn and soybeans. So far the FDA says there is no scientific reason to question any of it. But environmental groups say not enough research has been done to be certain. And they want all the products to be labeled. The outcry in Europe is beginning to affect the public attitude here. American farmers are also becoming nervous about planting GM crops. The spokesman for the American Corn Growers' Association which represents 14 000 farmers told the BBC that the price of GM seed could drop next year by as much as 25%. GM seeds are more expensive than ordinary seeds, but save the farmer money because they have built-in pesticides and produce larger crops.

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Unit 5 Life begins Every Morning
Part I 1. From that tissue we're able to isolate single olfactory receptor cells that take odors floating around in the environment and create an electrical signal in the nervous system to go to the brain. olfactory [?l'f?kt?ri] adj. 嗅觉的 olfactory receptor cells 嗅觉感受细胞 2. If you ask me what is the single most important key to longevity, I would have to say it‘s avoiding worry, stress, and tension. 3. I can honestly say I was not even uptight about my heart bypass several years ago. heart bypass surgery 心脏搭桥手术 4. While some old Americans seem to be phobic when it comes to the new technology, Mary Furlong says that appears to be the exception(s), not the rule(s). 5. When you think about this, you could collaborate with colleagues that also share a passion for sailing or the study of poetry or cooking. 6. Geriatric care businesses have sprung up to fill the gap, offering transportation, medical assistance, meals and emotional support. 7. Analysts say the burgeoning new geriatric industry demonstrates that when a need arises, a business will rise to fulfill that need Part II body odor 体臭,体味 rate 评定,定等级 per se adv.本身 The drug is not harmful per se, but is dangerous when taken with alcohol. get to the bottom of 弄清...的真相 cinnamon 肉桂 vanilla 香草 carbonated beverages 碳酸饮料 chemical irritants 化学刺激物 tingle 麻刺感 A Research Report Topic: the relationship between aging and smell Subjects: volunteers in the Philadelphia area Research objects: a small amount of nose tissue Research findings: A. the nerve cells of older persons not as easily stimulated as those of 1. faster adaptation with older people 2. cross-adaptation with 20% of the elderly B. not much decline in sensitivity to chemical irritants Solutions: A. making food more exciting B. using black pepper, chili pepper, cinnamon, carbonated beverages, etc. B 1.(T)

younger persons

2.(F)

3.(F) 4.(T)

5.(T)

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Tapescript Shakespeare said "A rose by any other name would smell as sweet." 玫瑰易名,馨香如故 When he wrote that, he was obviously a young guy; our sense of smell changes as we get older. If you're over 40, you don't smell the way you used to. We're not talking about your body odor; we're discussing your nose. "The decline tends to be gradual so many people aren't aware of it. So people become ... less able to detect very weak odors. They rate stronger odors as being less intense than younger people would." Marcia Pelchat is a biological psychologist at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia an independent research institute devoted exclusively to the study of taste and smell. She says no one really knows why sense of smell changes with age: "It may be a consequence of aging per se. It may also be a consequence of some factors that accompany aging, such as poor health ... or increased use of medication." To get to the bottom of how aging affects smell, Monell researcher go right to the source—the odor-detecting olfactory nerves. Marcia Pelchat explains: "Volunteers here in the Philadelphia area allow us to take a small ... amount of tissue from the nose, and from their tissue we're able to isolate single olfactory receptor cells that take odors floating around in the environment ... and create an electrical signal in the nervous system to go to the brain." In the laboratory culture, the nerve cells of older persons were not as easily stimulated as were those of younger persons. Marcia Pelchat says this was home out in her studies with people. When older people were exposed to a strong odor, they got used to it faster. It very quickly got to the point where they could not detect it. That's called adaptation, and Ms. Pelchat says it's why many older people do not smell certain things: "For example, the warning odor in cooking gas won't be as noticeable ... to older people as younger people. So older people would be less likely to notice gas leaks." And then there's cross-adaptation, where certain smells, like that of vanilla, could actually make people less sensitive to the smell of roses. In younger people, says Marcia Pelchat, that never happens; but it may happen in roughly 20 percent of the elderly. Food is the most obvious area in which declining sensitivity to smell among the elderly impacts real life: "Most of the variety in food flavor comes from the nose... So without the sense of smell there is much less variety ... in food flavor. Marcia Pelchat says smell research may suggest ways to make food more exciting for those whose olfactory and taste senses are not as sharp as before: "We have found that there isn't much ora decline in sensitivity to chemical irritants. People can use black pepper, chili pepper, cinnamon, carbonated beverages -- all of these will provide some sort of tingle or burn that people can still detect, even if they have a poor sense of smell." Marcia Pelchat of the Monell Chemical Senses Center, on enhancing the pleasures of smell for the elderly. Part III gin 杜松子酒 vermouth 味美斯酒,苦艾酒['v?:mu:θ] wear out 消瘦、(使)筋疲力尽, 耗尽 brag v.吹牛 bounce around 剧烈运动;猛撞; 晃来晃去

rusting 衰退,生锈 trim 匀称的 pathetic 又笨又可怜的, 招人怜悯的; 可悲的 longevity 长寿
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turbulence 骚动;湍流:打断风的运动的极不规则的大气运动 uptight 紧张的, 心情焦躁的 heart bypass 心脏搭桥 (Heart bypass surgery “心脏搭桥手术” Bypass 在医学中的意思是 。 “导 管外科手术中用于使血液或其它体液绕过某一阻塞或病变了的器官的替换管” ) anaesthetic [?n?s'θetik]麻醉剂 grunt(表示烦恼, 反对等)哼声, 咕哝;牢骚 wreck 身体或精神严重受损伤的人 rocking chair 摇椅 rehearse 预演 badge 徽章;勋章 A George Burns' secrets for long life ~ Don't worry about getting old. ~ Do exercises and walk a lot. / Walk whenever you can. ~ Think positive. ~ Stay active. ~ Challenge yourself. B 1. What are some of the things that George Bums usually does? Make films/do television/give concerts/record albums/smoke cigars/drink 2. How does he make a Martini? fill with ice/pour gin/little vermouth/an olive 3. How do worry, stress and tension affect one's life? unpleasant/shorten life 4. What does George Burns think of the old saying "Life begins at 40."? silly/life begins eYery morning/wake up

Martinis

Tapescript People keep asking me, "George, you're 88, how do you do it? You make films, you do television, you give concerts, you record albums, smoke cigars, drink Martinis—how do you do it? It's simple. For instance, a Martini. You fill the glass with ice; then pour in some gin and a touch of dry vermouth, add an olive, and you've got yourself a Martini. Today you don't have to worry about getting old; you have to worry about rusting. So I also do exercises and walk a lot. Walking is even easier than making a Martini. I take one foot and put it in front of the other foot; then I take the other foot and put it in front of the other foot, and before I know it I'm walking. And you don't even need an olive. Every morning, I walk a mile and a half. My advice is to walk whenever you can. It's free; you feel better and look trim. If you want to live to be 100 or older, you can't just sit around waiting for it to happen. You have to get up and go after it. There's no point in kidding yourself. When you get older you slow down, you wear out a little. But fight now I'm 88, and there isn't a thing I can't do today that I couldn't do when I was 18. Of course, I was pathetic when I was 18. I wasn't so hot when I was 25 either. I saved everything for now. I hate to brag, but I'm very good at "now". Here are my other secrets for long life: Think positive. If you ask me what is the single most important key to longevity, I would have to say it's avoiding worry, stress, and tension. And if you didn't ask me, I'd still have to say it. Worry, stress, and tension are not only unpleasant but can shorten your life.
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My attitude is, if something is beyond your control, there's no point worrying about it. And if you can do something about it, then there's still nothing to worry about. I feel that way when the plane I'm on is bouncing around in turbulence. It's not my problem. The pilot gets a lot of money to fly that plane; let him worry about it. I can honestly say that I was not even uptight about my heart bypass several years ago. It was beyond my control. It was the doctor's business. When I came round from the anaesthetic, I heard the surgeon say, "George, you did great. You're just fine." I said, "Doctor, I wasn't the least bit concerned." "Really?" he said. "I was a nervous wreck." Even that didn't bother me. Then he handed me his bill, and I passed out. Stay active. I know that for some people retirement works out fine. They enjoy it. I also know that for a great many others it presents lots of problems. To me the biggest danger of retirement is what it can do to your attitude. When you have all that time on your hands, you think old, you act old. It's a mistake, I see people who, the minute they get to be 65, start rehearsing to be old. They practice grunting when they get up, and by the time they get to be 70 they've made it—they're a hit—they're now old! Not me. When you're around my age you've got to keep occupied. You've got to do something that will get you out of bed. I never made any money in bed. Yes, find something that will make you get out of bed -- like an interest, a hobby, a business. Challenge yourself. When my wife Gracie retired, I could have retired too. Even today I don't have to do what I'm doing. I don't have to travel round giving concerts, making movies, doing television specials, recording country-music albums. I firmly believe that you should keep working as long as you can. And if you can't, try to find something that will interest you. Don't wait for it to happen; make it happen. Remember, you can't help getting older, but you don't have to get old. I look to the future, because that's where I'm going to spend the rest of my life. I feel sorry for people who live in the past. I don't live in the past; I live in a house in Beverly Hills. It's more comfortable. There's an old saying, "Life begins at 40." That's silly -- life begins every morning when you wake up. Open your mind to it; don't just sit there -- do things. Swim the English Channel; find a cure for the common cold; be the first to go over the Niagara Falls in a rocking chair. You see, the possibilities are endless. If all else fails, try doing something nice for somebody who doesn't expect it. You'll be surprised how good you feel. Many's the time I've helped a young lady across the street and over to my place. You should see all my badges. The point is, with a good positive attitude and a little bit of luck, there's no reason you can't live to be 100. Once you've done that you've really got it made, because very few people die over 100. Part IV Summary With the rapid development of computer technology, the generation gap between the senior citizens and the younger ones in the United States has become wider than ever before. In order to solve the problem, the Senior Net Foundation, a non-profit educational organization, has been trying to teach older people some computer knowledge, including what some computer words mean and how to use the Internet, etc. Having learned something about the computer technology, older Americans find that they really benefit a lot from it. On the one hand, their horizons are expanded, and on the other hand, the quality of life for them is also much more greatly improved.

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Tapescript As the computer revolution charges ahead, many Americans over 50 may feel that they've missed the boat. For them the gap between their generation and the younger "wired" one has never seemed wider. But there is plenty of room in cyberspace for people of all ages. The growth of the Internet and computer technology has had a major effect on the American society. It's even affected our vocabulary. "Even words like 'bandwidth' and 'hardware' and 'software' are new words for a lot of us, ah, that are 50 and older." This is Mary Furlong, a leading authority on technology and aging and founder of the Senior Net Foundation -- a non-profit educational organization to help older adults use the Internet. "If you didn't grow up with a mouse and a browser, you wonder what a mouse and a browser is. And so when people talk about 'portals to the web' or '24/7', that's an alienating language much as we have to learn a language if we visit another country. So I think what we try to do is to teach people what those words mean." The people who Mary Furlong is trying to teach are the more than 70 million Americans who are now in their fifties and above. She does this as Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Third Age Media, a web-based company, and as author of Grow up Sky to computing. "First of all we try to inspire them with examples and it's like.., uh, if you say something like 'I think you should get a car. I think you should get a bicycle.' You don't really want to know what is under the hood of a car and all those other elements. You want to know where the car is going to take you. So the first thing we do is we say here if you get a computer, you can be more connected with your children, you can fall in love, you can become a writer, you can do research..." While some old Americans seem to be phobic when it comes to the new technology, Mary Furlong says that appears to be the exception(s), not the rule(s). "Actually in my research that I've been doing in about 18 years, older adults make the best students. And the reason is they have more time to learn and to practice than you and I. So if they get a... computer, and a new program, they can kind of walk through it." Mary Furlong says that once senior citizens become acquainted with computer technology, they tend to be, in her words, a little bit more purposeful about what they are going to do with it. The technology also expands their horizons. "When you think about this, you could collaborate with colleagues that also share a passion for sailing or the study of poetry or cooking. And instead of having colleagues that are in your own country or your own community, you can have global colleagues participating with you." Mary Furlong sees technology making even greater improvements in the quality of life for older Americans. "I think this holiday season you're going to see tremendous participation of older adults, I mean just think about this, a third ager, would you rather drive to the toy store, park, go in, deal (with) a bunch of people and maybe find that's what you want, or go on e-choice to get exactly what your grandson wants, you're going to go to e-choice." Seniors, says Mary Furlong, author of Grow up Sky to Computing, are poised to really benefit from the technology, and she says the time is "now".

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Part V The Elderly Businesses A. Parents Services B. Tel-Assure Supporting Details we be there/when you cannot be computer telephone service / check / twice daily / okay / press one/need assistance / press two / no press / call again / no response / alert family, friends / call first name / more personal/birth date / happy birthday monitor/vital signs/by telephone wireless buttons/send alarm/ rescue squad

C. Tele-medicine D. Care Technologies

The number of US citizens over the age of 65 who live alone is expected to rise 21 percent over the next ten years, to more than 12 million. The nation's rapidly aging population has led to the development of a host of new businesses. Two-thirds of the children of the elderly in the United States today have jobs, and most do not live near their aging parents. Geriatric care businesses have sprung up to fill the gap, offering transportation, medical assistance, meals and emotional support. ―Our name is Parents Services‖, the brochure for one company reads, ―we will be there for your parents when you can not be.‖ In addition, new technologies are being created to enable older Americans to receive care in their own homes. "Tel-Assure," a St. Louis, Missouri computer telephone service, employs a software program to check on its elderly customers twice daily. "Good morning Phyllis. This is your Tel-Assure call. If you are okay, press one on your telephone keypad. If you need the assistance of someone in your caring circle, press two." If Phyllis, the elderly woman receiving that message does not press the button to confirm she is all right, Tel-Assure calls her again ten minutes later. If there is still no response, the service alerts her family or friends. The voice on the computer tape belongs to "Tel-Assure" founder, Janet Carver, who says she addresses subscribers by their first name to make the service more personal. "We also have their birth date, so on the day of their birth date, the system knows that and wishes them a happy birthday. They kind of look forward to it (the call). We had one person say 'I feel as if I had someone in the room with me, even though I know there isn't.'" In Hays, Kansas, a new device enables nurses to practice "Tele-medicine", monitoring the vital signs of elderly patients over the telephone. In Bethesda, Maryland, "Caring Technologies" has created wireless buttons senior citizens can wear that send an alarm to a rescue squad when pressed. Analysts say the burgeoning new geriatric industry demonstrates that when a need arises, a business will rise to fulfill that need.

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Unit 6 Science & Fashion
Part I 1. This "nanocare" allows for us to have with these fibers stain repellency, water repellency and wrinkle resistance, while allowing the fabric to remain soft. Stain: a mark that is difficult to remove, especially one made by a liquid such as blood, coffee, or ink n.污点, 瑕疵 Repellency:something that cannot be penetrated by a specified substance n. 抵抗性, 防护性, [物]排斥性 Wrinkle: raised fold in a piece of material, eg paper or cloth; small crease (材料上的)皱纹(如 纸上或布上的); 小褶: She pressed her skirt to try to remove all the wrinkles. 她熨她的裙子, 想把褶儿都熨平. Resistance: power to remain undamaged or unaffected (or only slightly so) by sth 抵抗力; 抗力: the body's natural resistance to disease 身体对疾病的自然抵抗力 * build up (a) resistance to infection 增强对传染病的抵抗力. 2. And if you're one of those high-tech fashionistas who wouldn't be caught dead reading a regular book, reading a book on the inside of our glasses is a little more hip. Fashionista: someone who is very interested in fashion and who likes the very newest styles n. 超 级时尚迷 be caught dead: 被逮个正着 hip: adj (俚) fashionable; trendy; up-to-date 时髦的; 赶时髦的; 新式的. 3. I think the dungarees don't really suit me. They make me look enormous. Dungarees: [pl] overalls or trousers made of coarse cotton cloth (粗棉布制的) 长工作服, 工 装裤: a pair of dungarees 一条工装裤. 4. I think music dictates an awful lot to the youngsters. 5. Manufacturers of the prototype shirt Lifeshirt. com say it can be worn while people are at work, playing sports or asleep. 6. Its potential uses include post-operative monitoring, pain management and the avoidance of misdiagnoses. 7. He warned stringent steps would have to be taken to ensure that patient confidentiality was not being breached. 8. The old dry stone houses have decayed, together with many aspects of crofting life. 9. Tweed's reputation was established after 1842 when the dowager Countess of Dunmore introduced her aristocratic friends to Harris Tweed. 10. They hope that styles like these will soon be showing on the catwalks of Paris and New York, en route to the high streets of the world.

Part II Smart clothes
B 1. Nanotechnology refers to a process in which technology manipulates individual molecules or groups of atoms to create useful materials or devices. 2. Window panes, when treated by nanotechnology in making, can essentially clean themselves. They become self-cleaning window panes. 3. Nanocare is a treatment used in making fabrics. By using 'nanocare', manufacturers add microscopic elements that give fabrics new capabilities without changing their appearance.
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4. Fabrics treated by 'nanocare' may have the following features: a. stain repellency b. water repellency c. wrinkle resistance d. still remaining soft/not a coated finish 5. "Lee Performance Khakis" pants can resist stains and wrinkles and survive through at least 55 home washings. Tapescript Retailers are hoping to boost sagging US clothing sales by offering new types of fabric that not only look good but also perform functions. The blue jeans of the future will serve to cool you off, warm you up and even resist stains. These functional products are created through a process known as "nanotechnology," which manipulates individual molecules or groups of atoms to create useful materials or devices. Glassmakers, for example, use "nanotechnology" to make self-cleaning window panes out of tiny particles of titanium dioxide. When these particles interact with the ultraviolet waves of the sunlight, they loosen dirt. The result is a window that essentially cleans itself. In apparel, a treatment called "nanocare" enables manufacturers to add microscopic elements that give fabrics new capabilities without changing their appearance. Liz Homer, who is a spokesman for Lee Jeans, says the benefits are mai or. "What it does is, at a molecular level--this "nanocare" allows for us to have with these fibers stain repellency, water repellency and wrinkle resistance, while allowing the fabric to remain soft. So it's not a coated finish. It still looks and feels like your normal khakis, but it gives you all of these forms of features with it." The result is "Lee Performance Khakis" pants that resist both stains and wrinkles and are guaranteed to survive through at least 55 home washings. C 1. According to Liz Homer, what characteristics will clothes of the future contain? Some characteristics found in today's athletic garments: breathable fabrics that pull perspiration away from the body. 2. What kind of fabric has Dupont's Global Apparel created? Fabrics that can keep wearers cool in hot weather and provide warmth in cold weather. 3. What kinds of clothes are called smart clothes7 Clothes, with multifunctional benefits, that can stretch, breathe, provide moisture management and allow athletes to feel dry_ next to their skin. 4. According to Bill Ghittes, what kind of jacket will mountain climbers and skiers wear in five years? Jackets with built-in global positioning systems/rescuers can find them in an emergency. Liz Homer says this is just the beginning. Clothes of the future, she predicts, will be designed to contain some of the characteristics that can be found today in athletic garments. "In the really extreme sports kind of outerwear, they have the "wicking" fabrics--breathable fabrics that pull perspiration away from the body and water away from the body. People are now, they've gotten used to that in their performance (athletic) gear, they're wanting to bring this into their everyday lives, and have it as part of their everyday clothes."
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Dupont's President of Global Apparel, Bill Ghittes, says his company has created fabrics that can do everything from keeping wearers cool in hot weather, to providing warmth in cold weather. "We call them smart clothes, with multifunetional benefits. Clothes which stretch, breathe, providing moisture management and allowing athletes to feel dry next to their skin. We combine products and brands to bring about a multitude of functionalities that you couldn't get until today." In five years, he predicts, mountain climbers and skiers will wear jackets with built-in global positioning systems, to enable rescuers to find them in an emergency. Part III A What did the third customer buy? How could you know? Which sentences or phrases give you the hint? The third customer bought a skirt. Though the word "skirt" doesn't appear in the conversation, you can infer from phrases like "go with the top", "be fight with some of my blouses" B CUS 1 CUS 2 CUS 3 What did they buy? jeans shirt a skirt What didn't they buy? Dungarees trousers the top Why not? CUS 1 make me look enormous CUS 2 the cost of getting them turned up CUS 3 can't afford both Tapescript 1. Customer: Shop assistant: Customer:

Yes, these jeans are a really good fit. I'll take'em. And what about the dungarees? The dungarees? I think I'll leave them. They don't really suit me. They make me look enormous.

2. Customer: Oh, these trousers are fine but they're a little too long in the leg. Shop assistant: Well they are a bit on the long side but we can always get them turned up for you. Customer: I suppose that costs extra. Shop assistant: They have to go to an outside tailor and the charge is£7.50. Customer: £7.50! That's outrageous. I don't think I'll bother with them at all. Shop assistant: And the shirt? Customer: Oh yeah, I'll take that. You accept Visa, don't you? Shop assistant: Yes. 3. Customer: What do you think, Ron? Ron: Well, to tell you the troth, I don't think it goes with the top at all. Customer: It does clash a bit but I think it'll be alright with some of my other blouses. The only thing is it's a bit loose. Ron: A bit loose! It could hardly be much tighter.
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Customer:

Well, I think I'll take it but I'll leave the top. I can't afford both.

C 1. With casual clothes 2. At the office ... 3. Getting to work ...

( @ ) Dry cleaning isn't necessary. ( @ ) Less air conditioning is necessary. ( @ ) People can ride bicycles.

No.1 With casual clothes ... Woman: Hey Dan, where are you going? Dan: I'm going to work. Woman: To work? Look at you. You're not wearing a suit. You're wearing ... well, just regular clothes. Dan: We don't have to wear suits on Fridays any more. There are new rules at work. We can wear whatever we want. Woman: That's great! Dan: Yeah. And believe it or not, casual clothes are good for the environment. Woman: Good for the environment? Stopping pollution? Dan: Yeah, Casual clothes actually stop pollution. Woman: How? Dan: Well, people don't dry-clean casual clothes. You have to dry-clean suits. Dry cleaning uses chemicals. Some chemicals are bad for the environment. Woman: Fewer chemicals. I never thought of that. No.2 At the office ... Dan: When we wear casual clothes, they mm down the air conditioner in the office. We don't wear jackets. We aren't so warm. We don't need as much air conditioning. Less air conditioning uses less electricity.., helps the environment. Woman: Less air conditioning. Hmm. No.3 Getting to work ... Dan: The best thing about casual clothes is that I can ride my bicycle to work. I can't ride my bicycle in a suit. I'd get too hot. But now I ride my bicycle on Friday. I don't drive my car ... less pollution. Woman: Gee, casual clothes really are good for the environment. Dan: And they feel good, too. D Lycra: 莱卡, 人造弹性纤维品牌, 英威达公司注册商标。
Jaeger: ['jeig?] 纯毛织品 Jaeger is a United Kingdom based high-end fashion brand and retailer of menswear and womenswear formed in 1884 by Lewis Tomalin. 501s: 低腰直筒裤是列维` s150 年历史中最经典的形式长裤。

Designer rips: describe things that are worn or bought because they are fashionable. (INFORMAL) Tousled ['ta?z(?)l] 弄乱(头发) hair and designer stubble ['st?bl]短须 are chic [?i(:)k] 流行样式, 时尚.

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How important is being fashionably dressed? Robin: not at all pick the first shirt that comes out Joanne: older -- less important younger -- of sole importance What do you think makes fashions change? Robin people who run clothes companies Joanne music – Madonna

more or less go with the trousers really important -- comfortable mother -- quality growing old -- more confidence

Tapescript: Peter: How important is being fashionably dressed to you? Robin: Well, not at all in fact, I usually tend to pick the first shirt that comes out of the cupboard, and I pile them all on one little hanger and I just take the first one that comes out. I try and make sure that they more or less go with the pair of trousers that I'm wearing for the day. But, otherwise, what's really important is to be comfortable. Joanne: I find it becomes less important the older I get. When I was younger it was of sole importance and I remember wandering around in lycra trousers, I must have looked ridiculous! But my mother always said to me "you pay for quality and a good Jaeger skirt will last you for years" and she's quite right actually. It's the things that don't date that you wear over and over again and, and the nice thing about growing old is you cease to care what other people think of you really. You have more confidence in yourself, I think. Peter: What do you think makes fashions change? Robin: Oh, without a doubt, it's the people who run the companies that produce the clothes. That's something that's got to be kept running reasonably quickly at a fast rate. Joanne: ... or produce the pop groups. I think music dictates an awful lot to the youngsters, what ... I mean, Madonna sort of did so much for 501s and designer rips, didn't she? You pay more for a pair of jeans with a rip in them. E Geek: n.反常人,电脑迷 someone who seems only interested in computers and other technical things - used to show disapproval = nerd(a computer nerd) Chic: adj elegant and stylish 高雅的: She always looks very chic. 她的样子总是很高雅. n [U] stylishness and elegance 高雅: She dresses with chic. 她的穿着雅致. Event: Latest fashion show Place: Japan Theme: High fashion meets high tech Exhibits 1. wearable computer 2. devices developed to help the disabled 3. wearable smell display 4. glasses

35

Features With a built-in global positioning system Conveying information to computer screens Pumping out your favorite odor at the push of a button Reading a book on the inside of the glasses Tapescript: Welcome back. In today's Tech Watch, the latest fashion show in Japan is the result of an unlikely partnership. As Andrew Brown now reports, there was more to this show than high heels and short skirts. High fashion meets high tech. This media fashion show is spotlighting the latest in wearable gadgets. Taking your work home with you? With a wearable computer, you can take it anywhere you choose. This computer has a built-in global positioning system. Just the thing when you can't see where you're going. Geek and fashion chic aren't normally paired together, but the organizers of this show are trying to change that. A lot of effort is made developing smart technology, but young people's tastes aren't always considered. We think there is a need to make IT gadgets that can be worn casually. Some of the devices on display have very practical applications. This was developed to help the disabled. People who have visual and hearing disabilities rely on their sense of touch. These devices convey information to the computer screens. Other devices were more exotic. This wearable smell display promises to pump out your favorite odor at the push of a button. And if you're one of those high-tech fashionistas who wouldn't be caught dead reading a regular book, reading a book on the inside of your glasses is a little more hip. But high fashion isn't about reading. It's about making a statement. Andrew Brown, Hong Kong. High-tech Fashion Show FEMALE ANCHOR Welcome back. In today's Tech Watch, the latest fashion show in Japan is the result of an unlikely partnership. MALE ANCHOR As CNN's Andrew Brown now reports, there was more to this show than high heels and short skirts. CORRESPONDENT High fashion meets high tech. This media fashion show is spotlighting the latest in wearable gadgets. Taking your work home with you? With a wearable computer, you can take it anywhere you choose. This computer has a built-in global positioning system. Just the thing when you can't see where you're going. Geek and fashion chic

aren't normally paired together, but the organizers of this show are trying to change that. MICHIE SONE, EVENT ORGANIZER A lot of effort is made developing smart technology, but young people's tastes aren't always considered. We think there is a need to make IT gadgets that can be worn casually. CORRESPONDENT Some of the devices on display have very practical applications. This was developed to help the disabled. TOMOHIRO AMEMIYA, TOKYO UNIVERSITY People who have visual and hearing disabilities rely on their sense of touch. These devices convey information to the computer screens. CORRESPONDENT Other devices were more exotic. This wearable smell display promises to pump out your favourite odour at the push of a button. And if you're one of those high-tech fashionistas who wouldn't be caught dead reading a regular book, reading a book on the inside of your glasses is a little more hip. But high fashion isn't about reading. It's about making a statement. Andrew Brown, CNN, Hong Kong. 高科技时装秀 女主播 欢迎回来。在今天的《科技观察》中跟大家谈的是,最近在日本举行的一场时装 秀展示的似乎是两种风格的另类组合。 男主播 据 CNN 的安德鲁?布朗最新报道,本次时装秀除了高跟鞋和短裙外,还有更多 的看点。 记者 高级流行时尚遭遇高科技。本次时装发布会突出展示了可佩带设备的最新发展。 能否将你的工作带回家?用一台可佩带的计算机,你可以把它带到任何地方。这 种计算机配有内置全球定位系统,当你不知身处何地时它就会大显身手。低级滑 稽和时尚别致通常不会成双入对,但本次时装秀的组织者却试图改变这一点。 米歇?索恩,活动组织者 (人们) 在发展时尚科技方面已做了大量工作, 但并不总能考虑到年轻人的品味。 我们认为有必要制作一些可以随意佩戴的 IT 装置。 记者

参加展示的一些装置具有很实际的用途。这种装置可以用来帮助残疾人。 Tomohiro Amemiya,东京大学 视力和听力有残障的人士依靠触觉生活。这些装置可以向计算机屏幕传递信息。 记者 其他装置则更为神奇。 按一下按钮,这种可以佩带的嗅觉显示器就能散发出你喜 爱的气味。 如果你是那些不愿死读书本的高科技时尚爱好者的一员,在你的眼镜 里阅读才会更为时髦。但是高级时尚不在于阅读本身,而在于创造某种效果。 CNN,安德鲁?布朗从香港报道。 来源:http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/52384.shtml

Part IV Computerized Shirt Could Save Lives Outline I. Advantages of "lifeshirt" A. giving doctors more chance of spotting danger signs B. being worn while at work, playing sports or asleep C. giving a more accurate picture of people's health D. giving physicians information to aid in accurate diagnosis and early preventive care E. handset working 24 hours a day, seven days a week Il. Working principles of “lifeshirt” A. recording vital signs such as heart rate and breathing B. passing the information to a computer worn on the patient's belt C. passing the information via the Internet to a web site D. data analyzers forwarding the information to the person's doctor E. warning the doctor of any changes in condition III. Cost of "lifeshirt" A. lifeshirt + computer handset: US$250 B. monitoring costs: US$30 a day IV. Potential uses of "lifeshirt' A. post-operative monitoring B. pain management C. avoidance of misdiagnoses V. Problems that need to be solved A. how to ensure the security of information being passed via the Internet B. how to prevent patient confidentiality from being breached A shirt which monitors people's health while they go about their daily lives could give doctors more chance of spotting danger signs in patients. The "lifeshirt" constantly records vital signs such as heart rate and breathing, passing the

information to a hand-sized computer worn on the patient's belt. The information collected is then passed via the Internet to a secure web site where data analyzers can forward it to the person's doctor, warning of any changes in condition. Manufacturers of the prototype shirt Lifeshirt.com, based in Ojai, California, say it can be worn while people are at work, playing sports or asleep. As a result, it can give a more accurate picture of people's health than recordings taken during brief visits to a doctor or at home. "We can look at what is going on when you are at work in a stressful situation rather than when you are siring at home in a relaxed environment," said inventor Dr. Marvin Sackner. The shirt, which contains six sensors positioned from the neck to the abdomen and weighs about the same as normal clothing, is due to go on general sale in September next year. It will originally cost US$250 including the computer handset, plus US$30 a day monitoring costs. Company president Paul Dennedy said, "The lifeshirt provides a movie of a patient's health that supplements the snapshot of a standard office exam. ―It gives physicians vital information to aid in accurate diagnosis for critical decisions and early preventive care." Andrew Behar, co-founder of Lifeshirt.com, added, "If you are on the golf course and you feel a bit breathless, you can pull out the handset. It is truly 24 hours a day, seven days a week." Its potential uses include post-operative monitoring, pain management and the avoidance of misdiagnoses. It can show up cases of sleep apnea, where people stop breathing many times during a night's sleep, which might otherwise be missed. It capitalizes on equipment used for years in intensive care units that, with technological advances, can now be included in the fabric of the shirt. Dr. Simon Fradd, deputy chairman of the British Medical Association's committee for GPs, said, "This is the way the future is likely to go. It isn't going to take 50 years -- within 10 years we will have people who are at risk wearing these kind of things." But he warned stringent steps would have to be taken to ensure the security of information being passed via the Intemet and that patient confidentiality was not being breached. "We need to find a way of handling data to make sure it is safe."

Part V Commentary: The Outer Hebrides, one of Britain's remotest regions, a scatter of islands situated off the Northwest coast of Scotland on the edge of the Atlantic Ocean. This bleakly beautiful landscape has been shaped by fierce storms. The wind blows two days out of three and the weather changes from hour to hour. It takes a hardy kind of people to survive here. Traditionally islanders have lived on small holdings known as crofts ... working the difficult land and fishing the sea. To protect themselves from

the Hebridean weather they wove, by hand, a cloth known as tweed, made from the wool of their own sheep. The old dry stone houses have decayed, together with many aspects of crofting life. But the weaving tradition lives on and has grown into an industry producing a world famous product: Harris Tweed. According to an Act of Parliament, Harris Tweed must be hand-woven by the islanders at their own homes from wool spun, dyed and finished in the mills on the islands. Tweed's reputation was established after 1842 when the dowager Countess of Dunmore, who owned a large part of Harris, introduced her aristocratic friends to Harris Tweed. Iain Angus Mackenzie: That reputation has always stayed with us. It became more organized still in the early years of this century when the trademark was applied for in 1909 and then mill spun yarn came in 1934. In 1946 we had further alterations to the trademark regulations and it slowly modernized and became the basis of the economy of the Western Isles. Commentary: Since the 1930s the islands' weavers have used the Hattersley loom which produces a cloth 75cm wide known as "single width". But now this island industry is facing change as overseas customers demand something different. Harris Mackenzie: Less customers are able to handle the single width. After they modernized the factories they can only handle the 150 cm. so our customer base would get smaller and smaller if action wasn't taken. Commentary: To safeguard the livelihood of hundreds of weavers, the industry commissioned a new kind of loom able to weave tweed twice as wide. Weavers are now having to re-learn a craft passed on through generations. They come here to Lewis Castle College in Stornoway, the capital of the island for an intensive retraining course. There are many benefits to the new looms. They're now driven by pedal power which is less taxing than older methods. The new looms can produce fabric that is lighter-weight and it also enables the industry to offer a wider range of patterns and colors. The old looms use a chain drive. The new ones have punch cards which can be computer generated. Donald Martin has been weaving for 20 years and was one of the first to buy a new loom. Donald Martin: I decided to retrain to the double width. I see (that) the future is in the double width. If there is any future for Harris Tweed at all, it is with this new loom and the double width cloth. (The) fabric is superior to what was being produced on the Hattersley -- there's no doubt about that -- and there's many an advantage in it. Commentary: Although woven at home. the Cloth is finished at mills. Independent inspectors check the finished product before it can be certified as Harris Tweed. At the mill the finishing process includes scouring the tweed. After drying, it is also stretched, Harris Tweed is sold around the world. Its most familiar image is in suits and jackets worn by older people. But the island's younger designers hope to change that.

Heather Butterworth: The ... the range of tweeds is just so extensive. It is just madness to think that it is just browns and blacks and dull colors. Commentary: They hope that styles like these will soon be showing on the catwalks of Paris and New York. en route to the high streets of the world.

Unit 7 Roads & Ways Changing
Objectives: The focus of this unit is to improve the students' ability of selecting the key words, listing the outline, concluding the main idea . In this unit , you will hear something about transportation(buses, trains and trams) , roads and their changes. Teaching methods and facilities: listen to the tapes and discuss the contents of the passage, in the language lab. Time Allotment: 2 periods Teaching Outline Part I Getting ready 1.Tram: (US) street car , trolley 2.Concessionary: of privilege 3.It is from this vantage point that Bill Shay has observed the world for all of his eighty odd years. Vantage: advantage odd-------even 4.Today he sells covers for the beds of pickup trucks, and he collects gas station and Route 66 memorabilia. Memorabilia-------big event which needs to be remembered 1.He gets such a kick out of meeting people and adding to his collection that he plans to keep on working. 2.The biggest developments are likely to take place in the German auto industry, which is leading the race in producing a hydrogen-powered car that emits nothing but water vapor. 3.The miniaturization process we've seen in mobile phones is still to come in the car industry, making it possible for car companies to redesign cockpits to include the new appliances created by the information revolution. Part II Cellular phones & driving Cellular phone, fixed phone---home phone, mobile phone, booth IC---intergrated Card IP---internet prototype Research report Topic: relationship between using a cellular phone while driving and road accidents Subjects: drivers who have wireless phones and who were involved in crashes Research findings: A. The risk of a crash when using a cellular phone is four times higher than when not using it. B. The risk of a crash is the same as driving with an illegal limit of alcohol in the blood.

C. The risk of a crash for drivers of different ages and driving experiences is similar. D. Hands-free telephones are no safer that hand-held telephones. E. Using cellular phones while driving does not necessarily cause accidents. F. Cellular phones do some good to drivers. Suggestions by the researchers: A. Drivers should avoid placing or receiving unnecessary calls. A. Drivers should keep calls brief. Part III Smart Card A. 1.The transport services in Manchester:2700 bus/ the new Metrolink Tram system/rail service 2.Advantages of a Smart card: eliminate /tickets, no deed/money/chang hands 3. With whom : 2000 school children/ 500 elderly people 4. the reasons: volunteers / half of the concessionary support scheme/ may test to destruction /if they can‘t/nobody can 6.what may happen if a card is lost or stolen? Put on hot-list/ don't work/money left/credit to new card 1. How do passengers think of the card? Woman1: easy/first tricky/then easy Girl: catchy/better designed Man: want/throughout the country/on buses/railways Boy: new/if wide range/first to use it Woman2: make it easy/used anywhere/no mugging/brilliant B. Procedures of using a smart card Get on a bus—place the card on the card reader—check if it‘s valid—issue a ticket—a. 27 pence deducted from the value of the card b. how much is left Part IV Route 66 & Bill Shay Peoria Road, through Springfield, Illinois, is apart of "The Mother Road of America"---Route 66. It opened in the 1920s and in the past was the way to travel from Chicago to Los Angeles.In 1945, on Peria Road, Bill Shay opened a Texaco gas station and later sold it to open a Marathon gas station where he was worked ever since. Other than serving in the army during World War II, Bill has lived on Route 66 for the last 80 odd years. On the road, he has oberved how cars and people‘s attitudes towards them have changed over the last 50 years. Families, before the war, would only own one automobile and going for a ride in the car was a big deal. He also notes that the quality of service of gas station attendants has declined over the years. And he sees clearly that kids are much more wasteful on soft drinks and hamburgers than the kids in the past. In 1982, Bill pulled the pumps out and began to sell covers for the beds of pickup trucks. He also collects Route 66 memorabilia that covers his Peoria Road Shop. His shop, due to the popularity and nostalgia of Route 66, has attracted tourists from 42 countries. In a word, Bill Shay feels lucky to have seen so many changes, including the change of Peoria Road from a primary highway to a back road to a nostalgic trail through America's past.

Part V Outline I. A. making clean vehicles B. making affordable vehicles C. number of cars: from 500 million to 1 billion II. Cars running clean with hydrogen Emitting water vapor III. The style of tomorrow‘s cars- missing the classics A. the Automobile for the next Century sad-looking/uninspiring/ bland B. rocket-inspired cars of the 1950s and 1960s splendid/ heavy/ wasteful by today‘s standards IV. A. miniaturization B. new appliances 1. satellite-linked navigation systems 2. equipment for downloading E-mail 3. back-seat television video V. Cars that know you A. reason for such cars talking on the phone / more equipment / no good B. voice- activated personal computer 1. changing temperature 2. changing radio station 3. reading E-mail 4. dialing phone numbers C. personalized cars Homework: Listen to this book 2 and VOA news

exhibit

distasteful/ugly/

Unit 8 Rubbish or Raw Materials
Objectives: The focus of this unit is to improve the students' ability of selecting the key words, note-taking, listing the outline, concluding the main idea . In this unit , you will hear something about rubbish or raw materials, domestic waste, an international recycling business and recycling vending machines. Teaching methods and facilities: listen to the tapes and discuss the contents of the passage, in the language lab. Time Allotment: 3 periods Teaching Outline Part I Getting Ready 1. I knew calcium sulfate was gypsum and we use it as a soil amendment in California quite extensively. Sulfate; sulphate-----compound of sulphuric acid and another chemical 硫酸盐, Gypsum: mineral ( calcium sulphate) from which plaster of Paris is made, also used as fertilizer. 石膏 2. The Australian project, for example, not only creates useful materials that used to be dumped into landfills, it also creates a soil enhancer 60 percent cheaper than the one Australian farmers used before. 3. And I think it had a lot to do with my mother not wasting things and putting them back in and letting them decompose, and the nutrients were available to the plant. Decompose: rot 4. When plastic detergent bottles like these are made a third of the material which is recovered from food containers used once and thrown away, they can be recycled. 5. then it's left outside as the weathering helps remove labels before it's sold for reprocessing. 6. But if separated into a single type like these High Density Polyethylene milk and juice bottles, it can be used again and again. Polyethylene:聚乙烯 7. A high-tech, computerized vending machine can even be programmed to contribute a small refund to your favorite charity. 8. We have the current generation machine with the latest generation of computer technology and video graphics. 9. Within fifteen years, Britain and other nations should be well on with the building of huge industrial complexes for the recycling of waste.

Part II An international recycling business Major points and Details (key words) A. recycling on the increase (money-making potential/industrial waste/raw material) B. products for use in agriculture(end products/soil additives) C. birth of the firm(tire-burning plant/calcium sulfate/$400/landfill/gypsum/soil amendment/buy) D. present business of the firm(fertilizer/ soil enhancer/sugar refineries) E. business concept(farm/nothing waste/garden/best vegetables) Questions: 1. How old is ―Triad Energy Resources‖ (b) 2. How much should the tire-burning plant pay for taking one truck load of waste to a landfill?(d) 3. Where does ―Triad Energy Resources‖ get shrimp and crab waste to produce fertilizer?(c) 4. Where does ―Triad Energy Resources‖ get leftover skins and seeds from wineries?(a) Part III Domestic waste A. (omitted)

Two advantages of recycling in Milton Keynes 1. Recycling helps people save on the dustbins 2. The MIRF has become both a tourist attraction and educational resource.
Part IV Recycling Vending Machines In NY state, there is a new kind of vending machine. This kind of machine is different from the traditional ones in that it eats aluminum cans instead of accepting coins and offering drinks. If you put an aluminum can into the machine, you will get a voucher worth a few cents. And the cans inside the machine will be sent out to be recycled. Up till now, the recycling vending machines have ingested over one billion beverage containers, cans and bottles in the United States. And the practice is considered a perfect marriage of environmentalists with businessmen.

Part V Outline I. Huge industrial complexes/ everything useful/ laboratory/ 4 times money II. A. 1. take a city/ half a million / raw materials/ go into and out 2. how much / provided / if plant built B. Metal (steel, lead, copper) / paper/ rubber C. 1. remove ink / newsprint 2. obtain oil / gases / old motor-car tires B. new idea combine methods / single plant / most types of waste III. A. purpose and plan best ways / sort / separate B. possible steps

1. tear/ plastic bags / spikes 2. separate/ lightest/ heavy/ fan 3. break up/ crushers and rollers 4. remove / iron and steel/ magnets 5. sort out / rubber/ plastic Homework: Listen to this book 2 and VOA news

Unit 9 Forced Labor or Uncomplaining Helper?
Objectives: The focus of this unit is to improve the students' ability of selecting the key words, taking notes, getting the main idea . In this unit , you will hear something about robots. Teaching methods and facilities: listen to the tapes and discuss the contents of the passage, in the language lab. Time Allotment: 2periods Teaching Outline Part I Getting Ready 1. a rapidly aging society: there will be a great number of old people 2. soothes human beings: soothe-calm 3. the art of automation-building had reached new levels of sophistication 4. it ―sees‖ obstacles using sonar, the same technique bats use to navigate and hunt: emitting very high-pitched sounds and discerning shapes from the echoes. Discerning : see clearly 5. In the United States, a robotic work station helps quadriplegics to work ad computer operators. 6. Human beings are so fragile. I feel very sorry for you. It disturbs my compassion-circuit. 7. Robots today are a long way from the future envisioned for them decades ago by fiction writers and engineers. 8. In this case ―better‖ means being more successful at tasks designed to evaluate the robots‘ dexterity. dexterity: skill 9. The beauty of the evolutionary approach is that it emerges on its own, without anyone‘s having to analyze all the complexities. Part II What jobs will be done by robots?
A.What jobs will be done by robots?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Bank tellers Cashier in supermarkets Selling movie theater tickets Car-wash workers Gas-station attendants Turning lights on and off

7. Doing the vacuuming 8. Controlling home security systems B. Summary Factories, manufacturing, Tokyo, humans, friendship, aging, 700, industrial, entertain, extreme, burdens Part III Robot: history, morality & application A. (omitted) B. Rule 1: A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction allow a human being to come to harm. Rule 2: A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings except where those orders would violate the first law. Rule 3: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the first and second laws. Part II Meldog: daily life guide the blind A robo work-station: office help quadriplegics/ as computer operators Rosco: hospital deliver meals Part IV Are Robots Superior to Human Beings? Summary After four months, Janet‘s homemaid robot, Hester, had become her friend. Jane, who was weak and fragile, considered robots superior because they are so strong and never get tired. Hester agreed saying that she does not have to sleep, will never grow old and if a part of her gets broken, it can easily be replaced. In order to make herself stronger, Janet decided to go to the hospital for an operation. And George, Janet‘s husband who knew nothing about what surgery was to be performed on his wife, was prevented from visiting her in the hospital. Five days later, Janet was sent home. As she began to explain, George touched her hand and found it was dreadfully cold. In a state of shock, George realized that Janet now had robot replacement parts. Part V Towards independent listening Questions 1. What is the problem facing robot makers now? Software too complicated/written instruction-by-instruction 2. What kind of approach is suggested by the two researchers to solve the problem? Robot farm/ evolutionary approach 3. How will robots mate on the farm? A software affair:: 4. What are the potential applications of the smart robots? Exploring Mars /Probing toxic waste dumps/driving cars on automated roadways 5. What are the potential disadvantages of the smart robots? Hard to be accepted where human life is at risk / too human for comfort.

Homework: Listen to this book 2 and VOA news

Unit 10 Computers: Machines of Intelligence
Objectives: The focus of this unit is to improve the students' ability of selecting the key words, note-taking, listing the outline, concluding the main idea . In this unit , you will hear something about internet commerce evaluated, information sciencesuperhighway, etc. Teaching methods and facilities: listen to the tapes and discuss the contents of the passage, in the language lab. Time Allotment: 2 periods Teaching Outline Part I Getting ready Attempting to automate their offices Sponsored by IBM--- International Business Machines Get a crack at …:attempt at sth Demarcation: limit, boundary Contracting: become smaller Consortium staff: temporary association Protocols: original draft Impoverish: make poor or poorer The dot-matrix printers: pl matrices
Part II The new office A&B Roberta: ( office design consultant)Without reorganizing jobs, introducing computers doesn‘t help. Monica: (typist)Computers have made life much more difficult. Andrew: (bank clerk)Computers reduce everything to numbers and typing in numbers all day long is so boring. Anita: ( secretary)People begin to feel like machines. William: (clerk)Future office work will be unrecognizable. Peter: (office administrator)Computer systems do not always function. Edward: (personal assistant)The purpose of computerization is not always clear. Part III Collegiate computer contest A. (omitted) 1. What is the purpose of this annual computer programming contest according to Mr. Silberman? Promote careers in IT field 2. What‘s his comments on the Canadian team?

Sharp/ experienced / team work 3. What‘s the weak point of this contest? Lack of women participants Part IV Women, Work and Computers Question: Why should the computer industry offer ideal conditions for the employment of women? Computing is clean, light work Its best results are obtained by intelligence It provides for flexible working hours. Much IT work can be done from home. It is easier for women to be retrained and re-employed in the computer industry. B. Summary Technological revolution One third 20% web protocols less male students computer science 37% 8% reassure career freshmen Faculty members Modify Leadership Address Stay Next four years Part V Towards independent listening A. 1. log on procedure All students must enter their name and lab number before they are allowed to use the computer. 2. in case something goes wrong If something goes wrong, the student must let Donald or his assistant know about it, He shouldn‘t just walk away or turn off the computer. 3. the use of student disks Students are not allowed to bring their own disks into the laboratory. 4. bags All bags must be left outside the laboratory. 5. networks Students must only access the network set up for their level.

B. 1. maintaining the facilities 2. 100, 20, printers, fax machines, modems 3. copyright laws, viruses 4. four, Three, PC, one, Macintosh 5. printout, 40 cents, laser printers, dot-matrix printers,class hours, 10 cents 6. nine, three thirty, Monday, Thurday, midday, Fridays, an hour, six o‘clock, Fridays, five 7. computer lab card, computer books, manuals, library

Homework: Listen to this book 2 and VOA news

Unit 11
Entering the Internet Objectives: The focus of this unit is to improve the students' ability of selecting the key words, note-taking, listing the outline, concluding the main idea . In this unit , you will hear something about internet commerce evaluated, information sciencesuperhighway, etc. Teaching methods and facilities: listen to the tapes and discuss the contents of the passage, in the language lab. Time Allotment: 2 periods Teaching Outline Part I Getting ready 1. hub: center 2. domain: field 3. encrypt: make … in order 4. surcharge: extra fee 5. optic cable:光缆 Part II Computer and young people in America A. Ask the student to focus on the major points and complete the outline I. American education officials‘ goal A. having all public schools connected to the internet computer system. B. having computers for all students II. Percentage of public schools connected to the Internet A. in 1994: 35% B. last year: 89% III. Computer use in universities and colleges A. students being required to have a computer B. student‘s living area having the wires to link a computer to the internet. C. various ways students use the computer 1. sending and receiving electronic. 2. using world wide web to link with other universities. 3. sending electronic copies of school work to teachers 4. searching for books in the school‘s library D. large computer rooms for class work IV. Computer use in high schools A. schools having computers B. schools having their own web sites, which provide: 1. information about the school

2. information about the teachers and their electronic mail addresses _____ 3. student events 4. student organizations. V. computer use in elementary schools A. schools having their own web sites, which contain: 1. information about the school 2. information about the teachers 3. areas for young children B. young children using computers to learn numbers and letters. C. young children learning how to use computers. C. (omitted) Part III Internet commerce evaluated Answers to the questions 1. European Union and Consumers International. 2. Consumer studies. 3. 17. 4. 150. 5. Items ranged from chocolates and champagne to Barbie dolls and blue jeans 6. 8% 7. Both direction shipping + insurance +restocking fee. 8. 15% of the purchase price. 9. secure, easy to navigate, with clearly stated policies on privacy and returns. 10. Uniform rules of commerce on the Internet. C. Problems Problem of privacy Problem of the security of transactions Problem of returns policy Some Internet companies permit refunds and exchanges, but add surcharges Some Internet companies are inexperience in the new commercial setting Part IV More about the topic: Information Science: Superhighway A. personal computers, written word, broadcasting services, fiber optic cables, cost, access B. fadebc C. Summary telecommunications, experimental superhighways, fiber optic, long distance, World Wide Web, expensive, copper, local, broadband, smaller, powerful, voice, society Part V
160, modem, credit card, Web site, half, next year, one half to one and a half, crowds, recorded, sample, the whole CD, one individual song, download, $1, $2

Homework: Listen to this book 2 and VOA news

Unit 12 Review Objectives: The focus of this unit is to review the different kinds of the exercises we covered this term and to improve the students' ability of summarizing the passage, selecting the key words, listing the outline, concluding the main ideas, etc. In this unit, students will hear something about emotional intelligence, The human brain, biorhythms, etc. Teaching methods and facilities: listen to the tapes and discuss the contents of the passage, in the language lab. Time Allotment: 2 periods Teaching Outline Activity 1 Isn’t it time to take a break for breakfast? I. Ask the students to discuss the following questions: 1. Do you have breakfast every day? 2. If you do not have or seldom have breakfast, what‘s the reason? 3. If you have breakfast every day, what do you usually have for breakfast and with whom do you have breakfast? 4. What do you think are the advantages of having breakfast regularly? II. Ask the students to complete the summary. 4, breakfast, time-efficient, the most important, bonding, emotional benefit, setting ,earlier, special Activity 2 Do you have emotional intelligence? I. Some words and expressions IQ: intelligence quotient EQ: Emotional quotient II. Ask the students to focus on the major points and complete the outline I. Intelligence tests-useful tools for measuring what the mind can do A. advantages B. disadvantages 1. no information about whether these tasks are worth doing or not 2. no ingormation about how people get on with each other II. Emotional intelligence(previously called ―social intelligence‘) A. five factors behind emotional intelligence 1. self-awareness 2. managing emotions 3. self-motivation 4. empathy 5. handling relationships B. 1. an important part of successful leadership

3. foundations of happy marriages and stable families III. Conclusion –not everyone has a high IQ, but everyone can be emotionally intelligent Activity 3 The human brain The human brain is divided into two halves: the left side and the right side. Each side is used for different purposes. A. Indications, evolved, structures, functions,widens, called, primitive, Located, advanced , tissue The left-hand side: keeping a sense of time Doing calculation Reading Speaking The right-hand side: appreciating beauty Dreaming drawing Activity 4 Biorhythms
I. new words

Biorhythms: natural rhythms, biological rhythms of the body II. main idea This activity is about a book called Biorhythms. There are suggestions about how to plan our daily activities around our biorhythms. III. Ask the students to focus on the major points and take notes about what activities are preferred at a certain time of the day, and then complete the chart with key words. 1:00am-2:00am / Body most sensitive to pain 3:00am-4:00am Not do important work Blood pressure/ lowest 4:00am-5:00am / Skin sensitive to cold 10:00amHeavy work Brain and body/ best level of 12:00am performmance 2;00pm- 3:00pm Not do important work Blood pressure/very low Midday tiredness/ worst 4:00pm-5:00pm Go to the dentist Pain killing injections/ last longer 5:00pm- 6:00 pm Do important work Body and mind/ high point 6:00pm-7:00pm / Sensitivity to pain/lowest 7:00pm-8:00pm Sports training Body/ use up less energy 9:00pm-10:00pm Read/study sth difficult Long-term memory/ best Before midnight Go to bed and sleep / Activity 5 What is going to be done about car pollution General views and their supporting details 1. Most of the global environmental problems now are caused by too many people using cars. The member of cars increase too fast: 450 million now to double in 2010 Causing air pollution

Contributing to global warming 2. The UK government is not going to do anything about traffic congestion. But other countries are trying to establish a maximum ceiling for traffic. In 20 years, the amount of traffic will have increased by 80-140%. In some other countries they will have become car-free. 3. Traffic and transport problem is a very long-term problem. There‘ll have to be two or three different mechanisms to solve the transport crisis. 1) redesign city centers 2) change the financial subsidies give to private transport 3) change people‘s perceptions Activity 6 What are they talking about? This activity is talking about different things. 1. bicycles 2. gravity 3. lightening 4. x-rays 5. lasers 6. yeast 7. encyclopedias 8. recycling Homework: Listen to this book 2 and VOA news


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