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软件需求分析与建模问答题


1 软件工程风险 (1) The risks of software development comes from its complexities and change. (2) The risks of software development can be divide into many kinds. Technological Risk: Technology background is poor .New technology cannot be digest in soon. Management Risk: The management of people, money, and other things. The management of documents. The management of development process. Client unpleasant Risk: The client maybe do not know the things what he want but he must know what he doesn’t want. The requirement comes from the client is changeable. (3) Control the development risk. 1. Methodology: Object-Oriented, make you do the right thing by overcoming the gap through real world to problem statements ,and then to implementation statement ,and finally to system. 2. Process: Rational Unified Process(RUP). 3. Tools: Rational United Rose. In the inception phase ,the first risk we meet is the risk of complex business and changeable requirement which comes from the clients. But RUP provide the Mange Requirement, one of the six best practices for software development team, which can handle it easily. The Manage Requirement makes sure you solve the right problem and build the right system by taking a systematic approaches to eliciting, organizing, documenting and managing the change requirements of a software application. In the elaboration phase ,the second risk we meet is the technological risk by analyzing the key use-cases, if we don’t have the ability to solve the risk under the fine cost and date , we can give up the project. The another solution is to buy or change component if the cost we can accept. In the construction phase ,the risk we meet is the management resources including people, money, and other things. But this risk is almost solved in the elaboration by analysis and design. 2 面向对象 软件工程的优点 (7 分) (1) 三大特性: Encapsulation, Inheritance, Polymorphism. (2) 四大原则:Abstraction, Encapsulation, Modularity, Hierarchy. (3) The advantage of Encapsulation: Avoid the cross-infections of the external mistakes. Make software mistakes happen in a small range and then we can find them easily. Reduce the affection caused by the maintaining the internal part of object and reduce the ripple effect. (4) The advantage of Inheritance: a.继承可以让我们把精力放在发现和描述特殊类的特殊特征上。 b.继承对软件复用是很有益的,可以把用 OO 方法开发的类作为可复用构件提交到构建 库里,然后通过继承实现复用。 c.继承提高了软件开发的效率。 Inheritance make developers put their effort into discovering and describing the special characters of class.

It’s helpful to reuse. Inheritance improve the efficiency of software development. (5) The advantage of Polymorphism: The ability to hide many different implementations behind a single interface. Bring convenience to developers. 面向对象的软件工程优点: (1) Reflects a single paradigm. (2) Facilities architectural and code reuse. (3) Reflect real world model closely. (4) Encourage stability. (5) Is adaptive to change. (6) Has a high level of encapsulation. (7) Permits more software extensibility. (8) The lifecycle is linked without any gap. 3.为什么需要建模以及建模的好处。 为什么需要建模以及建模的好处。 为什么需要建模以及建模的好处 (1)You build models of complex systems because you cannot comprehend such a system in its entirety. (2) You build models to better understand the system you are developing. (3) Software teams do not model often fail to finish a good project. 建模的好处: (1)Helps you to visualize a system as you want it to be. (2)Permits you to specify the structure or behavior of a system. (3) Gives you a template that guides you in constructing a system. (4) Documents the decisions you have made. (5) Is good to teamwork. 4.RUP (1)RUP的四个阶段: Inception: Define the scope of the project. Elaboration: Plan project, specify features and baseline architecture. Construction: Build the project. Transition: Transition the product into end-user community. Inception milestone: Lifecycle Objective Milestone. Elaboration milestone: Lifecycle Architecture Milestone. Construction: Initial Operational Capability Milestone. Transition: Product Release Milestone. (2)RUP的六个最佳实践: Develop Iteratively Manage Requirement. Use Component Architectures. Model Visually(UML) Continuously Verify Quality. Manage change. (3)RUP的九个核心工作流i: Core Process Workflows:

Business Modeling Requirements Analysis and Design Implementation Test Deployment Core Supporting Workflows: Configuration and Change Management Project Management Environment (4)RUP的“4+1”Views Use-case View: End-user; Functionality; Logical View: Analysts and Designers; Structure; Implementation View: Programmers; Software management; Process View: System Integrators; Performance, Scalability, throughput; Deployment View: System engineering; System topology, Delivery, Installation, Communication; 5.用例图表示什么东西? (1)Use cases describe the system(functional requirement), its environment(actors) and the relationship between the system and its environment . A use case describes a sequence of events, performed by the system, that yields an observable result of value to a particular actor. 用例分析的步骤:(Use-case analysis steps) 1. Supplement the use-case description. 2. For each use-case realization: Find classes from use-case behavior; Distribute use-case behavior to classes. 3. For each resulting analysis class Describe responsibilities; Describe attributes and associations Qualify analysis classes. 4. Unify analysis classes. 5. Checkpoints. 如何表示一个用例: 方法一: 1. Name(Function) <Name>·<Function> 2. Brief Description 3. Flow of Event(Basic Flow and Alternative Flows) 4. Special Requirement 5. Pre-Conditions 6. Post-Conditions 7. Extension Points. 方法二: 1. Use-case number ,use-case name, function;

2. Brief Description; 3. Actors; 4. Condition 5. Result 6. Basic Flow 7. Exceptions 8. Data Type 9. Return Data 10. Supplement 如何定义用例: 全面的认识和定义一个用况,要深入问题域进行调查研究,其要点如下: (1) 全面地了解和收集用户所要求的各项系统功能,确定系统边界,找出所有的参与者, 向用户和领域专家了解与各项功能有关的业务流程; (2) 把用户所提出的功能组织成适当的单位,即:一项功能完成一项完整而相对独立的 工作,并且是通过参与者与系统的一次交互能够完成的; (3) 以穷举的方式考虑每一类参与者与系统的交换情况,看看每个参与者要求系统提供 什么功能,以及参与者的每一项输入信息将要求系统做出什么反映,进行什么处理, 定义相应的用况; (4) 检查用户对系统的各项功能需求是否都通过相应的用例做了描述。 如何绘制用况图: (1) 确定系统边界; (2) 发现参与者; (3) 定义用况; (4) 建立用况之间的关系; (5) 确定参与者和用况之间的关系; (6) 绘制用况图。


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