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【随堂优化训练】-高中英语 unit 2 Robots section ⅱ learning about language课件 新人教版选修7_图文

Section Ⅱ

Learning about Language

He felt happy when his boss stated that he could set aside some time for exercise.当他的老板表明他可以留出点时间 来锻炼时他很高兴。 set aside 将……放在一边;为……节省或保留(钱或时间) 典例 I've been setting aside some money every week. 我每周都存点钱。

Let's set aside all formality.
咱们不要拘泥于形式吧。

拓展 set about sth./doing sth.着手干某事
set off 出发,动身;激起,引起 set back 使推迟;使延误;把(钟表指针)往回拨 set down 写下,记下;制定 set fire to...放火烧

set up 建立;开办
set an example for sb.为某人树立榜样

运用 用上面所提供的短语的适当形式填空 set off ① The bad news about the company ________________ a wave of people selling its shares (股份). set about ②The moment his wife returned home, he ________________ cleaning up the messy house. set aside ③—Have you ________________ some money for your son's education?

—No.I haven't made any plans for that yet.

复习被动语态(Ⅰ):动词不定式的被动式 一、被动语态 英语中有两种语态,一种是主动语态,一种是被动语态。 如果主语是动作的执行者,或者动作是由主语完成的,要用主 动语态;如果主语是动作的承受者,或者动作不是由主语而是 由其他人完成的,则用被动语态。 被动语态的常见句式是“主语(受动者)+be+动词的过去 分词(+by+施动者)”,时态则由 be 动词体现。如: He was scolded by the English teacher. 他被英语老师批评了。

以 do 为例,将各种时态的被动语态形式列表如下:

二、动词不定式的被动式
1.当动词不定式与其逻辑主语之间是被动关系时,要用动 词不定式的被动式,其构成为“to be+动词的过去分词”。 2.不定式的被动式有两种形式:一般式“to be done(表示

不定式的动作在谓语动词的动作之后或几乎同时发生)”;完成
式“to have been done(表示不定式的动作在谓语动词的动作之 前发生)”。动词不定式的被动式在句中可作主语、宾语、表语、 定语、宾语补足语等。如:

To be given such a good opportunity made me a little
surprised.(作主语)被给了这么好的机会,我有点惊讶。

She preferred to have been given heavier work to do.(作宾语) 她宁愿做更繁重的工作。 Much work remains to be done.Stop talking, please.( 作表语) 还有很多工作要做,请停止交谈。 She was the first woman to have been selected to such a post.(作定语)她是第一个被选举坐上这个位置的妇女。 My parents don't allow such things to be done.( 作宾补) 我的 父母不会允许做这样的事。

3.不定式的主动形式表示被动含义 (1)在“主语+及物动词+宾语+to do(作定语)”结构中, 不定式与宾语之间是动宾关系,同时与主语又是主谓关系时; 或是句中存在名词或代词可以作为不定式的逻辑主语,构成逻 辑上的主谓关系时。如: I have a meeting to attend today.(动作 attend 由 I 发出)我今天 有个会议要参加。 He lent me a piece of paper to write on.(me 是 write 的逻辑主 语)他借给我一张纸来写。

注意:如果不定式与主语没有主谓关系,或是没有名词或
代词可作不定式的逻辑主语时,则需要用不定式的被动式。如: I'll go to the post office.Do you have a letter to be posted?(由 谁寄出信件未知) 我要去邮局。你有要寄的信吗?

The news reporter raised some questions to be answered.(句中
未出现回答问题的具体名词或代词) 记者提了一些有待回答的问题。 (2)在“主语(人或物)+be+形容词+to do(作状语)”结构

中,此时不定式可看作是不定式复合结构的省略。可用于此结

构 的 形 容 词 有 easy, hard, difficult, dangerous, interesting,
important, fit, pleasant 等。如: The problem is easy to work out.(此时 to work out 可看作是 for sb.to work out 的省略) 这个问题很容易解决。 (3)在“with+n.+to do”结构中。如:

With so many exercises to do, I can't go to the cinema.有这么
多练习要做,我不能去看电影了。 (4)一些作表语的不定式常用主动形式,如 let (租用), rent, hire, blame, seek 等。如: I felt I was to blame.我觉得我应受责备。

三、使用被动语态时的几点注意
1.动词短语在转换成被动语态时不能丢掉其中的介词或副 词。 2.系动词无被动语态(keep 除外)。 3.“get+过去分词”也可以表示被动,但使用这种结构不 能带有“by+施动者”。如: She got fired because of her faults.

她因为失误而被解雇了。 4.在某些动词后用不带 to 的不定式构成复合宾语的句子,
在改为被动结构时,不定式要加 to。如: The workers were made to work as long as 14 hours every day. 工人们每天被迫工作长达十四个小时。

5.有些动词带双宾语,在用于被动结构时,若主动结构中 的间接宾语变为主语,直接宾语仍然保留在谓语后面;若直接 宾语变为主语,间接宾语前则通常加上介词 for/to。如:

He was asked a number of questions at the press conference.在
记者招待会上人们问了他很多问题。 A new MP4 was given to him as a birthday gift. 他收到了一个新的 MP4 作为生日礼物。

一、用所给单词的适当形式填空 was posted (post) three days ago and it ________ arrived 1.The letter __________ (arrive) yesterday. be published (publish) next month, is based on a 2.His first book, to ____________ true story. 3 . There were many talented actors out there just waiting to be discovered (discover). ______________ 4 . Whether the wounded man can survive tonight or not be observed(observe). remains to ___________

to have been killed 5 . More than 10,000 people are reported ______________ (kill) in Japanese tsunami (海啸). would be given (give) 6.He told me that the final examination _____________ the next day. to be told (tell) that the plane 7.He hurried to the airport, only ________ had taken off. 8.He'll show you the right path ________ to take (take). to read (read) during the 9 . I have borrowed a book ________

vocation.
is being shown(show) in the theatre now.Why 10 .The new play ____________ don't you go in and see it?

二、完成句子 is often heard to sing (经常被听到唱) English songs. 1.He __________________ 2 .With a lot of problems ________________ ( 要解决), the to solve newly-elected president is having a hard time. 3 . I'm going to Beijing next week.Do you have anything to be taken to (带给) your parents? ________________ to be put to death (被处死). 4.People wish the murderer __________________ to be taken out of (带出) the 5.The books are not allowed ________________ room. 6 . The chair looks rather hard, but in fact, it is comfortable to sit on (坐着很舒服). ________________