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2013 While there is no widely accepted definition of MOOCs, their key features are open access: they are currently free to participants, no entry qualifications are required, they support an unlimited number of participants and as yet, very few include any form of accreditation (认证). Currently offered by some famous universities, MOOCs are attractive to people who do not have the financial resources to meet the growing costs of university education, or who do not have formal qualifications. They also allow participants to study at their own pace. The potential for MOOCs to deliver education is obviously vast—they could be considered as a huge step forwards in widening participation. They also have the potential to provide a unique window on universities that offer popular and valuable courses, they may attract some participants to register for formal fee-paying programmes at the same or other universities and are likely to promote new ways of on-line education. However, it is still very early days for MOOCs. The quality of the education provision is highly variable, with many courses offering only recordings of lectures, and delivery is particularly difficult in some special fields that require practical classes, research projects or extensive library access. Besides, wider engagement with participants requires very considerable resource. Even limited feedback or examination becomes a major task if there are several thousand students in the class. Considering the challenges, some people argue MOOCs will soon evaporate (蒸发). But they certainly provide good opportunity for widening higher education, are a means of raising awareness of universities to audiences of tens or hundreds of thousands, and are well worthy of serious consideration. (271 words) ● ● ● ● free participation at present 72. _________ for entry qualifications support of countless participants rare inclusion of accreditation

Key features

Attractions

● being attractive to people ? who 73. _________ university education or ? who have 74. _________ ● being flexible in the study pace

Title: 71. _____

75. _________

● widening participation significantly ● 76. _________ a unique window on universities ● attracting students to register for formal progarmmes ● promoting on-line education ● highly variable quality of the education provision ● 78. _________ of some special courses ● demand for very considerable resource

77. _________

The future

● uncertainty ? possibly 79._________ ● 1 certainty ? widening higher education ? raising awareness of universities ? being well worth 80. _________ seriously

2012Directions: Read the following passage. Fill in the numbered blanks by using the information from the passage(2012) Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Since the earliest civilizations, people have controlled rivers to meet society's demands. Today, rivers are controlled for many reasons, primarily to maintain reliable water supplies for daily, agricultural and industrial needs, for power generation, for navigation (航行), and to prevent flooding. River control is achieved by channelization, a term that covers a range of river engineering works, including widening, deepening, straightening and stabilization of banks, and by the construction of dams. An important period of channelization took place in Europe during the l9'th century, when many large rivers were straightened and their beds deepened. One of the most dramatically changed was the Tisza River, a branch of the Danube that flows through Hungary. The controlling of the Tisza, designed to reduce flooding and make land for agriculture, included cutting off more than 100 meanders (河曲), shortening the river's length by nearly 400 kilometers. One of the most common ways in which people control rivers is by damming them. The past 50 years or so has seen an increase in dam construction worldwide, and at the beginning of the 21st century, there were about 800,000 dams globally, some towering more than 200 meters in height. Despite their successes, many dams also cause significant environmental changes that prove harmful. Some particularly deep reservoirs (水库) can bring about earthquakes due to the stress on their bottom rocks caused by huge volumes of water. Downstream of a reservoir, the river is certainly influenced in many ways: water volume, speed and quality are all affected, leading to changes in the landscape and among plants and animals.

_72

to _73_ adequate water for: ● daily life, __74__ and industry ● power generation ● navigation to stop rivers from __75__

Title: __71_

Ways

channelization: ·engineering works: ·widening,__76__and straightening rivers ·__77__river banks ·an example: the _78_of the Tisza by nearly 400 km __79__: ·achievements:800,00 dams built ·problems: causing harmful changes to__80__

2011

A person searches various websites for different reasons, such as school, work, or

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enterainment. For teenagers, many informative resources on the Intemet can be used. As a matter of fact, there are educational, music and art websites that are truly helpful to teenagers, because they can help make one’s life easier. Educational websites are helpful to a teenager in doing school work and searching for a college.Some can help studying for tests, explainging a lesson, and doing homework. Some can help find the right schools based on one’s interests. And still others have pages devoted to the social life at each of the colleges or the specific activitiies that occur at a certain school. Some free music sites enable a teenager to diversify their musical tastes.On these sites, all types of music are available such as pop, cock, jazz, and country. One can type in a song, category or artist and his or her entire catalog appears.Then, the listener can make multiple playlists without creating an account(账户)with the site. There are various art websites that can help students to appreciate and create art pieces.On these sites, a student can view numerous photos and art pieces from different mediums or create an account with the website to upload their art pieces for people to see. In addition, one can enjoy various art projects that people have created on display for the rest of the world. Truly informative resources are offered on the Intemet,The best suggestion one can receive is to try to look for new websites that can help in the educational, music, or art area, so one can become well-rounded and informed Truly Helpful Websites for Teenagers Many 71 are available on various websites I. Educational sites: helping one ____72____ and search for a college · Study for tests, explain a lesson, and do homework · Find the right school that one ____73____ · Learn information about college school life and ____74______ II. Free music sltes: _____75_____ to diversify muslcal tastes · Listen to all types of music · Type in a song,category,or arlist to get an entire catalog · Make multiple playlists _____76_______ III. _____77_____ :helping one appreciate and create works · View photos and works from mediums · ____78_____ for others to see · ____79_____ on display Helpful websites can make teenagers_____ 80______ 2010 An apprenticeship is a form of on-the-job training that combines workplace experience and classroom learning. It can last anywhere from one to six years, but four years is typical for most. An apprentice spends the majority of the time in a workplace environment learning the practical skills of a career from a journeyman--someone who has done the job for many years. The rest of the apprentice's time is spent in a classroom environment learning the theoretical skills the career requires. Being an apprentice is a full-time undertaking. One of the advantages of apprenticeship is that it does not cost apprentices anything. The companies that hire them pay for school. What's more, it offers apprentices an "earn while you learn" opportunity. They usually start out at half the pay of a journeyman, and the pay increases gradually as they move further along in the job and studies. Near the end of the apprenticeship,
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their wages are usually 90 percent of what a journeyman would receive. Apprenticeship also pays off for employers. It can offer employers a pool of well-trained workers to draw from. Despite the advantages, apprentices are usually required to work during the day and attend classes at night, which leaves little time for anything else. Sometimes, they might be laid off(下岗) if business for the employers is slow. Once they have completed the apprenticeship and become journeymen, they receive a nationally recognized and portable certification and their pay also increases again. Some journeymen continue employment with the companies they apprenticed with; others go onto different companies or become self-employed contractors.

2009 What is eco-fashion? Eco-fashion is a complex phenomenon and the common use of the term covers two aspects of fashion——'ecological ' and 'ethical ' (伦理的). Ecological fashion usually refers to textile(织物) and clothing production processes and the environmental issues(议题 ) surrounding them; ethical fashion generally relates to the working conditions involved in the producing processes. What are the problems with fashion? Firstly, the production of textiles pollutes the environmental heavily. Cotton-planting uses pesticides; sheep-farming and wool-cleaning contribute to global warming; synthetics-making (人造纤维生产) brings about harmful waste. Secondly, every stage of clothing production has a significant effect on the environment. They all use a great deal of energy, and some also involve harmful chemicals. In addition to this, there is a lot of waste produced in the process, especially in the form of polluted water. Thirdly, growing consumption levels and our shopping habits further worsen the bad effects. We are now buying clothes in increasing quantities without realizing the scale on which it affects natural environment, and we are also quick to throw away clothes that have been worm only a couple of times. Then, how to solve the problem? To a large degree, it is the fashion producers that really have the power and the responsibility to shape our future. There are numerous ways in which
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these producers can reduce their ecological footprint, from switching to green energy and reducing energy use, through selecting sustainable(可持续使用的) materials and choosing local suppliers, to recycle and minimize waste. On the other hand, as consumers we can all make contributions by selecting environmentally friendly clothing and reducing clothing consumption. Now many people are beginning to shop for organic food products because the benefits of eating food free of chemicals are straightforward and immediate. They relate directly to our person health. In fact, choosing eco-fashion can also contribute to our personal health, though it is mostly done by way of keeping the health of the planet. Why choose eco-fashion? 76 of fashion Ecological Ethical 78 with fashion Textile production Textile & clothing production processes Related environmental issues 77 involved Cotton-planting: use of pesticides 79 : global warming Synthetics-making: harmful waste 80 Consuming a great deal of energy Using harmful chemicals Producing a lot of waste Consumption levels shopping habits 82 to problems Fashion producers & New clothes: bought 81 Old clothes: thrown away quickly Ways to 83 and minimize waste: ? Switching to green energy ? Reducing energy use ? Selecting sustainable materials ? Choosing local suppliers Selecting environmentally friendly clothing 85 Choosing eco-fashion can contribute to our personal health. 参考答案:2013 填空题: 71. MOOCS 73. cannot afford 75. Potentials 77. Challenges 79. evaporating 2012 Part Ⅳ 71. River Control 76. deepening 80. the environment 72. Reasons 77. stabilizing 73. supply 78. shortening 74. agriculture 75. flooding

84

72. no requirement 74. no formal qualifications 76. providing 78. particularly difficult delivery 80. considering

79. dam construction

2011 填空题:
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71. informative resources 72. do school work 73.is interested in 74.specific school activities 75. enabling one 76.without an account 77. Art sites 78.Upload art pieces 79.Enjoy art project 80.well-rounded and informed 2010 71. Apprenticeship 75. at the beginning 78. being laid off 72. classroom learning 73. the majority 74. theoretical 76. a journeyman’s wages 77.many well-trained workers 79. results 80. another pay increase

2009 76. Aspects/Two aspects 77. Working conditions 80. Clothing production 83. recycle 84. Consumers 78. Problems

79. Sheep-farming and wool-cleaning 81. in increasing quantities

82. Solutions

85. Reducing clothing consumption

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