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高校体育课程评价体系改革剖析


一、前言 体育课程作为现代高校教育的重要组成部分,其作用越来越重要,加强高校体育教学, 能够强健大学生的体魄,增强大学生的心理承受能力,良好的身体素质是从事工作的前提, 更好的适应今后的工作。但是,我国许多高校体育课程评价体系存在许多问题,例如成绩测 量不标准、场地设施不健全、评价形式单一、评价标准过于“统一” 、过分重视个体成绩量 化评价等,导致评价结果与现代教育存在很大的差距,为了解决上述问题,高校体育课程评 价体系必须进行改革,并创建一套科学、完善的高效体育课程评价体系,为高校体育教育教 学提供指导。 二、高校体育课程评价体系存在的问题分析 1、成绩测量不科学,场地设施不健全 对于教师方面,教师主观上的偏见、喜好以及责任感等,都会对学生成绩评定的结果造 成影响;对于场地设施方面,场地、器材等条件,会对学生的发挥产生直接的影响,同时对 学生的体育成绩造成不良影响。 2、评价形式单一 许多高校体育课程评价依然采用传统单一的评价方式, 虽然许多高校意识到对学生学习 态度、学习过程等进行综合评价,但是并没有真正的贯彻与落实,依然采用终结性的评价方 式,过分重视考试成绩,课堂教学也是围绕着考试内容进行教学,这样会影响学生对体育课 的热情与兴趣,扼杀学生的主动性以及创造性。 3、评价标准“统一” 所谓“统一”指的是按照改标准对所有的学生实施教学与评价,并不重视大学生心理、 生理、生活环境、营养、先天遗传等方面的差异,这会抑制学生个性与自主性的发挥,导致 体育教学存在“胀肚子”与“吃不饱”的问题。许多高校秉承考试成绩是评价学生成绩以及 衡量教学水平唯一标准的原则,这对于大学生个性化发展是非常不利的。因此,高校体育课 程评价体系的改革应该增加个性评价力度。 4、过分重视个体成绩量化评价 许多高校体育课程评价依然采用量化评价的方式, 认为量化能够更加客观的反映学生的 体育成绩,将速度、力量、远度、高度等作为评定学生体育成绩的唯一标尺。但是,评定学 生体育成绩不能只采用量化的方式进行评价,否则其评价结果将会存在很大的片面性。 三、高校体育课程评价体系改革措施 1、评价内容的多元化 评价内容多元化发展是高校体育课程评价体系改革的必然趋势。 高校体育运动自身具有

外延广泛、丰富多彩的特点,将多元化的评价内容纳入到体育课程评价中,能够提高体育课 程评价的科学性与有效性。一方面,高校体育课程评价内容应该打破课堂、空间的限制,主 要是因为高校体育教学内容丰富多彩,即存在各种体育比赛,例如棋牌类比赛、足球比赛、 篮球比赛以及运动会等,还存在体育俱乐部、体育社团等,如果将这些内容排除在体育课程 评价范围外,仅仅对学生的某一项体育运动项目作为评价内容,势必存在严重的片面性,针 对该种现象,高校应该将上述的内容作为教学评价内容,作为体育成绩评价的标准,更加全 面的评价学生的体育成绩;另一方面,高校体育课程评价内容应该打破科目的限制,例如, 虽然一些学生体育能力、技巧方面存在不足,但是参与体育活动的积极性高,理解能力与评 价能力非常高,这些学生也非常热爱体育运动,高校体育课程作为一项开放式的教学内容, 其评价内容也应该具有实现开放、多元化,不仅仅重视学生的体育能力与技巧,同时重视学 生热爱和了解体育,例如,体育能力较差的学生,通过拍摄体育短片、写作体育评论等,表 达自己对体育的热爱。扩大体育评价内容的范围,无论是体育能力、技巧,还是对于体育的 见解,都作为体育课程评价的内容与标准。 2、定性评价与定量评价的结合 高校传统的评价方式为单一的定性评价, 影响评价的科学性与全面性。 素质教育背景下, 体育教学不仅应该增强体质、身体,还应该培养与健全人格,形成良好的心理品质,通过实 现定性评价与定量评价的有机结合,对学生的社会能力、动作完成质量、掌握动作数量、运 动负荷、锻炼能力、心理素质、思想品德等进行定性与定量评价,能够更加直观的考核每一 个学生的成绩以及进步。 3、评价指标的多样化 高校体育课程评价指标应该包括以下几个方面:其一,身体素质,大学生身体素质评价 内容不仅应该包括传统的台阶试验,同时根据《全国普通高校体育课程与教学指导纲要》指 导精神,全面的发展包括和身体健康相关的其他体能,例如呼吸系统、心血管系统等功能的 强弱,综合、全面的反映大学生的身体素质,此外,还应该评价大学生身体素质的努力与进 步程度,在学期初、学期中以及学期末分别进行测试,更加全面的评价大学生的身体素质; 其二,运动技能,高校体育项目众多,包括体能性项目、对抗性项目、表演性项目等,根据 各个项目的特点以及课程要求,为各个项目制定相应的评价标准;其三,体育认知和运动参 与能力,体育认知能力测试应该采用体育课程理论测试的方法,考核内容包括保健知识、健 康知识、专项知识等,并由教师进行评分;对于运动参与测试,针对学生参与体育课程教学 的次数、频率、出勤率、课堂表现等,同时采用运动参与互评与运动参与自评等多种评价方 式,保证评价结果的真实性、客观性与全面性;其四,心理健康与社会适应,通过编制《心 理健康评价表》 、 《社会健康评价表》进行学生自评,该指标的评价采用等级评价制,即不及 格、及格、良好以及优秀。 4、充分发挥激励在评价中的作用 激励功能是基于对高校体育课程教学、 学生学习以及发展变化的深刻认识, 如果没有明 确评价目标,给出客观、准确的评价,随意的给出激励,这样不仅起不到激励的作用,反而 会对学生造成消极的影响,例如,不能让学生更加客观、准确的认识自我。因此,教师应该 改变评价内容、评价标准以及评价方式,运用客观、正确的评价结果激励学生,让学生更加

客观的认识自身的优缺点,并有目的的进行取长补短,提高学生的自我反省能力。同时,教 师还应该创建优等生荣誉表、 中等生提高表以及后进生进步表, 让所有的学生都能够看到自 己的提高与进步, 并给予学生一定的物质或者精神奖励, 让学生感受到教师对自己的关心与 期望,更加主动、努力的参与到体育教学。 四、结束语 总而言之,高校体育课程评价体系还存在许多问题,评价体系的改革已经势在必行。未 来高校体育课程评价体系更加重视学生的主体性, 以多角度、 多方面的综合评价代替传统的 单一评价,坚持“因地制宜、因人制宜” ,充分的利用学校、社会等资源,不断的创新,最 大限度地激发学生的学习兴趣, 让学生接受体育教学的同时, 更加重视体育课程以及提高对 自身的要求,从而实现体育课程教学目标。 One, foreword As an important part of modern education in colleges and universities physical education curriculum, the role of more and more important, to strengthen the teaching of college sports, to strengthen college students' physique, strengthen college students' psychological ability, good physical quality is the precondition of work, to better adapt to the work in the future. However, many colleges and universities sports curriculum evaluation system in our country there are many problems, such as performance measurement is not standard, perfect facilities, form a single, standard of assessment is too "unity", too much emphasis on individual performance quantitative evaluation, etc., leading to the evaluation results and the modern education there is a big gap, in order to solve the above problems, colleges and universities sports curriculum evaluation system must be reformed, and create a set of scientific, perfect and efficient evaluation system of physical education curriculum, provide guidance for colleges and universities sports education teaching. Second, the problems existing in the college physical education curriculum evaluation system analysis 1, performance measurement is not scientific, facilities is not sound For teachers, teachers' subjective bias, preferences, and sense of responsibility, will affect the results of evaluation of student performance; For site facilities, venues, equipment and other conditions, will play a direct impact to the student, as well as the adverse impact on the student's sports performance. 2, a single evaluation form Many colleges and universities sports curriculum evaluation still adopts the traditional single evaluation method, although many colleges and universities to realize the comprehensive evaluation of students' learning attitude and learning process, but there is no real carry out and implement, still use summative evaluation way, too much emphasis on test scores, class teaching and teaching around the test content, it will affect the students' enthusiasm and interest, stifle initiative and creativity of students. 3, the evaluation standards "unified" The so-called "unification" refers to the change in accordance with the standards for all students and evaluation of teaching, do not attach importance to college students' psychological, physiological, living environment, such as nutrition, genetic differences, this will inhibit the

student individuality and autonomy of the play, in sports teaching exists "bulging belly" and "do not have enough to eat" problem. Many colleges and universities in accordance with test scores is a measure of teaching level evaluation of student achievement, as well as the only standard principle, this is very unfavorable to the development of college students' personalized. Therefore, the reform of university physical education curriculum evaluation system should increase the strength of personality assessment. 4, too much individual results of quantitative evaluation Many colleges and universities sports curriculum evaluation with the method of quantitative evaluation, still think quantitative can more objectively reflect the student's sports performance, the speed, strength, far degrees, such as high as the only scale to assess student sports scores. However, evaluation of student sports achievement not only with the method of quantitative evaluation, or its evaluation results will be significant respectively. Third, colleges and universities sports curriculum evaluation system reform measures 1, the diversification of evaluation content Evaluation content diversification is the inevitable trend of the reform of physical education curriculum evaluation system. College sports itself has a comprehensive extension, rich and colorful characteristics of the diversification of evaluation content into the physical education curriculum evaluation, can improve the scientific nature and effectiveness of physical education curriculum evaluation. On the one hand, colleges and universities sports curriculum evaluation content should break the classroom, the limitation of space, mainly because the universities sports teaching content is rich and colorful, is all kinds of sports, such as chess game, football, basketball and games and so on, there are sports clubs, sports clubs, etc., if the content is out of the scope of physical education curriculum evaluation, the only one to student's sports as evaluation content, is bound to the existence of serious respectively, aiming at this kind of phenomenon, should be as the contents of the teaching evaluation content, as a standard of sports performance evaluation, more comprehensive evaluation of the student's sports performance; , on the other hand, colleges and universities sports curriculum evaluation content should break the limitation of subjects, for example, although some shortcomings of student sports ability, skills, but to participate in sports activities enthusiasm high, comprehension and evaluation www.yulematou.com www.14se.net ability is very high, the students also love sports, college physical education curriculum as an open mode of teaching content, the evaluation content should be open to realize, diversity, not only attaches importance to students' sports ability and skills, at the same time attaches great importance to the students love and understanding of sports, for example, the sports ability of poor students, through the shooting sports episodes, writing comments, etc, to express their love of sport. Expand the scope of sports evaluation content, whether it is sports ability, skill, or for sport, as a content and standard of physical education curriculum evaluation. 2, the combination of qualitative evaluation with quantitative evaluation The qualitative evaluation of the traditional way of evaluation in colleges and universities as a single, impact assessment is scientific and comprehensive. Under the background of quality education, physical education teaching should not only enhance physical fitness, body, should also cultivate and perfect personality, form the good psychological quality, by implementing the combination of qualitative evaluation with quantitative evaluation, the quality of the students' social ability, action, action quantity, exercise load, exercise ability, psychological quality, ideology

and moral character and so on carries on the qualitative and quantitative evaluation, can more intuitive assessment every student performance and progress. 3, the diversification of evaluation index Colleges and universities sports curriculum evaluation should include the following aspects: first, physical quality, college students' physical quality evaluation content should include not only traditional the steps of the experiment, at the same time, according to the national ordinary university sports curriculum and teaching outline guiding spirit, including comprehensive development and other health related physical fitness, such as the strength of the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, and other functions, comprehensive, integrated reflect the physical quality of www.boxuelun.com www.huayueting1.com college students, in addition, should also evaluate the efforts of the college students' physical quality and progress, semester, semester and at the end of the semester test respectively, a more comprehensive evaluation of the physical quality of college students; Secondly, motor skills, many colleges and universities sports, including physical, confrontational projects, performing projects, etc., according to the characteristics of each project and course requirements, and the corresponding evaluation standard for each project; Third, cognitive and sports participation, sports cognitive tests should adopt the method of physical education curriculum theory test, examination content including health knowledge, health knowledge, special knowledge and so on, and graded by the teachers; Test on sports participation, according to the number of students to participate in physical education curriculum,www.jich.net frequency, attendance, classroom performance, etc., at the same time mutual using sports participation and sports participation in the rating of multiple evaluation methods, to ensure authenticity, objectivity and comprehensiveness of the evaluation results; Fourthly, mental health and social adaptation, by making the evaluation of mental health, social health evaluation for students' self-evaluation, the indexes of evaluation adopts PingJiaZhi grade, namely fail, pass, good and excellent. 4, give full play to the role of incentives in evaluation Incentive function is based on physical education curriculum teaching in colleges and universities, student learning and the development of deep understanding of the change, if there is no clear evaluation goal, given the objective and accurate evaluation, arbitrary given incentives, not only so, the effect was less than incentives, it will cause negative effect on the students, for example, can't let the students to be more objective and accurate understanding of self. Therefore, the teacher should change the way of evaluation content, evaluation standards and evaluation, the use of objective and correct evaluation results motivate students, let the students to be more objective understanding of their own advantages and disadvantages, and complement each other, have a purpose to improve the students' ability of self-reflection. At the same time, teachers should also create table top honor, medium lives improve table and progress underachiever table, let all the students are able to see their improvement and progress, and to give students a certain material or spiritual reward, lets the student feel the teacher for his concern and expectation, more actively, effort to participate in the sports teaching. Four, the conclusion To sum up, college physical education curriculum evaluation system still exist many problems, the reform of the evaluation system is imperative. The future more attention to the subjectivity of students in colleges and universities sports curriculum evaluation system, with multiple perspectives, various comprehensive evaluation instead of the traditional single

evaluation, adhere to the "adjust measures to local conditions, they intend", make full use of resources, such as schools, social innovation, stimulate students' interest in learning, let the students to accept physical education at the same time, pay more attention to physical education curriculum, and improve their own requirements, thus realize the goal of physical education curriculum teaching.


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