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“It”作形式主语和形式宾语的用法详解


新希望英语语法精讲------“It”作形式主语和形式宾语
“It”作形式主语和形式宾语的用法详解 It 作形式主语和形式宾语用法,是英语学习的主要语法项目之一。无论是单项选择,还是完行填空,it 用法始终是反复考查的重、热点之一。现将 it 在特殊句型中作形式主语和形式宾语用法,进行如下归纳分 析,以供学习参考。 一、 It 用作形式主语 当不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)或从句在某个句子中作主语时,为保持句 子结构前后平衡,避免头重脚轻,因此常用 it 作形式主语置于句首,而将真正的主语放在句尾。此时 it 只 起先行引导作用,本身无词义。 e.g. It is wrong to tell a lie. (说谎是错误的。) 〔It 为 to tell a lie 的形式主语〕 It is no use arguing about it. (争吵是没用的。) 〔It 为 arguing about it 的形式主语〕 It is uncertain who will come. (谁要来还不确定。) 〔It 为 who will come 的形式主语〕 It 作形式主语的常见句型: ① It + be + 形容词 + to do sth. / doing / that ?. e.g. It is very important to learn a foreign language. (学一门外语非常重要。) It is useless crying over the spilt milk. (覆水难收。) It was really surprising that she married a man like that.(她嫁给那样的男士真让人惊讶。) ② It + be +名词词组 + doing / that ?. e.g. It is no good telling lies. (撒谎没好处。) It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film yesterday. (你昨天没看成那部电影真遗憾。) It is a truth that there would be no new China without the Communist Party. (没有共产党就没有新中国,这是毋庸质疑的。) ③ It + be + 过去分词 + that ?. 该句型常见动词有:say, hope, think, suppose, expect, report, know, believe, decide, etc. e.g. It is said that they have invented a new type of computer. (据说他们发明了一种新型电脑。) It is believed that China will become one of the strongest countries in the world. (大家都相信中国将会步入世界强国之列。) It was reported that more than 170 thousand people died in the 2004 tsunami. (据报道,至少有十七万人在 2004 年那场海啸中丧生。) ④ It + seems / appears / happens 等不及物动词 + that ?. e.g. It seems that he enjoys pop songs very much.(似乎他非常喜欢流行歌曲。) It appears that Tom might change his mind. (看来汤姆可能会改变主意。) ⑤ 若句子是疑问形式,就只能用 it 作形式主语。 e.g. Does it matter much that they won’t come tomorrow? (他们明天不来很重要吗?) Is it true that he will go abroad next week? (他下周出国是真的吗?) ⑥ It + takes + (sb.) + some time + to do sth. 这是一个表示“(某人)花多少时间干某事”的句型,其中 it 是形式主语,代替后面的不定式(to do sth.),句型中的 sb.也可以省略。 e.g. It took me some time to read the reading materials.(我花了一些时间才读完那段阅读材料。)It took him fourteen hours to go to New Zealand from Shanghai by plane.(从上海乘飞机去新西兰花了他 14 小时。) How long does it take you to go to Beijing from Qingdao by train? (从青岛坐火车到北京一般要花多久时间?) I am not sure, but I think it takes at least nine hours to get there. (我不能肯定,但估计至少要九个钟头才能到那儿。) 二、It 用作形式宾语 当不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)或从句在某个句子中作宾语时,为保持句子结构平衡,避免句式结 构的混乱,常用 it 作形式宾语,而将真正的宾语放在句尾。此时 it 仍只起先行引导作用,本身无词义。 下列四种情况须用 it 作形式宾语:
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① 当不定式 (短语) 、动名词 (短语) 或从句在复合宾语结构中作某些动词的宾语时 (如 think, make, find, consider, feel, suppose 等); e.g. They found it pleasant that they worked with us Chinese.(他们发现与我们中国人一起工作很愉快。) I don’t feel it difficult to understand the Special English. (我觉得理解英语特别节目并不难。) He makes it a rule never to borrow money. (他立志决不向别人借钱。) I think it no need talking about it with them. (我认为没必要跟他们谈。) ② 某些表示“喜、怒、哀、乐”的动词,如 like, enjoy, love, hate 等,往往不能直接接宾语从句; e.g. I don’t like it that he’s so lazy. (我不喜欢他那么懒惰。) I hate it when my mother asks me to eat eggs. (我讨厌母亲要我吃鸡蛋。) ③ that 引导的宾语从句不能直接作介词的宾语; e.g. You may depend on it that we shall always help you. (尽管放心,我们会随时帮你的。) Would you see to it that she gets home early? (你负责保证她早到家,好吗?) He insisted on it that he was innocent. (他坚持说自己是无辜的。) ④ 由及物动词与介词组成的固定搭配中,宾语从句若作该动词的宾语时,须借用 it。 e.g. I leave it to your own judgement whether you should do it. (我让你自己判断这事是否该做。) We owe it to you that there wasn’t a serious accident. (多亏了你才没有发生严重事故。) 练习一 1. Is _______ necessary to complete the design before National Day? A. this B. that C. it D. he 2. I don’t think _______ possible to master a foreign language without much memory work.. A. this B. that C. its D. it 3. Does _______ matter if he can’t finish the job on time? A. this B. that C. he D. it 4. Tom’s mother kept telling him that he should work harder, but ____ didn’t help. A. he B. which C. she D. it 5. _____ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. A. There B. This C. That D. It 6. I hate _______ when people talk with their mouths full. A. it B. that C. these D. them 7. Don’t _______ that all those who get good grades in the entrance examination will prove to be the most successful. A. take as granted B. take this for granted C. take that for granted D. take it for granted 8. I like _______ in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. A. this B. that C. it D. one 练习二 1. _______ happened _______ he is unfit for the office.A. This; that B. That; that C. It; that D. He; that 2. We took _______ for granted that they would accept our advice.A. that B. this C. it D. them 3. ______ that the scientist will give us a talk next month?A. Is true B. Is it true C. It’s true D. It’s truly 4. ____ doesn’t matter much _____ dress you are going to wear.A. This; that B. That; who C. It; which D. It; who 5. _______ is going to America for further study. A. He is said that B. People said that he C. It was said he D. It is said that he 6. They are good friends. _______ is no wonder that they know each other so well.A. This B. That C. There D. It 7. Is _______ possible to fly to the moon in a spaceship?A. this B. there C. that D. it 8. She liked _______ when he kissed her. A. him B. that C. one D. it 9. _______ will do you good to do some exercise every morning. A. It B. There C. Those D. One 10. We think _______ our duty to pay taxes to our government.A. that B. this C. its D. it

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Key: 练习一 1-8 CDDDDADC 练习二 1-5 CCBCD 6-10 DDDAD

it 作形式主语和形式宾语 it 既可作人称代词,用来表示动物或无生命的物体等,也可以作无人称代词,在句中作主语,表示“时 间”、“距离”、“天气”等。它还可以引导强调句,使语气得以加强。此外,it 在句中能作引导词,充当句子 中的形式上的成分,如形式主语、形式宾语等。 ㈠ it 作形式主语:it 作形式主语时没有具体的意义,而只是帮助把真正的主语移到句子后部去,使句子 显得平稳一些。it 作形式主语时,可以代替三种形式:不定式、动名词和主语从句。 1. it 代替不定式短语 常用于下列句型中: It + be +形容词 + (for/of sb.) to do sth. It + be + 名词 + to do sth. It takes sb. some time to do sth. 干…花了某人…时间 It’s up to sb. to do sth. 干…是某人的职责或义务 如:①It is everyone’s duty to obey the law.遵守法律是每个人的义务。 ( it 作形式主语, 代替不定式短语 to obey the law) ②It is difficult for a foreigner to learn Chinese.对于一个外国人来说,学习汉语是困难的。 ( it 作形式主语, 代替不定式短语 to learn Chinese) ③It is not right to use these places as rubbish dumps.把这些地方用来倒垃圾是不对的。 (it 作形式主语, 代替不定式短语 to use these places as rubbish dumps) ④It took them a year to build the bridge.建这座桥花了他们一年的时间。 ( it 作形式主语, 代替不定式短语 to build the bridge) ⑤It is bad manners to stare at people.瞪着眼睛看人是不礼貌的。 ( it 作形式主语, 代替不定式短语 to stare at people) ⑥It is up to us to help those in need. 帮助那些有困难的人是我们的责任。 ( it 作形式主语, 代替不定式短语 to help those in need) ⑦It is not up to you to tell me how to do my job. 我怎样干我的工作不用你来多嘴。 ( it 作形式主语, 代替不定式短语 to tell me how to do my job) ◆ It be + 形容词+ for sb. to do sth.与 It be + 形容词+of sb. to do sth.: 如果句型中的形容词描述的是 sb.的品质、品格,在逻辑上可以作 sb.的表语,则 sb.前应用介词 of, 否则就用 for。如:①It’s necessary for us to use a short-wave radio to pick up the programmes.我们用一 台短波收音机收听这些节目是必要的。 ②It’s important for us to learn English well.学好英语对我们来说是重要的。 ③It’s kind of you to help me.感谢你对我的帮助。(= You are kind to help me. ) ④It was foolish of him to give up the job.他放弃那工作是愚蠢的(= He was foolish to give up the job.) ⒉ it 代替动名词短语: 动名词作主语用后置形式的情况远不及不定式那么普遍, 常限于 no good, no use,
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useless, waste 等词的后面。 ①It is no good/ use having a car if you can’t drive. 如果你不会开车,有车也没用。 ( it 作形式主语,代替动名词短语 having a car) ②It is a waste of time watching TV.看电视是浪费时间。 ( it 作形式主语,代替动名词短语 watching TV) ③It is no use asking him.问他没有用。 ( it 作形式主语,代替动名词短语 asking him) ④It is no use talking to him about it.和他谈这事没有用。 ( it 作形式主语,代替动名词短语 talking to him about it) ⒊ it 代替主语从句:这个主语从句可以用连词 that 引导,也可以用连接代词或连接副词引导。 如:①It was clear that they had no desire for peace.很清楚他们没有和平的诚意。 ( it 作形式主语,代替主语从句 that they had no desire for peace) ②It is doubtful whether she will be able to come.她能否来还很难说。 ( it 作形式主语,代替主语从句 whether she will be able to come) ③It was clear enough what she meant.她的意思是够清楚的。( it 作形式主语,代替主语从句 what she meant)④It hasn’t been made clear when the new road is to be opened to traffic.还没明确宣布新路什么 时候通车。( it 作形式主语,代替主语从句 when the new road is to be opened to traffic) ⑤It is a mystery to me how it all happened.这都是怎么发生的对于我来说还是一个谜。 ( it 作形式主语,代替主语从句 how it all happened) 用 it 作形式主语,把真正的主语从句移至后面的常见句型有: ◆ It is a pity/ a shame/ a fact/ an honour/ good news/ no wonder/ a wonder… that… 如:①It was a pity that the engineer couldn’t come.可惜工程师没能够来。 ②It is a wonder that he continues to gamble when he always loses! 令人惊讶的是他一直输还一直赌。 ③(It is)no wonder (that) you were late! 难怪你来晚了。 ④It is a shame that the rain spoiled our picnic. 真可惜,这场雨把我们的野餐给搅了。 ⑤It is a fact that English is being accepted as international language. 英语被认为是国际语言,这是一个事实。 ◆ It is + 形容词 (如: strange/ natural/ surprising/ obvious/ true/ fortunate/ wonderful/ funny/ possible/ impossible/ likely/ unlikely/ clear/ unusual/ certain/ important…)that … 如:①It is certain that he will win.他一定会取胜。 ②It is important that we should learn from each other and help each other. 我们应当互相学习,互相帮助,这是很重要的。 ③It was obvious that the child had been badly treated.很显然那个孩子受过虐待。 ④It is likely that he will ring me tonight. 他今晚可能给我打电话。 ⑤It is strange that he should have left without telling us. 真奇怪,他也没说一声就走了。 ⑥It is unlikely that their group will get ahead of us. 他们小组不会赶到我们前头去。 ◆ It seems/ happened/ turned out/ suddenly struck me/ occurred to me…that … 如:①It happened that I wasn’t there that day. 恰好那天我不在那里。 ②It seems that his idea is more practical.看起来他的意见更实际一些。 ③It suddenly occurred to me that I knew how to solve that problem. 我忽然想起我知道怎样解决那个问题。 ◆ It + be + 过去分词(如: said/ reported/ announced/ decided/ expected/ hoped/ known/ believed…)that…如:①It is hoped that the number of deer will greatly increase very soon.(相当于: People hope that the number of deer will greatly increase very soon) 人们希望鹿的数目将会很快增加。 ②It is said that nothing has been done about it. 据说至今对此没采取任何措施。 ③It is reported that more than twenty people were killed in that bus accident. 据报道在那次的公共汽车事故中有二十多人丧生。 ④It is known that he is one of the best teachers in our school.大家都知道他是我们学校最好的教师之一。
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⑤It is believed that the flood there is the biggest in 100 years.据认为那儿的洪水是百年来最大的洪水。 * 注意要在 It is suggested/required/desired/ordered/proposed…that…的主语从句中用虚拟语气: (should) + 动词原形 如: ①It is requested that he give a performance at the party.有人请求他在聚会上表演一个节目。 ②It is suggested that we should get everything ready by tonight.建议一切在今晚准备好。 ③It is ordered that the radio be sent there at once.据命令,这台收音机要立刻送到那里去。 ◆ It doesn’t matter +连接代词或副词… It doesn’t make too much difference +连接代词或副词… 如:①It doesn’t matter whether he comes or not.他来还是不来都没关系。 ②It won’t make much difference whether you go today or tomorrow. 你今天去也好,明天去也好,关系不大。 ㈡ it 作形式宾语: it 作形式宾语时,可以代替三种形式:不定式、动名词和宾语从句。 it 作形式宾语时,需具备两个条件: ① 真正的宾语是不定式、动名词或从句 ② 有宾语补足语 具备了这两个条件,形式宾语 it 一定要用。 1. it 代替不定式短语 think/ find/ feel/ consider/ make/ regard…+ it +形容词/名词 + 不定式短语 如:①I find it pleasant to work with him. (it 作形式宾语,代替不定式短语 to work with him)我觉得和他一起工作很愉快。 ②They felt it difficult to finish the work in such a short time. ( it 作形式宾语,代替不定式短语 to finish the work in such a short time) 他们认为在这么短的时间内完成这项工作是困难的。 ③She thinks it her duty to help us.( it 作形式宾语,代替不定式短语 to help us)她觉得帮助我们是 她的责任。④I think it my honor to be invited to speak here. ( it 作形式宾语,代替不定式短语 to be invited to speak here)我觉得应邀在这儿演讲是我的荣耀。 ⑤Tom didn’t find it difficult to write letters in Chinese. ( it 作形式宾语,代替不定式短语 to write letters in Chinese)汤姆发现用汉语写信不难。 ⑥All these noises made it impossible for me to go on with the work. ( it 作形式宾语,代替不定式短语 to go on with the work)这些噪音使我无法继续工作。 ⒉ it 代替动名词短语( 这只限于少数句型,在多数情况下用不定式时更多一些) 如: ①The professor considers it no good reading without understanding. 这位教授认为阅读而不 理解没有益处。 ②Do you consider it any good trying again?你觉得再试会有好处吗? ③He found it useless( no use) arguing with him.他发现和他辩论没有用。 ④He thought it absolutely senseless attempting the impossible. 想做不可能的事情,他认为是完全 没道理的。⑤I don’t think it worthwhile going to such a place.到这样一个地方去我看是不值得的。 ⒊ it 代替宾语从句:如:①We all thought it a pity that the conference should have been cancelled. 会议取消了我们都感到很遗憾。②I took it for granted that they were not coming. 我想他们准是不会来的 了。 ③I’ll see to it that everything is ready in time. 我负责使一切都按时准备好。 ㈢ 含 it 的常用句型 英语中有一些固定句型中含有 it,应注意这些句型的使用。 1. It be + 被强调部分 + that/ who + 其他成分 强调句型可以强调一个句子的主语、宾语、表语及状语等成分。如果被强调的成分是表示人的词,可 以用 that 或 who(whom)连接其他成分;被强调的成分是表示人以外的词,例如表示事物、时间或地点的 词,用 that 连接其他成分。例如我们可以用强调句型强调下列句子的主语(如⑴ )、宾语(如⑵ )、 地点状语(如⑶ )及时间状语(如⑷ ) I met Peter in Japan last year.
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⑴ It was I who/that met Peter in Japan last year. ⑵ It was Peter whom/that I met in Japan last year. ⑶ It was in Japan that I met Peter last year. ⑷ It was last year that I met Peter in Japan. * not …until 也可用于强调句型 例 1 Mr Brown didn’t come back until eleven o’clock. 可变为:It was not until eleven o’clock that Mr Brown came back. 例 2 The rain didn’t stop until midnight.可变为:It was not until midnight that the rain stopped. * 强调句也可变为特殊疑问句 例 1 It was in 1949 that the PRC was founded.可变为:When was it that the PRC was founded? 例 2 Your dad worked in this factory two years ago. 可变为:Where was it that your dad worked two years ago? 2 It’s + 地点状语+ that… (强调句) It’s +地点名词+ where… (定语从句)如:①It is the town where I was born. (the town 为地点名词,定语从句) 这是我出生的镇子。 ②It was in the town that I was born.(in the town 为地点状语,强调句型) 我出生在这个镇子。 3.It’s + 时间名词+ when…(时间状语从句) It’s + 时间状语 +that…(强调句) 如:①It was at 8 o’clock that he returned. (at 8 o’clock 是时间状语,强调句)他是在八点钟回来的。 ②It was 8 o’clock when he returned.(8 o’clock 是时间名词,时间状语从句)他回来的时候是八点钟。 4. if it is convenient to you 如果你方便的话 如: If it is convenient to you, you can start tomorrow.如果方便的话,你明天可以动身。 5. believe it or not 信不信由你 如:①Believe it or not, I’ll go abroad next month.不管你信还是不信,我下个月要出国。 ②Believer it or not, we were left waiting in the rain for two hours.信不信由你我们冒雨等了两个小时。 6. It’s time that…did / should do …(定语从句) 如: ①It is time that I went and picked up my daughter from school.我该去学校接我女儿放学了。 ②It’s high time that we stopped/should stop this practice.我们的确该停止这种做法了。 7. It is /has been…since…did…(时间状语从句) 如: It is just a week since we arrived here.我们来这里已一星期了。 8. It won’t be …before…用不了(多长时间)就会… It will be…before…得过(多长时间)才… It wasn’t …before…没过(多长时间)就… It was…before…过了(多长时间)才… ①It will be a long time before we finish the task.我们还需要很长时间才能完成这项任务。 ②It wasn’t long before he learned to use the computer.不久他就学会使用计算机了。 ③It was some time before he told me about this affair.过了一段时间之后他告诉了我这件事。 ④It won’t be long before we meet again.不久之后我们还会再见面的。 ㈣ 易混用其他句型 英语中有一些句型不含 it, 但却易被误用了 it,常见的有以下句型: ⒈ There is something/nothing wrong/ the matter with sb./ sth. 如:There is nothing wrong /the matter with him. He’s just pretending.他没什么事,他只是在装呢。 2. There is no doubt about…对…毫不怀疑 There is no doubt that…对…毫不怀疑 如:①There is no doubt about his suitability for the job. 毫无疑问,他适合这个工作。 ②There is no doubt about the fact. 关于这个事实毫无怀疑。 ③There is no doubt that he is hard to deal with. 毫无置疑他很难对付。 ⒊ There is no need (for sb.) to do sth. 没必要… 如:①There was no need for him to remain in Paris. 他没有必要继续留在巴黎。
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②There is no need for you to start yet. 你现在还不必动身。 4.There is no/a possibility that… …没可能/有可能 (= It is impossible/possible that …) 如:①There is a possibility that the train may be late. 可能火车要晚点。 ②There is no possibility that we’ll see him this weekend. 我们本周末不可能见到他。 5.There is a chance that …可能… 如:There is a chance that the sick child will get well. 这个生病的孩子可能会好起来的。 6.There be no/ some differences between…and……和…之间没/有区别 如: There are some differences between the two languages. 这两种语言之间有些区别。 7. After what seemed + 时间 如:After what seemed a very long time, the wounded soldier came back to life. 在经过似乎很长的一段时间之后,那个受伤的士兵苏醒了过来。 8. There be difficulty/ trouble (in) doing sth. 干…有困难 如: here was no difficulty in finding him.找到他没费什么事。 习题演练: 1.______ is reported that he got seven gold medals.A. That B. Word C. It D. News 2.How long ______ to finish the work? A. you will take B. will you take C. you will take it D. will it take you 3.__________ no need for us to discuss the problem again. It has already been settled. A. It has B. There has C. It is D. There is 4.I was disappointed with the play. I had expected _____ to be much better. A. that B. this C. one D. it 5.I don’t think _______ possible to master a foreign language without much memory work. A. it B. that C. its D. this 6.Does _______ matter if he can’t finish the job on time?A. this B. it C. he D. that 7.----Do you need my ruler? ----No, thanks. I’ve got _______ myself. A. it B. each C. one D. the one 8.----Which person do you mean?----______ who wears a new gold watch. A. The one B. One C. Each D. It 9.It _____ three years since I left England.A. has been B. was C. had been D. will be 10.It won’t be long _____ the island ________ to our motherland. A. when, returns B. before, will return C. since, returns D. before, returns 11.How many years is it ______ your family moved here? A. after B. since C. before D. until 12.________ is a pity that you forgot both her address and her telephone number. A. It B. There C. This D. That 13.I saw no more than one copy left in the bookshop. Will you go and buy ______? A. it B. some C. any D. one 14.Will you see to ______ that the luggage is brought back? A. me B. yourself C. it D. them 15.It _______ that she has lost interest in studying English. A. seemed B. appears C. looks D. remains 16._______ happened that I met one of my friends yesterday.A. I B. That C. It D. How 17.I think _______ right that you didn’t tell him the bad news.A. it B. its C. you D. that 18. _______ to say which one I should choose. A. That’s hard B. It is hard C. There no use D. It no good 19._______ surprised me most was that she had become a famous singer.
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A. That B. It C. What D. This 20.______ will take you a lot of time to find him in the crowd. A. It B. I C. We D. They 21.He felt ______ to work for human rights and progress. A. it his duty B. his duty C. that is a duty D. that is his duty 22.People in the west makes ______ a rule to buy Christmas presents for their relatives and friends. A. that B. it C. this D. The thing 23.________needs further discussion whether we’ll build a library or not. A. We B. He C. It D. The thing 24._______ is no good _______ without doing anything. A. This, talking B. It, to talk C. It, talking D. That, to talk 25.________ is no difference between them.A. There B. Where C. It D. What 26.Was it _______ that they saw?A. she B. that she C. her D. herself 27._______ being Sunday, the library was closed.A. That B. It is C. It D. This 28.It was evening _______ we arrived there.A. that B. when C. this D. since 29.It was in the village ______ now is a small town ________ the earthquake occurred. A. where, which B. which, where C. which, that D. that, where 30.----Few children are as bright as he is, and also, he works very hard. ----It’s no ______ that he always gets the first place in any examination. A. question B. doubt C. problem D. wonder 答案与提示: 1.C it 在此句中是形式主语,真正的主语是 that 从句。这个句型的结构是:it be +过去分词 +that 从句。 2.D it takes sb. some time to do sth. 意为“花费时间做某事”。It 是形式主语,代替不定式短语。此句是 将来时态。 3.D 本题用的是 there be 句型。 There is no need to…是这个句型的一种表达方式, 意思是“没 有必要…”。4.D I had expected 的宾语是前面所提到的 play。英语中,通常用 it 和 one 来替代前面单数 名词,可以选 C 或 D, one 所代替的是同类事物中“一个”,而 it 所代替的是前面提到过的同一事物,所以 答案为 D。5.A to master a foreign language without much memory work 是动词不定式短语作 think 的 宾语。当句子的宾语是动词不定式或 that 从句时,我们通常用 it 作形式宾语,但是如果宾语不与形容词在 一起,一般不能用 it 作形式宾语。6.B 本题是一般疑问句。matter(有关系,要紧)经常用于否定句和疑问 句,常用句型是:Does it matter…? It doesn’t matter…。7.C 不定代词 one 常用来代替与前面已提到的 一个事物(人或东西),以避免重复。one 表示同类事物中的“任一个”,即:表示泛指,而 the one 则表 示确指。 人称代词 it 被用来代替前面提到的那个东西。 不定代词 each 常表示“每一个”的意思。 根据题意 (你 要用我的尺子吗?不,谢谢。我自己有一支。)和结构,应选 C。 8.A 不定代词 one 和 the one 都可 以被用来代替前面提到过的一个同类事物(人或东西),以避免重复。one 表示泛指,而 the one 表示确 指。题意为:“你指的是哪个人?”“那位戴一只新金表的。”9.A It is /has been…since…did…(时间状语从 句) 意思为:自从…以来已有…时间了。10.D It won’t be …before…“用不了(多长时间)就会…”, 其中 before 引导的是时间状语从句,所以应用现在时态。11.B It is /has been…since…did…(时间状语 从句) 意思为:自从…以来已有…时间了。题意为:你们家搬到这里已多长时间了?12.A It is a pity that…其中 it 是形式主语, that 从句是真正的主语。 13.A one 表示同类事物中的“任一个”, 即: 表示泛指。 人称代词 it 被用来代替前面提到的那个东西。no more than 表示“仅仅,只有”。14.C it 作形式宾语,真 正的宾语是后面的 that 从句。15.B it seems/appears that…为固定句型,“似乎…”。选项 A 的时态不对。 16.C it happened that…为固定句型,意思是“碰巧…”。题意为:昨天我碰巧碰到了我一位朋友。 17.A it 作形式宾语,真正的宾语是 “that you didn’t tell him the bad news”18.B it 作形式主语,后面的 不定式短语作真正的主语。19.C what surprised me most 在本题中是主语从句。如果选 B, 则应把原题 中的 was 去掉,变为:It surprised me most that she had become a famous singer. (it 做形式主语) 20.A 本题用的是句型:It takes sb. some time to do sth. 干…花了某人…时间。其中 it 作形式主语。
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21.A feel/ find/ think / consider/ make/ regard…+ it +名词/ 形容词 +不定式短语, 其中 it 做形式宾语, 真正的宾语是“to work for human rights and progress”22.B make / find/ think / consider/ feel / regard…+ it +名词/ 形容词 +不定式短语, 其中 it 做形式宾语,真正的宾 语是“to buy Christmas presents for their relatives and friends”23.C it 作形式主语,真正的主语是后面的从句“whether we’ll build a library or not”24.C 本题用的是句型:It is no good doing sth. 意思是“干…没用/好处” 其中 it 作形式主语,用来代 替后面的动名词短语。25.A 本题用的是固定句型:There is no difference between…意思是“和…之间没 /有区别”,注意别误选 it。 26.C 本题为一个由强调句变成的一般疑问句,被强调的人称代词为宾格。 原句应为:They saw her. 选项 B 的句子结构语法不对。 27.C It being Sunday 是独立主格结构,在此 相当于原因状语从句。it 在此题中表示时间。 28.B It’s + 时间名词+ when…;It’s + 时间状语 +that… 这是一个强调句。本题中的 evening 为时间名词,所以应选 B。 29.C 本题第一个空填 which, 引导的 是一个定语从句,修饰先行词 the village。 第二个空是强调句,所以选 that,“是在这个村庄发生了地震”。 30.D It’s no wonder that…为固定句型,意思是“难怪…”。

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