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Notes for Unit 2


I. Words and Expressions (Text A)
1. condemn v. (L.6) say that one disapproves of sb./sth.; say officially that sth. is faulty or sb’s punishment is to be 谴责;责备;官方宣称某事有缺陷或宣告某人要受的惩罚 We all condemn various pollutions to the environment. 我们一致谴责各种形式的环境污染。 The elementary school has been condemned as unfit for teaching after the earthquake. 地震之后这座小学已宣布不适宜开展教学。 sb. be condemned to sth./ to do sth. make sb. take or accept sth. unwelcome or unpleasant 使某人接收不好的事物 As the only child in the family, Tom is always condemned to play alone at home. 作为家里的独生子,Tom 常常不得不独自一人在家玩耍。 2. confine v. (L. 7) keep … in a restricted space 将某人/事限制在一定空间以内 After her operation, she was confined to bed for a week. 她手术以后已经卧床一个星期了。 I wish the speaker would confine himself to the subject. 我希望演讲者不要离题。 3. set sb. doing sth. (L.8) cause sb. to start doing sth. 使某人开始做某事情

Don’t set him drinking or he’ll go on all night. 可别让他喝起酒来,要不然他一喝就得一个晚上。 The Olympics set the whole world re-understanding China. 奥运会让世界重新了解中国。 4. take… for granted v. (L.20) be so familiar with sb./sth. that one no longer appreciates his/its full value; assume sth. to be true 因熟悉某人/事而觉察不出其真正价值;认为某事属实 He never cherishes life: he just takes everything he has for granted. 他从不珍惜生活,只是觉得他的一切所得都是理当如此。 I took it for granted that you had been here before. 我理所当然地认为,你一定来过这里。 5. emphasize v. (L.14) give special force or attention to sth. to show that it is particularly important; place emphasis on 强调;着重 He emphasized the importance of children’s curiosity. 他强调孩子们好奇心的重要性。 Which word should I emphasize? 我应该重读哪个单词? 6. appreciation n. (L.15) understanding and enjoyment; grateful recognition of an action; statement of the qualities of a work of art, person’s life 欣赏;感激,感谢;鉴定,评价 As a pop singer, she shows great appreciation of rap. 作为一个流行歌手,她特别欣赏饶舌乐。 In appreciation of all you’ve done for us, we are willing to help others who are in need too. 为了感谢你们的鼎立相助,我们非常乐意去帮助那些同样需要帮助的人们。 appreciate v. 欣赏,感谢

7. stretch v. (L.16) make sth. longer, wider or tighter by pulling; extend or tighten the muscles for relaxation; spread out over an area or a period of time 拉长;延伸;伸展肢体;绵 延,延续 Stretch the gloves to fit your fingers. 把手套撑撑,以便戴得合手。 While walking in the wild forest stretching for hundreds of miles, Mary often stretched her arms for relaxation. 玛丽一边走在绵延数百英里的森林中,一边时常地伸开双臂放松身体。 8. adopt v. (L.18) 1. take sb. into one’s family, esp. as one’s child or heir 收养某人 Angelina Jolie has adopted three kids respectively from Cambodia, Vietnam and Ethiopia. 安吉丽娜茱丽分别从柬埔寨、越南和埃塞俄比亚收养了一共三个孩子。 2. take over and have or use sth. As one’s own 采纳;采取;采用 Thirty years have passed since China firstly adopted the reform and opening-up policy. 中国采取改革开放政策已经三十年了。 9. picutre sb./ sth. as (L.21) imagine sb. or sth. as 将…想象成… He used to picture his future as an engineer working for an overseas IT company. 他过去曾想象自己将来会成为一位海外 IT 公司的工程师。 As for Larry, life in his thirties has already been pictured as a senior dentist by his mother even though he is now an elementary school boy. 拉里才刚读小学,他妈妈就已经预计他在三十多岁的时候会成为一名资深牙医。 10. conscious (L.33) knowing, understanding or recognizing sth., aware 意识到的,察觉 到的 be conscious of… As a health-conscious lady, Emma has a severely restricted diet to keep fit. 爱玛是一位具有保健意识的女性,她严格限制自己的饮食以保持体形。 He has always been conscious of his responsibility as a representative to the Provincial / Municipal People’s Congress. 作为省 / 市人大代表,他总是牢记着他的职责。 比较: 比较 consciousness n. 知觉,清醒状态 conscience n. 良心,是非感 conscientious adj. 自觉的,尽责的

11. grateful to sb. for sth. (L.34) feeling or showing thanks to sb. for sth. 因某事而对 某人怀有感激之情 appreciative of sth. (L.40) 因某事而心存感激 I’m really grateful to my parents for their ceaseless support when I was down. I won’t be the one standing here right now without their love.

我非常感谢我的父母,在我低潮时期对我不断地支持。没有他们的爱,就不会有此刻站在这里的我。 A friend in need is a friend indeed. I’m quite appreciative of your hands when I need them to finish the significant program. 患难见真情。非常感激你在我需要帮助去完成这个重要项目时所伸出的援手。 12. reveal vt. (L.57) make (fact,etc) known; cause or allow (sth) to be seen 透露,泄露; 展现或显示(某物) The doctor did not reveal the truth to him that Tom is not the son of his own. 医生没有向他透露 Tom 不是亲生儿子的真相。 The grey hair revealed his real age. 透过花白的头发,可以知道他的真实年纪。 13. those who 的常见用法 “those who + 定从 的句型经常用来表达一类人,能够提炼出句型的思想性和精干性,因而经常出现 定从”的句型经常用来表达一类人 能够提炼出句型的思想性和精干性, 的句型经常用来表达一类人, 于习语和谚语中。 于习语和谚语中。 --There are those, of course, who would adopt the motto of “Eat, drink, and be merry”, … (L. 17-18) --Particularly does this observation apply to those who have lost sight and hearing in adult life. (L.28-30) --But those who have never suffered loss of sight or hearing damage seldom make the fullest use of these blessed faculties. --Yet, those who have eyes apparently see little. (L. 67-68) More Examples --Fortune favors those who use their judgment. 机遇偏爱善断之人。 --Fortune favors those who have a prepared mind.(Or:Fortune favors the prepared : mind.) 机遇偏爱有准备之人。 --God helps those who help themselves. 自助者天助。 --Good are those who give money, great are those who give time, blessed are those who give self-respect. 肯付出金钱的人是好人,肯付出时间的人是伟人,而懂得尊重别人的人是圣人。 --Those who labor with their minds govern others; those who labor with their strength are governed by others. 劳心者治人,劳力者治于人 14. 对比句型与排比句型的使用 --Only the deaf appreciate hearing, only the blind realize the blessings that lie in sight. (L.27-28) --It’s the same old story of not being grateful for what we have until we lose it, of not being conscious of health until we are ill. (L.33-35)

--Darkness would make him more appreciative of sight; silence would teach him the joys of sound. (L.39-40) --To me a thick carpet of pine needles or soft grass is more welcome than the most luxurious Persian rug. To me the colorful seasons are a thrilling and unending drama, the action of which streams through my finger tips. (L.61-64) 一般来说, 个以上的类似事物依次列出,用以增强文章语势。 一般来说,我们的写作中往往将 3 个或 3 个以上的类似事物依次列出,用以增强文章语势。 如经典之句: 如经典之句: Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested. (Bacon, Of Study) 书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。(译者:王佐良先生,我国著名外国语言文学专家) 作文题: 又如某次 TOFEL 作文题:Some students like to have outdoor activities. Others like indoor activities. Which do you prefer? Give specific reasons and examples to illustrate your answer. Possible beginning paragraphs: Have you ever been to the West Lake in Hangzhou city? Have you ever walked along the Long Corridor in the Summer Palace? Have you ever seen the red fallen leaves on the Fragrant Hills? If you have never had such experiences, you would never know how much fun outdoor activities could bring you. …

II. Words and Expressions (Text B)
1. be bound for …(L. 1) 正要启程的,开往……去的 (cf. be bound to do 非做不可的,极有可能的,被束缚的) The plane is bound for Tokyo. 这架飞架飞往东京。 The new discovery is bound to be of great service to mankind. 这项新发现对于人类必定大有用处。 2. slide v. (L. 26) 滑动,流逝,不知不觉地陷进 The book slid off my knee. 书从我膝盖上滑落。 He has slid into bad habits of telling lies. 他不知不觉地沾染上撒谎的坏习惯 短语: 短语 let sth. slide 对某事漫不经心, 听其自然 slide away 溜掉 3. play the fool (L.71) 装糊涂,做傻事,瞎胡闹 He is not a wise man who cannot play the fool upon occasions. 不会在必要的情况下装傻的人,不是聪明人。
The father tells the boy to stop play the fool. 父亲叫孩子不要再装疯卖傻了。

4. remedy n. (L. 86) 治疗(法),纠正,补救

Your only remedy is to go to law. 你唯一的补救法是诉诸法律。 5. put one’s name up (for…) (L.120) 提名某人为…… My name was put up for president of the club. 我被提名为该俱乐部主席的候选人。 6. bestow vt. (L.122) 给予,授予,赐予 (on, upon) I do not deserve all the praises bestowed upon me. 我不配得到这些赞扬。 Many people despise wealth, but few know how to bestow it. 鄙视财富大有人在,使用财富却鲜有人知。 7. single … out (for) (L.123) 挑出,挑选 Why single him out for punishment? 为什么挑出他给予惩罚? 8. rack one’s brains (about) (L. 127) 为……绞尽脑汁 He had to rack his brains to solve that complicated problem. 他不得不绞尽脑汁去解决那个复杂问题。

III. Key to the Exercise (p52-59)
WORDS IN ACTION Working with Words and Expressions 1. 1) emphasize 6) owe 2) stretched 3) remedy 9) reveal 4) confine 5) remarkable

7) lower

8) response

10) characterized

11) picture

12) picture

13) proposed

14) trembling 4) in search of 8) took in

2. 1) singled out for 5) on earth

2) kept back

3) all but

6) in particular

7) first and foremost

Increasing Your Word Power 1. 1) responsible for 6) worthy of 2) bound for 3) aware of 4) appreciative of 5) thirsty for

7) capable of

8) noted for

9) independent of 10) suitable for

2. 1) similar 2) alike / similar 3) sleeping 4) asleep 5) cheerful 6) glad 7) afraid / frightened 8) frightened 9) living 10) alive 3. 1) a delightful holiday 2) a hopeful man / person in politics 4) a masterful manager 5) a handful of rice 3) a forgetful person

6) a spoonful of water 9) a mouthful of wine

7) an armful of newspapers GRAMMER REVIEW 1. 1) be done away with

8) a roomful of students

2) is / gets punished 3) being erected 4) Having been ignored

5) believing 6) to have sent 7) be looked up 8) speak / speaking

9) being interviewed 10) taken 2. 1) 杰克,有你的电话。 2)贺卡上印有“新年快乐”的字样,在下面还有一条附言。 3)给了他们两天时间来为会议做必要的准备。 4)物体受热时膨胀。 5)你的笔写起来很流畅。 3. 1) It is known to all that these islands have always been part of China’s territory. 2) When you plan a project, all these factors ought to be taken into consideration. 3) The / These children are well taken care of / are taken good care of in the nursery. 4) The car is too old; it needs repairing / to be repaired. 5) The question has been much talked about on TV recently. CLOZE 1) set 2) circumstances 3) as if 4) value 5) which 6) constant 7) granted

8) aware 9) characterizes 10) appreciate 11) who 12) damage 13) stricken 14) during TRANSLATION 1) Such a sight always moves me and sets me thinking. 2) Stop scolding /blaming her — you’d have done the same thing under /in similar circumstances. 3) We should be appreciative of /grateful for what we have instead of taking everything for granted. 4) He may promse to change, but it’s the same old story of saying one thing and doing another. 5) I racked my brains about how to break the terrible news to him. 6) It will be impossible for me to repay my parents for everything they have done for me. 7) For now, it remains to me to thank you once more for joining us and wish you good luck in your work. 8) I said right from the beginning that he would cause us trouble. IV. Writing Writing Skill Approaches to Argumentative Writing — Contrast A contrast is always adopted in writing to explain how things are different. Generally speaking, a contrast paper is to show the superiority of one thing to the other (usually there are two items), or to present information about the differences of two things for readers to understand or evaluate.

When writing a contrast essay, one should always keep in mind that only items (usually two) of the same general class can be contrasted, and it should follow one of these two patterns: the subject-by-subject pattern or the point-by-point pattern. Writing Practice Analyze the Structure of a Paragraph Directions: Some people think that co-educational schooling is good for students while others hold that single sex education is better than co-educational schooling. What is your opinion? In today’s world women find themselves in every possible position in society and are no longer relegated to separate spheres from men. Likewise, it is no longer required that women go to separate schools from men, nor is it expected that women will learn different skills from their male counterparts. I hope to explore the two sides of this phenomenon while discussing the trends in single-sex education in my response to this question. The argument is multi-faceted with some single sex school advocates arguing that separate education for girls can play a vital role in a young woman’s development as she learns to assert herself in a more comfortable environment. Others in favor of co-ed schools argue that a separate education cannot be equal and is in reality detrimental to young women in that they are deprived of opportunities to assert themselves around men. Now with our entry into the 21st century, women are experiencing more and more equal opportunities with men, and we are also seeing more women apply to institutions of higher education every year. I believe that the advancement of co-educational institutions has been and will continue to play a significant role in the future equality of women. Write a Paragraph as Required Directions: Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Reading Selectively Or Extensively? You should write at least 100 words, and base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below: 1. 有人认为读书要有选择 2. 有人认为应当博览群书 3. 我的看法 Sample writing

Reading Selectively Or Extensively?
Some people think when we read we should read selectively. That is to say, we should select some books we are interested in and ignore the others. Reading selectively can help us concentrate our limited time and attention on those books that we think are useful to us. Others think we should read extensively. No matter what kind of book it is, we should look it over. We should read various kinds of books, whether we are interested in them or not. They maintain that reading extensively can help to broaden our vision and grasp the general knowledge in different fields.

In my opinion, the two reading ways have their roles respectively in our reading. However, the disadvantages of each method are easy to see. If we only read the books we select or prefer, the framework of our knowledge may not be complete. Our knowledge would be rather limited. And if we read without selection, we may not have so much time and energy to be specialized in one particular field. Therefore, the combination of the two methods is more reasonable.


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