# AP微观经济学复习知识点

AP 微观经济学复习知识点
AP 微观经济学复习知识点 【考前必看】，考前把知识在普及一遍，加深印象，下面请看详细内容介绍。 Trade ?Domestic price>world price→export→comparative advantage→not affect world price ?Domestic price ?When export, consumer surplus↓，producer surplus↑，total surplus↑ When import, consumer surplus↑，producer surplus↓，total surplus↓ ?Graph ?Tariff: decrease consumer surplus and create dwl. Graph ?Quota: a certain amount permitted to import ?Graph ?Bias about trade: (1) unfair competition: one country reduces tax on domestic products to export them, but the import country will receive the benefit from this action. (2) National security argument: use tariff to protect domestic industry. This sometimes happens in real world. (3) Jobs argument: world trade won’ t cause unemployment because it is creating jobs and at the same time destroying some. (4) Infant-industry argument: infant-industry argues that they need tariff to protect to grow. However, it is hard to decide the country has comparative advantage in which industry. (5) Protection-as-a-bargain-chip argument: country A can threaten country B to decrease tariff or A will increase tariff. However this threaten won’ t work as B can threaten A the same way. Cost curve ?Economic cost= accounting cost+ opportunity cost= implicit cost+ explicit cost. ?TC’=MC=VC’ =VC=TC-FC ?Diminishing marginal return: hold other input constant, too much of one resource will reduce marginal return as it is inefficient. ?MC intersects ATC and AVC at their lowest point. ?There is no fixed cost in the long run ?Short run and long run ATC: The short run ATC curve is upward sloping because increase a single resource while hold the others constant will cause inefficiency. Thus the cost of producing another product is higher than average and cause the ATC to go up. However, due to definition, nothing is constant in the long run. A firm will no longer put all input into one resource while holding the others constant. Instead, the reason for long run ATC curve to slope upward is diseconomies of scale. When a company is way too big, it is hard to get everything under control and people in this firm will have different incentives which add to the difficult of keeping the

organization work. The efficiency in this case will decrease dramatically and will cause much higher to produce another unit. In the first few units, additional resources enable producers to specialize and increase the efficiency. Consequently, output increases and cause AVC to fall. Even when AVC stops falling and begins to act in opposite way, the ATC may still decrease and additional output cause AFC to decrease. It is only when AVC increases greater than AFC decreases than ATC begin to slope upward. In the long run, when input increases, people are enabled to specialize and this will increase the efficiency and cause the output to rise faster than input. Also, when number of consumer increases, the cost of some equipment that can be used by many can be divided by a larger number. Thus the cost for producing each good lowers.

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