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山东省青岛市2014高考英语 完形填空、阅读理解训练题(2)

青岛市 2014 高考英语完形填空、阅读理解训练题(2)及答案
阅读理解专题--------猜词悟义 一、题型特点与解题技巧 在英语阅读中, 利用上下文或句子结构猜测词义是学生必备的阅读能力之一。培养猜测词义 的能力,不仅有助于提高阅读速度,扩大词汇量, 还能增强学习英语的信心。 一、巧借生词本身 在英语文章中, 一些人名、地名、节日等专有名词不影响理解,对它们可就词论词,不必猜 测词义。例如. 1.The largest spider in the world is the goliath tarantula. 2.Held on a farm, the Glastonbury festival is the most well-known and popular in the U.K. 二、巧用上下文信息 在阅读中, 可根据上下文的语境暗示, 运用逻辑推理来猜测生词词义。例如: 1.He is a resolute man. Once he sets up a goal, he will not give up easily. 2.The female mosquito is a vampire and lives on blood. 三、利用同义词或近义词 为使自己的意思表达得更清楚, 作者通常用其同义词或近义词来解释难词。例如: 1.Mother was tall, fat and middle -aged. The principal of the school was an old woman, almost as plump as mother, and much shorter. 2.All the members are of the same opinions. They are unanimous. 四、运用定义或释义 阅读中会遇到一些不熟悉的术语。为帮助读者理解,作者常用一个句子或一个段落来说明其 内涵。对术语下定义的句子往往出现在段首,也是主题句。有时整个段落、甚至整篇文章都 围绕这一定义展开。因而, 借助作者的定义或释义推断词义是最直接的办法。例如: 1.The enemy soldiers surrendered, that is, threw their weapons and walked out with their hands above their heads. 2.The word ecology means the study of the relationship between living things and their surroundings. 用来表示定义或释义的提示语有:mean, refer to, be defined as, be described as, be known

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as, be called, be termed, that is, or, in other words 等。 五、巧用构词法 阅读中可运用合成、转化、派生等构词法知识来猜测词义。通过分析词缀及词根,不仅可猜 测单词含义,还有利于扩大词汇量。例如: 1.They overestimate the interviewer’s ability and asked him many difficult questions. 2.Take out all removable parts and wash them with warm water. 掌握一些常见词缀及含义。如:形容词后缀有-ful, -less, -y, -ing,-able 等; 名词后缀有- or, - er, - tion, - ist,- th, -ment, -age, -ness 等;构成反义词的前缀 有 un-, dis-. in-,im-, ir-, non-等。 有特定意义的词缀有 re-( 重新,再) ,co-(合作 的) ,anti-(反对的) ,over-(过高的) ,micro-(微型的) ,fore-(超前的) ,inter-(国 际的,相互的),pre-(先前的,提前的),super-(超级的) ,tele-(远)等。 六、巧借标点符号 有时为了让读者更清楚文中某个词或短语的含义,作者经常借助标点符号( 如括号、破折号、 冒号、逗号等) 直接为生词提供定义或解释。例如: 1.In Russia if we give flowers as a present, we have to give an odd number of them (one, three, five, etc) because even number of flowers (two, four, six, etc) are for funerals. 2.One of the tourists has just been bluejacked—secretly sent a test message using short-range wireless technology called bluetooth. 七、妙用对比词 在文章中, 作者有时会运用一些相互对应、互为反义的词语,使不同事物的特点更为突出。 我们可以通过上下文的逻辑关系, 透过两种事物或现象的对比描述, 从其中一个熟悉的词 反推出生词词义。例如: 1.Most of us agreed, however, Bill dissented. 2.Her voice was usually soft and sweet, but now it is hoarse. 表示对比、转折的标志词通常有 yet, but, however, otherwise, despite, even though, unlike, instead, rather than, on the other hand, on the contrary 等。 八、找准信息词 通常情况下, 某些单词或短语所引出的内容可起到解释说明的作用,能帮助我们理解生词的
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含义。这样的信号词有:for example, for instance, such as, namely, and, like ( 像), especially, include, consist of 等。 1.Many United Nations employees are polyglots, Mrs. White, for example, speaks five languages. 2.But, on the other hand, we have such compound words as handshake and handbag. 九、巧借经验和常识 在阅读理解中结合自己的经验和社会常识, 往往也能有效地推断出生词的含义。如: 1.When you have tanks of air on your back, you can stay in deep water for a long time. 2.In the old days, when girls from rich families were married to their husbands, they expected to bring with them a large quantity of dowry. 根据生活经验猜测词义时, 要注意观察同一生词是否在文章中其他地方出现,把两处的语境 进行比较,更容易准确地猜出词义。 十、巧用因果关系 不同的原因导致不同的结果; 反之,由结果也能够分析出原因。我们可以巧用因果关系来推 测词义。例如: 1.Since I could not afford to buy the original painting, I bought a replica. An inexperienced eye could not tell the difference. 2.He was so infuriated that he tore the letters into pieces. 表示因果关系的标志词有 because ,so, thus, due to, result in/from,as a result(of) 等。 十一、活用语法知识 有些语法知识如定语从句和同位语等进一步说明的作用,可以帮助推断词义。例如: 1.He was a prestidigitator who amused the children by pulling rabbits out of hats, swallowing fire, and other similar tricks. 2.Do you have any proof that he is a thief? 十二、注意指示代词和人称代词等 There are pressing calls on the resources of the government. Using taxpayer’s money to help a small number of people to earn high incomes in the future is not one of them. ( 2010 北京)

一般说来 it, they, this 等指代的都是上文提到的人或事,但一定按句意判断是上文哪个
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词。 总之,我们要坚持“词不离句, 句不离文” 的原则, 在上下文的紧密联系中猜测词义。此 外,还要训练带着问题, 按意群、句子去阅读, 不要把注意力集中在某个单词或短语上, 这样既能加快阅读速度,又能把注意力集中在内容的理解上, 从而养成良好的阅读习惯。

Plants can’t communicate by moving or making sounds, as most animals do. Instead, plants produce volatile compounds,chemicals that easily change from a liquid to a gas. A flower’ s sweet smell, for example, comes from volatile compounds that the plant produces to attract insects such as bugs and bees. Plants can also detect volatile compounds produced by other plants.A tree under attack by hungry insects, for instance, may give off volatile compounds that let other trees know about the attack. In response, the other trees may send off chemicals to keep the bugs away — or even chemicals that attract the bugs’ natural enemies. Now scientists have created a quick way to understand what plants are saying: a chemical sensor( 传 感 器 ) called an electronic nose. The “e?nose” can tell compounds that crop plants make when they’re attacked.Scientists say the e?nose could help quickly detect whether plants are being eaten by insects. But today the only way to detect such insects is to visually inspect individual plants. This is a challenging task for managers of greenhouses ,enclosed gardens that can house thousands of plants. The research team worked with an e?nose that recognizes volatile compounds. Inside the device, 13 sensors chemically react with volatile compounds. Based on these interactions, the e?nose gives off electronic signals that the scientists analyze using computer software. To test the nose, the team presented it with healthy leaves from cucumber, pepper and tomato plants, all common greenhouse crops. Then the scientists collected samples of air around damaged leaves from each type of crop. These plants had been damaged by insects, or by scientists who made holes in the leaves with a hole punch (打孔 器). The e?nose, it turns out, could identify healthy cucumber,pepper and tomato plants based on the volatile compounds they produce. It could also identify tomato leaves that had been damaged. But even more impressive, the device could tell which

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type of damage — by insects or with a hole punch — had been done to the tomato leaves. With some fine?tuning, a device like the e?nose could one day be used in greenhouses to quickly spot harmful bugs, the researchers say. A device like this could also be used to identify fruits that are perfectly ripe and ready to pick and eat, says Natalia Dudareva, a biochemist at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Ind. who studies smells of flowers and plants. Hopefully, scientists believe, the device could bring large benefits to greenhouse managers in the near future. [ 语篇解读 ] 植 物会说话吗 ?植物如 何 “交流”? 本文中的 科学家们正在 尝试用

e?nose 来测试植物受到伤害时的反应。 1.We learn from the text that plants communicate with each other by________. A. making some sounds B. waving their leaves C. producing some chemicals D. sending out electronic signals [解析] 事 实 细 节 题 。 从 文 章 第 一 段 中 的 “Instead , plants produce volatile

compounds,chemicals that...”可知,植物通过它本身所产生的一种化学物质来进行交流, 所以答案选 C。 [答案] C 2.What did the scientists do to find out if the e?nose worked? A. They presented it with all common crops. B. They fixed 13 sensors inside the device. C. They collected different damaged leaves. D. They made tests on damaged and healthy leaves. [解析] 逻辑推理题。从文章第五段可知,为了证实 e?nose 的效果,科学家用受到伤 害的叶子与健康的叶子来测试。所以选 D。 [答案] D 3.According to the writer, the most amazing thing about the e?nose is that it can________. A. pick out ripe fruits B. spot the insects quickly C. distinguish different damages to the leaves D. recognize unhealthy tomato leaves [解析] 事实细节题。从倒数第二段中的“But even more impressive,the device could tell which type of damage...”可知,最令人惊奇的是 e?nose 能够分辨叶子受到的不同
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的“伤害”。 [答案] C 4.We can infer from the last paragraph that the e?nose________. A. is unable to tell the smell of flowers B. is not yet used in greenhouses C. is designed by scientists at Purdue D. is helpful in killing harmful insects [解析] 逻辑推理题。从文章最后一段中的“could one day be used in greenhouses

to...”推断可知,e?nose 还没有运用到 greenhouses 中,由此推断 B 是答案。 [答案] B

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每日一句 Though he knew it was such an exciting football match that he couldn’t miss it, he felt too tired to insist on watching it. 虽然他知道这是场不能错过的足球赛,但他太累了以至于无法坚持看下去。 基础词汇强化练习 1. Do Americans need v________ to visit Canada? 2. Experience in a related field is a ______________(要求) for this job. 3. I take ____________(安慰) from the fact that his friends are there to help him. 4. Passengers may b__________ the ship at 4:00 p. m. 5. Money is no s_____________ for happiness. 6. Britain is g___________ by Prime Minister and the Cabinet. 7. Was going to college a good p____________ for your career? 8. The country is a____________ in natural resources. 9. The teacher r_____________ the students to read the following books. 10. The students attended a history l_______________ today.

参考答案 1. visas 2. requirement 3. comfort 4. board 5. substitute

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6. governed 7. preparation 8. abundant 9. recommended 10. lecture 书面表达经典句式强化记忆 196. It takes / took / will take sb. some time / money to do sth. 某人花/花了/将花多长时间/多少钱做某事. It took me years of hard work to speak good English. 为了讲一口流利的英语,我花了多年时间刻苦操练. 197. It wasn't until?that... 直到??才??. It wasn't until yesterday that I got your letter. 我直到昨天才收到你的来信. 198.It would be wonderful if... 如果??那就太好了. It would be wonderful if we can get together on Christmas. 如果圣诞节我们能聚一聚那就太好了. 书面表达经典朗读素材 汇报学习成绩(A Report of Results in Studies) Dear Pa and Ma, Two months have passed quickly since I came back to school. I miss you very much, and I hope the letter will give you a little pleasure. Do you still remember that I was rather poor in maths in Grade One? You were so disappointed that you always blamed me. Now with the help of my teachers and classmates, and also because of my hard work in the summer holidays, I've made rapid progress. A few days ago I did very well in a maths exam. How happy I was! Of course, I will not be proud of it and will study even harder.Please don't worry about me. I'm very well. You see, I've grown up. I'm sixteen years old now and no longer a new student. I can do well with anything that happens around me. After a year's study, I've been used to the life in the school. I get on well with all my classmates. I believe that you will see a new term. I hope you are both healthy! Your loving daughter, Jing Hua 经典谚语积累
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If a man deceives me once, shame on him, if he deceives me twice, shame on me. 上当一回头,再多就可耻。

高频考点拾贝 完形填空系列 选项中所给的 4 个词的词性都是相同的,词义相同或相近,这类题的难度是很大的,要求 考生在正确理解文章意义的情况下,正确辨别词义。 【例】 The passengers on the bus watched with sympathy as Susan made her way carefully up the steps. She paid the driver and then, using her hands to__31__the seats, settled in one of them. It had been a year since Susan became blind. As the result of an accident she was suddenly thrown into a world of__32__. Susan’s husband Mark watched her__33__into hopelessness and he was__34__to use every possible means to help his wife. Finally, Susan felt ready to__35__to her job, but how would she get there? She used to take the bus, but she was now too__36__to get around the city by herself. Mark__37__to ride the bus with Susan each morning and evening__38__she could manage it by herself. For two weeks, Mark__39__Susan to and from work each day. He taught her how to rely on her other__40__,specifically her hearing, to determine where she was and how to adapt to her new__41__. At last, Susan decided that she was ready to try the trip__42__. Monday morning arrived. Before she left, she hugged her husband__43__, her eyes filled with tears of gratitude( 感 激 ) . She said good?bye and, for the first time, they went their__44__ways. Each day went perfectly, and a wild excitement__45__Susan. She was doing it! On Friday morning, Susan took the bus to work__46__. As she was getting off the bus, the driver said. “Miss, I sure__47__you.” Curious, Susan asked the driver__48__. “You know, every morning for the__49__week, a fine?looking gentleman in a military uniform has been standing across the corner watching you until you enter
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your office building safely,” the bus driver said. Tears of happiness poured down Susan’s cheeks. She was so lucky for he had given her a gift more powerful than__50__. That is the gift of love that can bring light where there is darkness. 【解题导语】 湖北高考试题对单词的辨析要求是很高的,本题中的 34、37、41、42 和 44 较 难,考查的高级词汇和短语,对即使能看懂短文内容的学生来说也是较难的。 31.A.touch B.grab C.count D.feel

解析:下面一段开头说, Susan 双目失明已经有一年了,由此判断, 这里表示她上公交车之后, 用双手摸索着找座位,因此选 D,表示,“触摸,摸索”。本题考生易错选 A 项。touch:轻 触,轻碰(某物/某人)grab 攫取,抓取,夺取,霸占:count 计算,数,认为,看做,计数, 有重要意义,有价值。 答案:D 32.A.weakness B.sickness C.darkness D.sadness 解析:本段第一句交代了 Susan 双目失明已经一年了,因此语境表示“由于一场事故,她突 然被抛进了黑暗的世界”。weakness 软弱;sickness 疾病;sadness 悲伤。 答案:C 33.A.run B.sink C.jump D.step 解析:Susan 的丈夫 Mark 看着自己的妻子陷入绝望的状态,于是决定想尽一切办法来帮助她。 sink into sth.(不用于被动语态):go into(a less active or happy state)“陷入(消极、 不活跃或不愉快的状态)”, 符合语境。 into 偶然遇到, run 途中遭遇(恶劣天气等); jump into 跳进;step into 走进去,步入。 答案:B 34.A.inspired B.determined C.honored D.pleased 解析:根据语境,丈夫看见妻子由于意外事故而双目失明并且对生活感到绝望,此时的他当 然是要下定决心,采取一切办法帮助妻子,因此选 B。 be determined to do sth.下定决心 做某事。 答案:B 35.A.return B.adjust C.contribute D.stick 解析:由空后 her job 及“她怎么能到那里呢?”可知本空表示 Susan 决心重返工作岗位, 因此选 A。 return: come or go back to a place 回,返回。
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答案:A 36.A.tired B.astonished C.depressed D.frightened

解析:结合语境看;Susan 突然双目失明,此时的她面对生活的变故,自然是惊魂未定,因此 选 D, frightened:恐惧的,害怕的,受惊的。此时的她不是感到疲倦(tired),也不是感到 惊讶,吃惊(astonished)。C 项 depressed“忧愁的,消沉的,沮丧的”不如 D 项更符合她突 然失去光明时茫然与无助的心态。 答案:D 37.A.volunteered B.attempted C.continued D.struggled

解析:她的丈夫主动陪伴她乘坐公交车上下班。这里用 volunteer to do something 表示“自 愿地或无偿地给予或提供(帮助、建议)等”。attempt to do sth.,试图/企图/尝试做某事, 用于过去时往往含有该动作失败的含义;continue to do sth.“继续做某事”不符合语境, 因为是妻子出现这样的情况之后 Mark 才这样做的;struggle 表示“挣扎”,不符合语境中对 丈夫主动关心妻子的叙述。故选 A。 答案:A 38.A.when B.as C.until D.after 解析:从语境的连贯看,这里用 until 引导时间状语从句表示“直到”。Mark 每天早上陪妻 子上班,晚上陪妻子下班回家,直到她能独自坐公交车上下班。 答案:C 39.A.drove B.directed

C.accompanied D.sent 解析:根据上文,丈夫 Mark 每天早晚都要陪妻子一起坐公交车(ride the bus with Susan each morning and evening),因此这里用 accompany 表示“陪伴,陪同”。其他选项的主要含义: drive 开车;direct 指导,引导;send 派遣。 答案:C 40.A.feelings B.organs C.skills D.senses

解析:妻子双目失明,此时丈夫就教妻子如何利用其他感官的能力。用 sense 表示“感官能 力”,包括视觉、听觉、嗅觉、味觉和触觉。如 the five senses 五种感官能力;have a keen sense of hearing 听觉灵敏。 项意为“情感, A 感觉”; 项意为“器官”; 项意为“技巧”。 B C 答案:D 41.A.position B.environment C.status D.role
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解析:结合语境看,本题选 B 表示“环境”。他教给她如何依靠自己其他的感官能力,特别 是她的听觉,以此来判断自己在什么地方,以及如何适应她所在的新环境。position 位置, 方位,地点;status 状态,地位,情形;role“角色”,这三者都不符合语境。 答案:B 42.A.on her own B.in person C.to her benefit D.on foot

解析:她最终决定在双目失明的情况下,不要丈夫陪伴而独自试着去上下班。(all)on one’s own:①alone 独自,②独自地,单独地,其他选项的含义不符合语境。in person: physically present 亲身,亲自,本人;to one’s benefit 对某人有利;on foot 步行。 答案:A 43.A.politely B.calmly C.briefly D.tightly

解析:对 Susan 来说,作为盲人的她要第一次试着独自出门乘坐公交车,对她来说,这是一 个特殊的日子,因此她眼里含着感激的泪水“紧紧地”拥抱丈夫。A 项意为“有礼貌地”;B 项意为“冷静地”;C 项意为“简短地”,都不符合语境。 答案:D 44.A.opposite B.separate C.fixed D.lonely 解析: 根据语境可知“妻子这次要独自一人乘坐公交车”, 因此本题选 B, 表示“分别, 各自”。 他们说了一声再见,然后各自去上班。separate: forming unit by itself; existing apart 单独存在的,分开的。opposite 相反的;fixed 固定的;lonely 孤独的,均不符合语境。 答案:B 45.A.took charge of B.took place of C.took advantage of D.took hold of

解析:从此,Susan 每天都能独自乘车上下班了,她充满了兴奋的感觉。take hold of“抓住, 拿住,握住(某人/某物),这里表示“兴奋的感觉笼罩着她”。 答案:D 46.A.as usual B.as a role C.as well D.as a consequence

解析:有一个星期五的上午,Susan 和往常一样坐公交车去上班。as usual 与往常一样;as a rule 按规定;as well 也;as a consequence 因此,结果。根据语境选 A。 答案:A 47.A.respect B.envy C.know D.support 解析:从下文这位司机所说的话判断选 B,表示“羡慕,嫉妒”。司机说,“这位小姐,我好 羡慕你啊。”A 项意为“尊敬”;C 项意为“知道,认识”;D 项意为“支持”,都不符合语
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境。 答案:B 48.A.what B.how C.why D.who

解析:在下公交车的时候,司机突然说了这样一句话,这让 Susan 不明白是什么意思,就问 司机为什么要这样说。这里用 why 表示“为什么”。 答案:C 49.A.past B.same C.first D.next

解析:本句的谓语动词使用了现在完成进行时,表示延续到现在的动作,因此这里选 A,“在 过去的一周里”,用“in/for/during the last/past+一段时间”表示“在过去的多长时间 里”。B 项意为“同样的,相同的”,不符合语境;选 C 项意为“在第一个星期”,选 D 项意 为“在下个星期”,均与主句谓语动词的时态不相符。故选 A。 答案:A 50.A.courage B.will C.sight D.wisdom 解析:她虽然失去了光明,但是丈夫给予她的礼物比她所失去的光明更坚强有力:这是丈夫 的爱的礼物,这份礼物能驱赶黑暗,带来光明。 答案:C。

******************************************************结束

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