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British History

The History of Great Britain
I. The Iberians (5000 and 2000B.C.) II. The Celts (from 700 B.C.)

III. Roman Invasion (55B.C.-410A.D.)
IV. The Anglo-Saxons From Germany (446-871) V. Viking and Danish Invasions

VI. The Norman Conquest (1066)诺曼征服
VII. British Empire. (1400-1946)

Early history(史前—43A.D.)
? The Iberians伊比利亚人 ? Iberian Peninsula (伊比利亚半岛)(Spain, Portugal), ? Stone Age hunters ? They left no written records and the only relic: stone monuments Stonehenge on the Salisbury.


Map of Europe


1.Iberian Peninsula

? ?

Stonehenge It is the most famous prehistoric monument. People began building Stonehenge about 5,000 years ago, dragging each stone into place.


? The Celts (from 700 B.C.) the Upper Rhineland (Germany, France) ? still found in Ireland, Scotland and Wales. ? The Celts was one of the first civilised cultures in Great Britain: agriculture and trade. ? Celtic Language :Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh ? No union among the tribes, wars were frequent.

Roman Invasion (55—410A.D.)
? 55BC: invaded Britain led by Julius Caesar ? 43 A.D: Britain became a Roman province Britannia until the early 5th century. ? roads, walls and garrisons and villas, Roman temples, baths and occasional theatres. ? In 410 A.D., the Roman Empire declined

? 3 things left: Christianity, the roman roads and cities, especially London.

? Roman centurion百人队队长

? emperor Hadrian ?122 A.D. –built Hadrian’s Wall (哈德 良长城,罗马人保 卫不列颠北疆的屏 障,118km)

Roman Baths

They left behind their roads like Chester, Winchester derived from the Roman word castra ( a military camp).


? 5th century, three Teutonic groups began to settle in Britain.
? The Celts were driven westward to Wales and Cornwall, northward to Scotland and Ireland.

威 尔 士

The Anglo-Saxon Conquest
? The three Germanic groups were Angles, Saxons and Jutes from the region of Denmark and Holland, Belgium (比利时)and Luxemburg. ? From the Anglo-Saxon conquerors came the name ―England‖, meaning the land of AngloSaxons and ―English‖.

Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy (七国时代)
? The seven principal kingdoms of Kent, Essex, Sussex, Wessex, East Anglia(东安格利亚), Mercia(麦西 亚) and Northumbria(诺森布里亚) have been given the name of Heptarchy, having occupied the lowland zones. – Jutes invasion: the Jutish chief–the king of Kent; – Anglo-Saxon Conquest: ? Saxon : Essex, Sussex, Wessex; ? Angles: East Anglia, Northumbria, Mercia ;

The legend of King Arthur;
King Arthur and his knights(骑士) of the Round Table were Romanized Celts trying to hold back the advances of the Anglo-Saxons.

? The Anglo-Saxon period: between about 450 and 1066. ? a single language: Anglo-Saxon language (the Old English) by 7th century

? The Pope sent a Christian mission under St. Augustine from Rome in 597 A.D. to spread Christianity and by the end of 7th century, all England had been Christianized.
? Many Latin words were borrowed: candle, amen, apostle.

The Viking and Danish Britain (793) ? The Vikings lived over one thousand years ago and came from the three countries of Scandinavia: Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

Danish invasion丹麦律法施行区时期 (850年—1066年)
? In the late 8th century, the Danes began to attack the English coast. in 1014 the Danes seized the throne and from 1017 to 1042 England was ruled by Danish King. ? In 1042, the English throne was returned to the Anglo-Saxons ? Feudalism began to develop. ? Scandinavian words: skirt, skill, window, leg, grasp, birth, they, their, them, egg

? A reconstructed Viking Age long house

? Danish seamen, painted mid-twelfth century.

? The Gokstad Viking ship on display in Oslo, Norway.

? 9th century the Vikings conquered and settled the extreme north and west of Scotland, and also some coastal regions of Ireland. ? they were defeated by King Alfred of the Saxon kingdom of Wessex.

? King Alfred, the Great ? He is the only monarch in English history to be given the title ―the Great‖.

? a Viking battle

? During the course of the 10th century, the West Saxon kings extended their power first over Mercia, then into the southern Danelaw, and finally over Northumbria, ? This process started with Edward the Elder. ? the house of Wessex became the ruling house of England.

? Saint Edward the Confessor ? (1003 –1066), the penultimate Anglo-Saxon King of England and the last of the House of Wessex, ruling from 1042 until his death. ? pious ? Edward's successor, Harold II,

Norman Britain诺曼底王朝(1066-1154年) ? In January 1066, Edward, the last Saxon king, died childless. Two claimed the throne: 1. Harold, Edward’s brother-in-law, 2. William, duke of Normandy (Northwest of France, close to British Channel), his Norman cousin. Harold was crowned, but 3 days later, William, crossed the Channel, killed Harold and defeated the English army at the Battle of Hastings. Weeks latter, William was crowned at Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day.

Where were the Normans from?

? Traditionally accepted depiction of the death of Harold Godwinson in the Battle of Hastings.

? The Norman Conquest was one of the most decisive events in English history. It tied England’s civilization closely to that of continental Europe
It has speeded up the development of Feudalism in England. Feudal aristocracy developed and resulted in the appearance of noble titles. The Norman vs. Anglo-Saxon relation became that of the master vs. servant.



The Domesday Book(末日审判书)
? the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales by order of King William the Conqueror. ? The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states: ? While spending the Christmas time of 1085 in Gloucester, William had deep speech with his counsellors and sent men all over England to each shire to find out what or how much each landholder had in land and livestock and what it was worth.

? It is a bi-linguistic period with French as the official language, Latin as the church language while the Middle English, as that of the lower class. However English regained the position of dominant speech by the end of 14th century.

In 1067, William started building the Tower of London, the great fortress which demonstrated his power and dominated the city of London.

?Celts: Scotland, Wales, and Ireland ?Romans: They came, they saw, they conquered. ? The settlement of the Anglo-Saxons (Angles, Saxons and Jutes) ?The Vikings from Scandinavia

?The long period of ruling of Normans

Three Social Classes
? Clergy: in charge of spiritual matters and supposed to save your soul

? Nobility: the land-owners who played a significant role in government. They were there to protect their subjects.

? Third Estate: Included everybody that was left. This class included - Middle Class, Peasants/Serfs, Slaves

House of Norman 1066-1154 House of Anjou(Plantagenet) 1154-1399

House of Lancaster 1399-1464 House of York 1461-1485 House of Tudor 1485-1603 House of Stewart 1603-1649/1660-1714 House of Hannover 1714-1901 House of Sachsen-Cobung-Gotha 1901-1910 House of Windsor 1910-

The House of Norman
William I 1066-1087

William II Henry I 1087-1100 1100-1135
Jeffery Matilda


Stephen 1135-1154

Henry II 1154-1189

The House of Anjou (Plantagenet)


? Henry II ? (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy,Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ? Henry was the first of the House of Plantagenet to rule England.

? Richard I (1189–1199). ? He was known as Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior. ? He was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, leading the campaign to score considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin.

The Crusades
? A series of wars (from 11th to 14th centuries) in which armies from all over Europe tried to snatch the ―Holy Land‖ (i.e. Palestine, where Jesus Christ once lived) from the ―Infidels‖ (i.e. the Muslims) ? The Norman King Richard Lion-Heart and the Sultan King Saladin

Robin Hood
? While King Richard I was fighting in the crusades, England was governed by his brother John, who imposed all the taxes. Robin Hood lived with his band of ―merry men‖ in Sherwood Forest, stealing from the rich and giving to the poor.

? John (1199–1216), also known as John Lackland. ? The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the Magna Carta, ? a document sometimes considered to be an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.

? King John was defeated in a war with France and lost Normandy in 1204. he demanded more feudal taxes and army service than custom allowed so as to revenge himself on France. ? The lords got angry and forced him to sign a long document on June 17th, 1215. this document is known as The Great Charter.

? John of England signs Magna Carta.

? Edward I (1272–1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots ? After a successful campaign, Edward subjected Wales to English rule ? Next, his efforts were directed towards Scotland but unsettled

? In 1295, King Edward I summoned the ―All Estates Parliament‖ — more than 400 hundred members in all. As that parliament was followed as a model, it became known in history as the ―Model Parliament‖. ? Edward I was also famous for his invasion of Scotland fighting with William Wallace in the first war of Scottish Independence.

? Edward II (1307–1327). ? he married Isabella of France, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV ? In 1284, King Edward had his son Edward II born at Caernarfon Castle卡纳芬城堡, suggested that the baby was offered to the Welsh as a prince "that was borne in Wales and could speak never a word of English"

? Edward III (1327–1377); he transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe; ? He declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1337 but his claim was denied. This started what would become known as the Hundred Years' War.

The Hundred Years' War
? 1337-1453. ? Wars between France and England.

?Territorial and partly economic causes
? Massive destruction to the countryside. ? Ended in very little or no gain for either side. There was no formal treaty that ended it.

? Result of the war:
– By the time the war was concluded, the English had lost all the territories they had gained during the war — except the French port of Calais.

? Consequence of the war:
– The war accelerated the breakdown of feudal society and put the new bourgeoisie in a more important position in Britain.

? Saint Joan of Arc ? (1412 – 30 May 1431) also known as the Maid of Orleans, is a national heroine of France and a Catholic saint. ? A peasant girl born in eastern France, she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War.

? She was later tried for heresy异端and sorcery巫术and was burned at the stake in Rouen鲁昂.

The Black Death
? A great plague that devastated Europe in the 14th century.

?Killing 25 to 50% of the total population of Europe (25million) and half the population of England. ?Terrible shortage of labour
?Statute of Labourers (1351 )

The Black Death (1348 - 50): killed nearly half of the European population

? Consequence of the Black Death
– The lords was in shortage of the labor – Wage labor demanded higher wages and greater freedom. – The paradox led to the hatred and conflict between the two classes.

? Henry V (1413-1422) the second English monarch who came from the House of Lancaster. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, France recognized Henry V as regent摄政者and heir-apparent to the French throne

? Henry VI King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. ? Wars of the Roses commenced during his reign. ? the collapse of the House of Lancaster

Wars of the Roses
? The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) were a series of civil wars fought over the throne of England between adherents of the House of Lancaster (feudal landowner) and the House of York (commercialminded). Both houses were branches of the Plantagenet royal house, tracing descent from King Edward III.
The name "Wars of the Roses" has its origins in the badges associated with the two royal houses, the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York.

Wars of the Roses

The White Rose of the House of York The Red Rose of the House of Lancaster

I. Prehistory
? Questions: 1. The earliest known settlers on the British Isles were ________. 2. The most famous / biggest relic left by the earliest settlers on British Isles is ________. 3. From 700 B.C, Celts came from ______ and began to inhabit British Isles.

Roman Britain

? Questions: 4. Christianity was first brought to Britain by ________. 5. The Romans left behind on Britain three things of value, they are ______, the _________ and _______, especially ________.