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2013 高考英语阅读理解(5 月)训练(06)及答案

C What is the nature of the scientific attitude, the attitude of the man or woman who studies and applies physics, biology, chemistry, geology, engineering, medicine or any other science? We all know that science plays an important role in our societies. However, many people believe that our progress depends on two different aspects of science. The first aspect is the application of the machines, products and systems of knowledge that scientists and technologists develop. application of the special methods of thought and action their work. What are these special methods of thinking and acting? First of all, it seems that a successful scientist is curious - he wants to find out how and why the universe works. He usually pays attention to problems which he notices have no satisfying explanation, and looks for relationships even if the data available seem to be unconnected. Moreover, he thinks he can improve the existing conditions and enjoys trying to solve the problems which this involves. He is a good observer, accurate, patient and objective(客观的) and uses the facts he observes to the fullest. For example, trained observers obtain a very large amount of information about a star mainly from the accurate analysis of the simple lines that appear in a spectrum(光谱). He does not accept statements which are not based on the most complete evidence available. He rejects authority as the only basis for truth. Scientists always check statements and make experiments carefully and objectively. Furthermore, he does not readily accept his own idea, since he knows that man is the least reliable of scientific instruments and that a number of factors tend to disturb objective investigation. Lastly, he is full of imagination since he often has to look for The second is the that scientists use in


relationships in data which are not only complex but also frequently incomplete. Furthermore, he needs imagination how events take place. These seem to be some of the ways in which a successful scientist or technologist thinks and acts. 10. Many people believe that science helps society to progress through_________ A. knowledge only. B. more than one aspect. C. technology only. D. the use of machines. 11. Which of the following statements about a curious scientist is TRUE? A. He doesn’t find confidence and pleasure in work. B. He is interested in problems that are explained. C. He makes efforts to investigate potential connections. D. He looks for new ways of acting. 12. According to the passage, a successful scientist would NOT_______________. A. easily believe in unchecked statements. B. easily criticize others' research work. C. always use his imagination in work. D. always use evidence from observation. 13. Which word can be used to describe the data that a good scientist uses? A. complete B. objective C. complicated D. accurate if he wants to guess how processes work and

14. What does the passage mainly discuss? A. Application of technology. B. Progress in modem society. C. Scientists' ways of thinking and acting. D. How to become a successful scientist.

10. B。 从第二段中 many people believe that our progress depends on two different aspects of science.可知科学在两个方面推动社会进步。

11. C。 D 选项的意思是“他总是寻求行动的新方法”, 文中没有提及。 A 应是 find confidence and pleasure. D 应是 that are unexplained 12. A。从文中可知,科学家不是很容易相信没有检验的结论,但是他不仅批判别人的工作, 还批判自已的工作,工作时需要想象力,充分利用自已观察所得。 13. C。倒数第二段中的 complex 等于 complicated,意思是“复杂的”。 14. C。文中前两段简要介绍社会的进步依赖于科学的哪两个方面;后部分详细介绍第二个方 面,即科学家的思考和行为方式。 ***********************************************************结束 4.(2011·上海卷)(A) The teacher who did the most to encourage me was, as it happened, my aunt. She was Myrtle C. Manigault, the wife of my mother’s brother Bill. She taught in second grade at all-black Summer School in Camden, New Jersey. During my childhood and youth, Aunt Myrtle encouraged me to develop every aspect of my potential, without regard for what was considered practical or possible for black females. I liked to sing; she listened to my voice and pronounced it good. I couldn’t dance; she taught me the basic dancing steps. She took me to the theatre ____ not just children’s theatre but adult comedies and dramas --- and her faith that I could appreciate adult plays was not disappointed. My aunt also took down books from her extensive library and shared them with me. I had books at home, but they were all serious classics. Even as a child I had a strong liking for humor, and I’ll never forget the joy of discovering Don Marquis’s Archy & Mehitabel through her. Most important, perhaps, Aunt Myrtle provided my first opportunity to write for publication. A writer herself for one of the black newspapers, she suggested my name to the editor as a “youth columnist”. My column, begun when I was fourteen, was supposed to cover teenage social activities---and it did---but it also gave me the freedom to write on many other subjects as well as the habit of gathering material, the discipline of meeting deadlines, and, after graduation from college six years later, a solid collection of published material that carried my name and was my passport to a series of writing jobs.

Today Aunt Myrtle is still an enthusiastic supporter of her “favorite niece”. Like a diamond, she has reflected a bright, multifaceted( 多 面 的 ) image of possibilities to every pupil who has crossed her path. 65. Which of the following did Aunt Myrtle do to the author during her childhood and youth? A. She lent her some serious classics. music. C. She discovered her talent for dancing. plays. 66. What does Archy & Mehitabel in Paragraph 3 probably refer to? A. A book of great fun. C. A serious masterpiece. B. A writer of high fame. D. A heartbreaking play. D. She introduced her to adult B. She cultivated her taste for

67. Aunt Myrtle recommended the author to a newspaper editor mainly to ____. A. develop her capabilities for writing. material C. involve her in teenage social activities D. offer her a series of writing jobs. 68. We can conclude from the passage that Aunt Myrtle was a teacher who _____. A. trained pupils to be diligent and well-disciplined B. gave pupils confidence in exploiting their potential C. emphasized what was practical or possible for pupils D. helped pupils overcome difficulties in learning B. give her a chance to collect

【答案】DAAB ***************************************************************结束

D Most of us spend our lives seeking the natural world. To this end, we walk the dog, play golf, go fishing, sit in the garden, drink outside rather than inside the pub, have a picnic, live in the suburbs, go to the seaside, buy a weekend place in

the country. The most popular free time activity in Britain is going for a walk. And when joggers (慢跑者) jog, they don’t run the streets. Every one of them automatically heads to the park or the river. It is my firm belief that not only do we all need nature, but we all seek nature, whether we know we are doing so or not. But despite this, our children are growing up nature-deprived (丧失). I spent my boyhood climbing trees. These days, children are robbed of these ancient freedoms, due to problems like crime, traffic, the loss of the open spaces and strange new ideas about what is best for children, that is to say, things that can be bought, rather than things that can be found. The truth is to be found elsewhere. A study in the US: families had moved to better housing and the children were assessed for ADHD (多动症). Those whose housing had more natural views showed an improvement of 19%; those who had the same improvement in material surroundings but no nice view improved just 4%. A study in Sweden indicated that kindergarten children who could play in a natural environment had less illness and greater physical ability than children used only to a normal playground. A US study suggested that when a school gave children access to a natural environment, the entire school would do better in studies. Another study found that children play differently in a natural environment. In playgrounds, children create a hierarchy (等级) based on physical abilities, with the tough ones taking the lead. But when a grassy area was planted with bushes, the children got much more into fantasy play, and the social hierarchy was now based on imagination and creativity. Most bullying (恃强凌弱) is found in schools where there is a tarmac (柏油碎 石 ) playground; the least bullying is in a natural area that the children are encouraged to explore. This reminds me unpleasantly of Sunnyhill School, with its hard tarmac, where I used to hang about in corners dreaming about wildlife. But children are frequently discouraged from involvement with natural spaces, for health and safety reasons, for fear that they might get dirty or that they might cause damage. So, instead, the damage is done to the children themselves: not to their bodies but to their souls.

One of the great problems of modern childhood is ADHD, now increasingly and expensively treated with drugs. Yet one study after another indicates that contact with nature gives huge benefits to ADHD children. However, we spend money on drugs rather than on green places The life of old people is much better when they have access to nature. The most important for the growing population of old people is in quality rather than quantity of years. And study after study finds that a garden is the single most important thing in finding that quality. In wider and more difficult areas of life, there is evidence to indicate that natural surroundings improve all kinds of things. Even problems with crime and aggressive behaviour are reduced when there is contact with the natural world. Dr William Bird, researcher from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, states in his study, “A natural environment can reduce violent behaviour because its process helps reduce anger and behavior that people might regret later.” Wild places need encouraging for this reason, no matter how small their contribution. We tend to think human beings are doing nature some kind of favour when we are protecting nature. The error here is far too deep: not only do humans need nature for themselves, but the very idea that humanity and the natural world are separable things is damaging. Human beings are a species of animals. For seven million years we lived on the planet as part of nature. So we miss the natural world and long for contact with non-human life. Anyone who has patted a dog, stroked a cat, sat under a tree with a glass of beer, given or received a bunch of flowers or chosen to walk through the park on a nice day, understands that. We need the wild world. It is necessary to our well-being, our health, our happiness. Without other living things around us we are less than human. 15. What is the author’s firm belief? A. People seek nature in different ways. B. People should spend most of their lives in the wild. C. People have quite different ideas of nature.

D. People must make more efforts to study nature. 16. What does the author say people prefer for their children nowadays? A. Personal freedom. B. Things that are natural. C. Urban surroundings. D. Things that are purchased. 17. What does a study in Sweden show? A. The natural environment can help children learn better. B. More access to nature makes children less likely to fall ill. C. A good playground helps kids develop their physical abilities. D. Natural views can prevent children from developing ADHD. 18. Children who have chances to explore natural areas ________. A. tend to develop a strong love for science B. are more likely to dream about wildlife C. tend to be physically tougher in adulthood D. are less likely to be involved in bullying 19. What does the author suggest we do to help children with ADHD? A. Find more effective drugs for them. B. Provide more green spaces for them. C. Place them under more personal care. D.Engage them in more meaningful activities. 20. In what way do elderly people benefit from their contact with nature? A. They look on life optimistically. B. They enjoy a life of better quality. C. They are able to live longer. D. They become good-humoured.

15. A。从第一段最后一句”It is my firm belief that not only do we all need nature, but we all seek nature, whether we know we are doing so or not.”可知人们以 各种形式追寻大自然,亲近大自然。

16. D。从第二段最后一句中“things that can be bought, rather than things that can be found”可知父母现在更愿意给孩子买东西. 17. B 。 从 第 四 段 第 一 句 中 “kindergarten children who could play in a natural environment had less illness and greater physical ability”可以得出 B 结论。 18. D。 从第六段第一句中的“the least bullying is in a natural area that the children are encouraged to explore.”可以得出 D 结论。 19. B。第八段第二句“Yet one study after another indicates that contact with nature gives huge benefits to ADHD children.”可知对多动症儿童来说,把他们置于自然 环境中是最有益的。 20. B。第九段第二句“The most important for the growing population of old people is in quality rather than quantity of years.”可以得出 B 结论。 ********************************************************结束


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