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高考英语第一轮复习优秀课件:必修三:Unit 4 Astronomythe science of the stars新人教版_图文

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Ⅰ.识记填读 1.__________ n.学说;理论 [答案] theory 2.__________ n. 大气层;气氛;氛围 [答案] atmosphere

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3.__________ adj.基本的;基础的 [答案] fundamental 4.__________ n.系统 [答案] system 5.__________ n.& vt.拉(力);拖;牵引力 [答案] pull

? Ⅱ.联想填读 ? 1.________________及时;迟早,终于→on time按时→sooner or later迟早 ? [答案] in time ? 2 . __________adj. 有 害 →be________________对??有害 ? [答案] harmful;harmful to 的

? 3.in one's turn轮到某人→It's one's turn to do sth.轮到某人做某事→________________依次; 转而→__________轮流 ? [答案] in turn;by turns ? 4 . __________...from... 阻 止 ; 制 止 →stop...from.../ keep... from...阻止做某事 ? [答案] prevent ? 5.__________________既然→since既然 ? [答案] now that

? Ⅲ.构词填读 ? 1.astronomy n.天文学→__________ n.天 文学家 ? [答案] astronomer ? 2 . violent adj. 猛 烈 的 ; 激 烈 的 ; 强 暴 的 →__________ n.暴力 ? [答案] violence

? 3.unlike prep.不同;不像→__________ adj. 未必的,不大可能的 ? [答案] unlikely

? 4.exist vi.存在;生存→__________ n.存在; 生存;生活方式 ? [答案] existence

? 5 . gentle adj. 温 和 的 ; 文 雅 的 → ________ adv.温文尔雅地 ? [答案] gently
? 6.physicist n.物理学家→__________ n.内 科医生→__________adj.物理的 ? [答案] physician;physical

? 7 . exhaust vt. 用 尽 ; 耗 尽 ; 使 筋 疲 力 尽 → __________ adj. 筋 疲 力 尽 的 →__________adj.使人筋疲力尽的 ? [答案] exhausted;exhausting ? 8.puzzle n.谜;难题;vt.& vi.(使)迷惑;( 使)为难→__________ adj.困惑的,迷惑不解 的→ __________ adj. 令人困惑的,令人费解 的 ? [答案] puzzled;puzzling

? Ⅳ.语境填读 ? 1 . ________( 振 作 起 来 )! nothing can ______us______(阻止) achieving our goal. ? [答案] Cheer up;prevent;from ? 2 . ____________( 既 然 ) you have _____________( 已 下 定 决 心 ) to do it by yourself,you shouldn't ______________(依靠) anyone for help. ? [ 答 案 ] Now that ; made up your mind ; depend on

? 3._____(暴力的) films are harmful to children, so parents should ____(密切关注) and try to stop them___(及时). ? [答案] Violent;watch out;in time ? 4 . I feel so glad because my ______________(分娩) a baby boy. ? [答案] gave birth to wife

? 5.If there were no pull __________(牵引力) of the earth , everything would ________________(到处漂浮). ? [答案] gravity;float around

? Ⅴ.句式填读 ? 1 . This produced a chain reaction , which _________ for life to develop.这样产生的连锁 反应,使生命发展成为可能。 ? [答案] made it possible ? 2 . __________________ water was to be fundamental to the development of life.水会对 生命的发展起关键作用,这一点在当时并不 明显。 ? [答案] It was not immediately obvious that

? 3.__________ life will continue on the earth millions of years to come will ______________ whether this problem can be solved.那么在未来 的数百万年中,生命能否在地球上延续取决 于这个问题能否得到解决。 ? [答案] So whether;depend on ? 4 . Last month I ________________ have a chance to make a trip into space with my friend. 上个月我有幸得到一个机会同他一起去太空 旅行。 ? [答案] was lucky enough to

? 5 . The earth became ____________ violent ____________ it was not clear whether the shape would last or not.地球变得如此猛烈,以 至于它的形状能否持久还不清楚。 ? [答案] so;that

1.unlikely prep.与??不同

adj.不相似的;不同的

[教材原句]Water had also appeared on other planets like Mars but,unlike the earth,it had disappeared later.(P26)水已 经在其它星球上消失了,比如火星,但不像地球,它消失的晚一 些。

unlikely adj. 不可能的 It is unlikely that... 不可 必 能?? 会 ①Her latestsb./sth. novel is quite unlike her be unlikely toearlier do works.她最近 sth. 不可能做某事 的小说和她以前的作品截然不同。
②It is unlike Beth to drink so much. I wonder if she is all right.贝思喝这么多可不像她平时,我想知道她是否安好。

? 用unlike和unlikely填空 ? ①It is quite __________ that he will invite you to his wedding. ? [答案] unlikely
? ②This book is quite ________ anything I've ever read before. ? [解析] 句意为“这本书与我以前读过的书大 不一样”。unlike prep.与??不同。 ? [答案] unlike

2.exist vi.存在;生存 [教材原句]They laid eggs too and existed on the earth for more than 140 million years.(P26)它们也生蛋,在地球上存在了 14000 多万年。

exist on 靠??为生 exist by 靠??方式为生 exist in 存在于??之中 必 There exist...某地有??; 会 存在 come into existence 产生; 成立;开始存在 in existence 存在

[名师点悟]

exist 永远是一个不及物动词, exist on 和 live on

同义,exist in 和 lie in 同义。

①She exists on tea and bread. 她靠茶和面包度日。 ②This law came into existence in 1918. 这项法律产生于 1918 年。

? ① There has been no convincing evidence to prove the __________ (exist) of life on other planets. ? [答案] existence
? ②It is said that this old building has __________ (exist) for more than three hundred years. ? [答案] existed ? ③When did WTO come into __________ (exist)?

3.thus adv. (P26) 因此;于是

thus=in this 必会 way/so [一句背诵] He studied hard,and thus he got high marks.
他学习用功,因此取得了好成绩。 [易错提醒] thus 是副词,不是连词,不可引导从句,后接

从句时,thus 前需加 and,特此提醒。

? Norman Cousins forgot to turn on TV and ________ missed the important football match. ? A.thus B.yet ? C.still D.even ? [ 解 析 ] 考 查 词 语 辨 析 。 句 意 : Norman Cousins忘了打开电视,因此错过了那场重要 的足球赛。副词thus意思是“因此,于是”, 符合句意。 ? [答案] A

? 4.puzzle vt.(P27)使迷惑;使为难;使感到迷 惑 n.(游戏的)猜谜;难题;谜 puzzle over/about sth.苦苦思索; 仔细琢磨?? 必 puzzled adj.迷惑不解的(常用来 会 修饰人) puzzling adj.令人迷惑不解的( 常用来修饰事物)

① What puzzles me is why he left the country without telling anyone.令我百思不解的是他为什么悄悄地离开了这个国 家。 ②I have been puzzled over/about this question for weeks.我 对这个问题已冥思苦想了好几个星期。

[名师点悟]

你能体会出“I'm confused”和“I'm puzzled”的

区别吗?名师告诉你,confused 强调“混乱,糊涂,混淆”。 Don't confuse Austria with Australia. puzzled 强调“困惑 不解”。

? 用puzzle和confuse的适当形式填空 ? ①Her ________ look on her face suggested she didn't understand what I said. ? [答案] puzzled
? ②They asked so many questions that I got__________. ? [答案] confused

5.pull n. & vt.拉(力);拖;牵引力 [教材原句]As the rocket rose into the air,we were pushed back into our seats because we were trying to escape the pull of the earth's gravity.(P30)随着火箭的升空,由于我们在努力挣脱 地球的引力,我们被向后推在座位上。 He pulled the chair away from the desk.他把椅子从桌边拖 开。

pull...up 把??往上拽;停(车) pull down 拆毁 pull in (车)停下,(车)到站;(船) 靠岸 必 pull over (车辆)停在路边 会 pull out (火车)驶出车站 pull on(=put on) 穿上 pull through (使)渡过危机(难关); 恢复健康

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

A.用适当的介、副词填空 ①The train pulled __________. [答案] in ②Workers pulled __________ the old building. [答案] down ③I helped my best friend pull __________. [答案] through

? B.用drag,pull,draw的适当形式填空 ? ④__________ the plug out. ? [答案] Pull

? ⑤My eyes were __________ to the child in the corner. ? [答案] drawn
? ⑥He managed to __________ the table into the kitchen. ? [答案] drag

6.in time (P25)及时;终于;总有一天 ①He might get here in time, but I can't be sure.他可能及时 来到这里,不过我不能确定。 ②If you keep on,you will succeed in time.如果坚持下去, 你们总有一天会成功的。

on time 准时;按时 in no time 立即;马上 at a time 一次;每次 必 at one time 曾经;一度 会 at times 有时 [名师点悟]for inthe time 表达“ 总有一天 ”时, 谓语往往要用将 time being 暂时 来时,at one time 作状语时,谓语要用过去时。 take one's time 别着急; 慢慢来

? 用at a time,in time,at times,in no time填空 ? ①If you keep on,you will succeed _______ __________. ? [答案] in time
? ②We'll have ________________. ? [答案] in no time that leak fixed

? ③Don't recite ______________. ? [答案] at a time

all

together



one

? ④He seldom , or only ______________ quarrels with others. ? [答案] at times

7.prevent...from... (P26) 阻止/防止??做??

stop sb. (from) doing sth. 阻止某 人做某事 keep sb. from doing sth. 阻止某 必 人做某事 会 protect sb. from...保护某人不受 ??侵袭 keep sb. doing sth.让某人一直 做某事

①We must keep them from getting to know our plans.我们 必须防止他们知道我们的计划。 ②Wear more clothes to protect yourself from the cold.多穿 点衣服以免冻着。

[ 名师点悟 ]

(1)prevent/stop sb. (from) doing sth. 中的

from 可以省略, 而 keep sb. from doing sth.中的 from 不能省略。 (2)protect...from...中 from 后接能带来伤害或损害之物。(见 例句②) (3)在被动句中,上述两种句型中的 from 均不能省略。

? A.完成句子 ? ①He wears sunglasses to ________ his eyes ________ the strong sunlight.他戴墨镜保护眼 睛使其免受太阳光的伤害。 ? [答案] protect;from ? ②The disease must ______________________. 必须防止这种疾病的蔓延。 ? [答案] be prevented from spreading

? B.语法填空 ? ③He __________ (prevent) from __________ (drive)for 3 months for careless driving. ? [答案] was prevented;driving ? ④The government has to close those small factories to prevent the water of the river from __________ (pollute) ? [ 解析 ] prevent...from... 表示 “ 阻止 ??” , 根据句意需要用被动语态。 ? [答案] being polluted

8.block out (P29) 挡住;遮住(光线声音等)

住太阳。

block sb./sth. in 把某人/某物 必 堵住 block...off 堵住;封锁 会 ①Black clouds can never block out the sun.乌云不能永远遮 block...up 塞住,封住
②Police blocked off the city centre streets.警方封锁了市中

心的街道。

9.now (that) 既然;由于 [教材原句]“Oh dear, ”I cried, “walking does need a bit of practice now that gravity has changed.”(P31)“天哪,”我大声 说,“既然重力改变了,看来走路也的确需要练一练了。” ①Now (that) John's arrived,we can begin.既然约翰来了, 我们就可以开始了。 ②Since spring is here, we can expect milder weather.既然春 天来了,我们可以期望较温和的天气。

[名师点悟]

now that 既然, 相当于 since, 用来引导原因状

语从句,引出一个事实,主句表示说话者的一个建议或想法。

是固定短语,意为“既然;由 now 于”,引出原因状语从句,that that 可省略 类 becaus “因为”,表示直接的或为人 e 所不知的原因 词 辨 since “既然”,侧重主句 “由于”,表示显而易见或已 析 as 为人所知的原因

? A.用because,since/now that,as,for填空 ? ① —Why aren't you coming with us to the concert? ? —________I have got a bad headache. ? [答案] Because ? ②________ all the seats were full he stood up. ? [答案] As

? ③ He shook his head , ________ he thought differently. ? [答案] for

? ④________ your daughter hasn't come,let me take you home. ? [答案] Since/Now that

? B.单项填空 ? ⑤ (2013· 山 东 卷 )Mark needs to learn Chinese________his company is opening a branch in Beijing. ? A.unless B.until ? C.although D.since ? [解析] 考查词语辨析。句意:Mark需要学汉 语,因为他的公司在北京开了一个分公司。 根据句意可知,此处应选 since“ 因为 ” , D 项正确。 ? [答案] D

10.break out 爆发;突发 [教材原句]We watched,amazed as fire broke out on the outside of the spaceship as the earth's gravity increased.(P31)我 们惊奇地看着, 随着地球引力的增加, 宇宙飞船的外层燃烧起火。

break up 打碎;解散;结束; 开始放假;制止 break down 出故障;失败; 分解;(身体)垮掉 必 break through 突破,取得突破 会 break away from 脱离,挣脱 break in 打断;闯入 break into 闯入;突然开始(大 笑等)

? 用适当的介、副词填空 ? ① Fighting broke ________ between rival groups of fans. ? [答案] out
? ②The marriage between Tiger Woods and his wife broke ________ on August 24th,2010. ? [答案] up

? ③The thieves must have had someone on the inside to help them break ________. ? [答案] in ? ④My car broke ________ on the half way. ? [答案] down

11.watch out (for)... (P31) 留意;密切注意,留意;小心 (某物),提防

watch over 看守;监视; 照顾 be on the watch for 留神; 必 注意?? 会 keep watch 值班;放哨 keep (a) watch on...监视 ??

①Watch out for a man in a black hat.注意一个戴黑帽子的 男人。 ②The dog watches over his master's house while the master was away.主人不在时这条狗为它的主人看家。

? ① The passengers were warned ___________thieves.警告乘客当心小偷。 ? [答案] watch out for

to

? ②I__________ __________his house while he was out.他外出期间,我照管他的房子。 ? [答案] watched over

倍数的表达句式 [教材原句]But when I tried to step forward,I found I was carried twice as far as on the earth and fell over.(P31)而当我试 着向前迈步的时候, 我发觉我被送出去很远, 步子的跨度竟是在 地球上的两倍,因而我摔倒了。

[句式分析] 中作比较状语。

句中 twice as far as 是倍数表达法之一,在句

[名师点悟]

倍数的表达方式

(1)“A+倍数+形容词或副词的比较级+than+B”,表示 “A 比 B 大(长、高、宽等)多少倍”。 (2)“A+倍数+as+形容词或副词的原级+as+B”,表示 “A 是 B 的多少倍”。 (3)“A + 倍 数 + the size/height/length/width , etc. + of + B”,表示“A 是 B 的多少倍”。 (4)A+倍数+what 从句

①This table is twice bigger than that one. =This table is 3 times as big as that one. =This table is 3 times the size of that one.这张桌子是那张 的 3 倍大。 ②They have three times as many cows as we have.他们的牛 是我们的三倍。 ③The newlybuilt museum is three times what it was .这座 新建的博物馆是原来的 3 倍大。

? ① Their new apartment is three times __________ than their old one. = Their new apartment is four times the __________ of their old one.他们的新公寓比旧公寓大三倍。 ? [答案] larger;size

? ②(2013·安徽卷)It's said that the power plant is now__________large as what it was. ? A.twice as B.as twice ? C.twice much D.much twice ? [解析] 考查倍数表达。句意:据说,发电厂 是原来的两倍大了。倍数和as...as连用时,表 示倍数的词要放在第一个as之前。故选A项。 ? [答案] A

主语从句 1.分清引导主语从句的三类关联词: (1)从属连词 that 不充当句子成分,本身无意义,仅起引导 作用。 (2)连接代词 who, whom, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever 等有意义,在从句中作主语或宾语。 (3)连接副词 where,when,how,why 等有意义,在从句 中作状语。

2. 注意连接代词 who 与 whoever, what 与 whatever, which 与 whichever 等引导的主语从句的区别。 3.由 it 作形式主语的句型。

? 用主语从句改写下列句子 ? ①He has become a rich man. It is known to us all. ? _______________________________________ _______ ? [ 答案 ] That he has become a rich man is known to us all. ? ②Is he coming or not? It is still uncertain. ? It is still

? ③Why did he do it? It remains a mystery. ? ________________________________remains a mystery. ? [答案] Why he did it ? ④Such a thing happened in your class. It was a pity. ? _______________________________________ _______ ? [答案] It was a pity that such a thing happened in your class.

? ⑤The thing that you need is more practice. ? _______________________________________ _______ ? [答案] What you need is more practice.

? ?

? ?

? [基础知识] Ⅰ.用所给单词的适当形式填空 1 . ________ most people in the office who come to work by car,I usually come to work by bus.(like) [答案] Unlike 2.If vocabulary is the “building materials”for language,sentences are the “________ parts” of writings.(fundament)

? 3.I consider that it is ________ for students to play computer games , though some of them don't think so. (harm) ? [答案] harmful ? 4 . There was a ________ look on her face because a ________ problem ________ the little girl. (puzzle) ? [答案] puzzled;puzzling;puzzled ? 5 . Newton was a famous ________ , who discovered three important laws. (physics) ? [答案] physicist

? Ⅱ.选词填空 ? prevent from;cheer up;break out;now that; depend on;get the hang of ? 1.The government took immediate measures and the disease was__________spreading. ? [答案] prevented from ? 2 . Our success__________whether everyone works hard. ? [答案] depends on

? 3.He__________at once when I promised to help him. ? [答案] cheered up ? 4 . __________you've passed your test , you can drive on your own. ? [答案] Now that ? 5.Press the button when the light goes on,and you'll soon __________it. ? [答案] get the hang of

? [基本技能]
? Ⅰ.微语法——主语从句 ? A.用适当的连词填空 ? 1.It is reported__________a new film will be put on in the cinema. ? [答案] that ? 2.It has not been decided________will attend the meeting. ? [答案] who

? 3.__________cars will be parked in the future is a question. ? [答案] Where ? 4.__________we will have a picnic depends on the weather. ? [答案] When ? 5.__________surprises me most is that he is too vain. ? [答案] What

? B.完成句子 ? 1 . ____________( 据报道 ) some people stole others' money by ATM. ? [答案] It is reported that ? 2 .____________________ ( 她生了一个健康 的男婴) made the family very happy. ? [答案] That she gave birth to a healthy baby boy

? 3 . __________________________________ ( 父母是否给他买一个新的MP3) depends on his exam results. ? [答案] Whether his parents will buy him a new MP3 ? 4 . ______________________________ ( 那是 谁的包) was not known at that time. ? [答案] Whose bag that was ? 5 . It remains a mystery ______________________ (为什么恐龙突然消 失了).

? Ⅱ.微完形 ? I grew up with my best friend,and she was just like a sister to me. It wasn't until the spring of 1987 that I noticed a change in her. She was quick to be angry,and her attitude was poor. This was not like her at all. I asked her many times what was wrong. Her____1____each time was,“I'm fine.”

? As time went on,she became more____2____, and became a person I did not know any more. All I wanted was to help her. Every time I tried, she would get____3____,and say she was fine.

? 1.A.reaction B.idea ? C.sentence D.response ? [ 解 析 ] 前 一 句 中 的 asked 和 后 面 的 “ I'm fine.”说明了此处是她的回答,故选D。 ? [答案] D

? 2.A.generous B.bitter ? C.cowardly D.modest ? [ 解析 ] 结合前面的 angry , poor 等可知,她 现在变得越来越令人不愉快了,这也与后面 的“became a person I did not know any more” 相 呼 应 , 因 此 选 B 。 generous“ 慷 慨 的 ” , cowardly“胆小的”,modest“谦虚的”。 ? [答案] B

? 3.A.silent B.hesitant ? C.defensive D.confident ? [解析] 考查语境选词。虽然作者想帮助她, 但是每次当作者试图帮她的时候,她却存有 戒心,说她自己很好。由语境可知选C。 silent“ 安 静 的 ” , hesitant“ 犹 豫 的 ” , confident“自信的”。 ? [答案] C

? Ⅲ.微阅读 ? I firmly believe that spending money on art is a vital part of the government's responsibility, and I am confident that my country will be able to contribute its share to the richness of the world's art and creativity.

? The attitude of the author toward spending money on art is__________. ? A.negative B.objective ? C.supportive D.optimistic ? [解析] 写作态度题。根据选段中的“I firmly believe that spending money on art is a vital part of the government's responsibility...”等信息可 知,作者认为在艺术方面的投资是政府职责 的一个重要组成部分。由此可以推知,作者 对政府投资于艺术的态度是支持和赞成的, 因此C项为正确答案。

Ⅳ.微写作 【写作材料】 1.有些人想去火星居住。我们能登陆火星吗?这完全取决 于科学技术的发展。 2.火星上没有氧气,中午的温度可能在 50 度左右,而晚上 则在零下 100 度左右了。这样我们就不能在那里生活。 3.既然火星与地球完全不同,为什么还有人敢于冒这个险 呢?

提示 要求

划线部分用本单元所学词汇表达。 将以上句子连成一篇 50 词左右的英语小短文。

? 【连句成篇】 ? _______________________________________ _______ ? _______________________________________ _______ ? _______________________________________ _______ ? _______________________________________ _______ ? _______________________________________

? [答案] Some people want to live on Mars. Can we land on it? It all depends on the development of science and technology. Man has known a little about Mars. There is almost no oxygen on Mars. It might be about 50 degrees above zero at noon and 100 degrees below zero at night, which prevents us from living there. Now that Mars is quite different from our earth. Why do some people dare to run such a risk?

课时作业(十四)