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高考英语阅读理解(5月)训练(08)


2013 高考英语阅读理解(5 月)训练(08)及答案

C FRIDAY, Dec.5, 2008—College students who think all-night study sessions will help them remember facts might want to get some sleep instead.That's the message from a new study that finds that as you sleep, the mind consolidates the things you learn during the day. Study participants who learned how to play a video game in the morning or evening did a better job the next day after a night's rest, apparently because their brains were actively absorbing what they'd learned as they slept. The finding shows "that sleep is not just a passive state when no information is coming in," said Howard Nusbaum, a professor of psychology at the University of Chicago. For the study, the researchers recruited 200 college students. Most of them weren't very familiar with playing video games.Some of the participants learned how to play the games in the morning, while others learned in the evening.The researchers then tested the subjects on the video games 12 hours later and 24 hours later. Those who took part in the morning training sessions showed an average eight-percentage-point improvement in their performance immediately after

training.They performed more poorly—scoring four percentage points better—12 hours later.But they scored 10 percentage points better the next morning. "If we train you in the morning and come back at the end of the day, you forget some of what you learned," Nusbaum said."But if you sleep after that, it restores some of what you learned." The students who took part in the evening training sessions performed better the next morning after sleeping, than they did after being trained. The role that dreams play in the learning process—if any—isn't clear.But some dreams could serve as a kind of practice for the brain, Nusbaum said."If you play a video game a lot, and you're playing in your dreams, maybe that could help you learn."

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Jerry Siegel, professor at the Center for Sleep Research at the University of Calfornia, Los Angeles, said going without sleep hurts performance, but he's not convinced that sleep itself actively contributes to learning. "If you take a break for a few hours, it can easily be shown that learning did occur, because performance is better at the start of a new learning session than it was at the end of the initial session," he said."No sleep needs to occur for this to happen." Still, Siegel suggested that sleep before learning a skill is crucial . "For long-term retention, it is more important to be well rested and therefore attentive when you are doing the learning than afterwards," he said."It is even better if you don't have to choose and get your natural amounts of sleep every day." 9 What does the underlined word ‘want’ (in Paragraph 1) mean? A.lack B.wish C.desire D.need

10 What is mainly talked about in this text? A.The effect of video games on learning B.The relation between sleep and learning. C.The role of dreams in the learning process D.The difference between morning and evening trainings. 11 What would be the best title for the text? A.Sleep strengthens learning. B.Dreams clearly help learning.

C.A break before learning is better. D.Video games improve performance. 12 Which of the following statements is true according to the passage? A.Training in the morning showed better results at once. B.Learning won’t occur during sleeping without dreams. . C.Sleeping well helps to absorb what one learned D.Studying all night helps to remember more facts.

参考答案

9-12 DBAC

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D An analysis of studies in 40 countries around the globe proves a long-standing assumption that the more a person knows about science, the more he or she tends to support scientific efforts. In fact, studies that have tested the link between a person's level of scientific knowledge and attitudes towards the field have generated mixed results."It's been a very hard question," says sociologist Nick Allum of the University of Surrey in Guildford, UK. To resolve the issue, Allum and his colleagues pulled together the results of nearly 200 surveys carried out between 1998 and 2003 in countries from Australia to Bulgaria . These studies assessed, for example, whether participants knew certain scientific facts and whether they supported developments in genetically modified food or nanotechnology. To some extent, the results prove the belief widely held by science supporters: the more people know about science, the more favourably they tend to view it, in spite of other factors such as age, nationality and level of education.Allum presented his results at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington DC last week. But now this question is cleared up, researchers must begin to deal with more pressing questions, Allum says."The argument should move on." His finding cannot, for example, show whether better science education will increase general support for the field.This is because researchers have yet to figure out whether people who learn more about science then tend to like it or, on the contrary, whether people who already like and support science are simply tend to learn further facts. And a person's level of scientific knowledge actually goes a very tiny way towards explaining their attitudes towards science.Allum believes that there are probably far more important factors, such as their moral values, religious beliefs and political leaning. And people's trust in science may be influenced by how tightly regulated they
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believe the process to be in their country.This might explain, in part, why those living in different countries tend to hold different attitudes: Europeans tend to be more doubtful of genetically modified crops than those in the United States, for example. Finally, science lovers hope to strengthen support for the field, but it looks as if simple science education will not be enough.As Allum says: "It's all horribly complicated." 13.In Allum’s opinion, ______ will have little influence on a person’s attitude towards science. A.scientific knowledge C.religious beliefs leaning 14.From the passage we can infer that ______. A.the surveys were carried out in a few countries B.Europeans love science more than Americans C.Allum kept his research results a secret D.Nick Allum is not a natural scientist 15.The underlined word ‘those’ refers to _____. A.science lovers C.people in general modified crops 16.What is mainly talked about in this passage? A.Special beliefs of the sociologist Nick Allum. B.Link between knowledge and love of science. C.Ways in which people love science. D.The function of science education B.different attitudes D . genetically B.moral values D . political

参考答案

13-16 ADCB

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2.(2011·湖北卷)C In today’s throw away society, dealing with the city’s growing mountain of waste is an inereasing challenge for the city countil(市议会)。 Recently. Edinburgh is faced with the problem of dssposing of(处理)about250,000 Million tons of waster a year . Despite different ways to dispose of much of it in a green manner---largely through encouraging tecycling---its aging facilities such as the Powderhall landfill do not have the ability to deal with it. The European Union(EU) has issued a new policy, regulating how such mountains of waster are to hr disposed of. The five councils (Edinburgh. East Lothian. West Lothian. Midlethian and Borders) face fine around $18million a year from 2013 it they don’t inerease recycling levels and rely less on landfill. With this in mind, the coumlls got together with the idea of building a lage incinerator plant (垃圾焚烧厂)to burn half of the waste produced in their districts. But the plan fell apart after the change of target levels by a new UK government waste policy which required that no more than 25% of the city’s waste should be disposed of in this way by 2025. After the plan was abandoned, a private company which already transported millions of tons of the city’s wast by train to a landfill site near Dunbar, offered an alternative soution when it suggested opening a huge waste site near Portobello. Since Powderhall is supposed to close in 2015, it seemed necessary for the members of the Edinburgh Council to accept the suggestion. But soon they turned it down—after 700 local objections reached them—because it would have meant hundreds of lorries a day making loud noise through heavily populated areas. That still leaves eth council with a problem. By 2013,only50%of 1995 levels of waste will benllewed to be sent to landfill. Even if recveling large are met, there will still be a large amount of rubbish to be burnt up. Due build an Edinburgh and Midlothian councils have now decided to work together to build an ineinerator plant as time to find a solution is fast running out. 59. The main way of handling waste in a green manmer in Edinburgh is A. recyeling B. restoring C. burying D. burning .
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.

60. The five councils worked out a plan to build an incinerator plant to

A. reduce the roast of burying waste B. meets the EU requirements C. speed up waste recycling D. tempter landfill sites 61. The city council of Edinburgh rejected the suggestion to open a huge landfill site near Portobello because A. a name from a private company B. the comelier was not interested in it C. it was not supports by EU D. the local poodle was waist it 62. What is the final dream an Edinburgh and Midlothian Country? A. To open a new landfill nearby B. To close the powder hall landfill in 2015 C. To set up a plan for burning waste D. To persuade people to deduce their waste. .

【答案】ABDC ***********************************************************结束

E STREAMWOOD, Ill .—For years, attendance was small at Tefft Middle School’s yearly parent-teacher conferences, but the principal did not blame families for their poor response.Instead, she blamed the poor way the conferences were conducted. “Five years ago, the most important person—the student—was left out of the parent-teacher conference,” Tefft’s principal, Lavonne Smiley, said.“The old conferences were such a negative thing, so we turned it around,” allowing students not only to attend but also to lead the gatherings instead of anxiously awaiting their parents’ return home with the teacher’s opinion on their classroom performance. Recently, 525 parents attended parent-teacher-student conferences, Ms.Smiley
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said, compared with 75 parents in 2003.No appointments were needed, and everyone was welcome at the conferences this year, spread over two days that school officials called a Celebration of Learning. “I think we’re learning that every school has its own DNA, and there is not a prescription for conferences that works for every school,” Ms.Kinney said.“There is such an increasingly diverse population at our nation’s schools, the one-size-fits-all model conference just doesn’t work anymore.” At some schools, not only are students on hand for conferences, but their siblings are also welcome, as are grandparents, aunts and uncles, even family friends. When Mark Heller accepted a job as an assistant principal at the middle school in his hometown of Plano, Ill., he discovered that the community had changed a lot in the eight years he had been a teacher in Iowa.The population had nearly doubled to 10,000 residents, and 37 percent of the students at Plano Middle School were now from low-income families. The traditional parent-teacher conferences without a student present are always available by appointment, and sometimes necessary, for example, to discuss a private matter concerning a non-custodial (无监护权的) parent, a family crisis the child is unaware of or a special education diagnosis. Still, Mr .Heller is convinced that a true dialogue concerning a student’s academic progress is impossible without both the child and the parent engaged and present, and with the teacher on hand to share impressions and answer any questions the parents have about homework, standardized test scores, behavior and other issues. “At the student-led conferences, our children are learning to be organized and capable adults someday,” Ms.Issa said.“When I was growing up, my parents went to my conference, and I waited at home, scared they would come back with some concerns. With this new kind of conference, there are no secrets .My daughter is learning that she is responsible for her own success.” 17.What is mainly talked about in this text? A.The change of population in Mr.Heller’s hometown. B.The way the parent-teacher conferences are conducted.
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C.The people who take part in parent-teacher conferences. D.The percentage of attendants to parent-teacher conferences. 18.What was the population in Plano, Ill.when Mr.Heller became a teacher in Iowa eight years before? A.3,700 B.20,000 C.10,000 D.5,000

19.The number of parents who attended parent-teacher-student conferences recently was ______ times more than that in 2003. A.five B.six C.seven D.eight

20.What does Ms.Kinney mean by saying “every school has its own DNA’? A.Every school is unique and different. B.One model fits all school conferences. C.All prescriptions do not work well. D.The population at schools is diverse.

参考答案 17-20 BDBA **********************************************************结束

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