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Writing Abstract(SCI摘要写作要点,英文版)


Writing Abstract
—— Group 1B,Class 40

Group Members:Wu Junkang Li Chuanyang Dong Chengpeng Presentation Date:2014.04.21

Contents
1 Introduction
(Functions and Elements → → Wu Junkang )

2 How to write
(Language Focus → → Li Chuanyang )

3 Practice
(Case analysis → → Dong Chengpeng )

Introduction
? Definition
A short passage showing the substantive research contents and informantions briefly and clearly without any comments and extra explainations.

? Purposes
Offering substantive research contents for readers to decide whether they want to get the whole paper.

? Elements
? Objective of the research
? Research methods ? Research results

? Functions
? For busy readers to understand the research contents quickly and attracting them to read the whole paper . ? For database searching services

? Conclusions

Introduction
? Objective of the research Including research premise, background, goals and topic area ? Research methods The principle, theory, conditions, objects, materials, technology, structure, equipment, procedures, etc ? Research results The results ,data,relationships between the observations and the effect

Elements

? Conclusions The analysis,comparison and evaluation of results and sometimes the application

Introduction
? Different types of abstract
? Informative abstract: Summarizing the odjective,methods,primary datas and conclusions of the paper comprehensively and briefly. Usually, this abstract can partly replace reading the full text.About 200~300words.That depends. ? Indicative abstract:Normally summarizing the theme of the paper, with just two or three sentences and without any arguments and conclusions,which is commonly for reviews and meeting reports. This abstract can be used to help readers to decide whether to read the full text or not.About 100 words. ? Informative-indicative abstract: Summarizing the highest valuable informations in forms of informative abstract expression, while showing the rest in forms of indicative abstract expression. text.About 100~200words.

Introduction
Attention: ? All of these elements must be expressed Briefly and Clearly. ? The quality of your paper directly affects whether it is accepted and the retrieved and cited frequency.

? The number of the words should be generally controlled in 5%~10% of the full text.

Introduction
Announcements: ? No common senses and comments in abstract,don’t mention the contents that should be written in Introduction.

? Don’t simply remention the meaning of the title.
? The elements should be expressed briefly and clealy,and don’t make the abstract divided into sections.

? Use the third person and standardized expressions. ? The word abbreviations should be performed with full name for the first time. ? No mathematical formulas, chemical structural formulas, figures and tables performed

How to write

Welcome Li Chuanyang ! ( ̄▽ ̄)

Language Focus
1.English abstract contains the title, abstract and keywords. According to the relevant provisions of international academic session, for international exchanges, scientific and technical reports, dissertations and academic papers should be accompanied by a foreign language (English) Abstract. 2. In principle, the Chinese abstract considerations are applicable to the preparation of a summary in English, but English has its own way of

expression, language habits,so in writing English abstract should pay
more attention.

Language Focus
? The general principles of Abstract
? The sentence of the English abstract should be simple, usually about 5~10 significance complete statement smooth sentences. In order to achieve the most concise summary in English, and clear results, need to use the following methods: 1) the summary at the beginning of the first sentence, do not repeat the title with papers 2) The background information should be deleted, or reduced to a minimum. 3) only use new information. Past studies should be deleted or minimized 4) Do not include the author future plans. 5) should not contain a summary which not belong to the statement, such as: ? ? ? "Work described herein, are ...... first“ "Work described herein, has not been reported.“ "Work described herein, is an improvement of the latest research."

Language Focus
? The general principles of Abstract
6) Do not repeat the same expression of the information.such as: ? at a temperature of 250 ℃ to 300 ℃ Should be replaced at 250~300 ℃ ? at a high pressure of 1.2 MPa Should be replaced at 1.2 Mpa 7) delete unnecessary phrases, such as: ? “A method is described”,/ “In this work”, ? “It is reported that…”, ? “Extensive investigations show that…”

Language Focus
? The tenses of Abstract
? English abstract tenses is better to use present tense, past tense, present perfect, past perfect tense less, while other composite state basic need. ? The present tense. For the beginning of this paper points out that the research purpose, narrative research content, describe the results, conclusions, advice or discussion, etc. For example: ? This study(investigation) is (conducted, undertaken) to… ; The

resultshows(reveals)… , It is found that…The conclusions are…The author suggests…

Language Focus
? The tenses of Abstract
? The past tense. Used to describe the discovery of the past a certain period of time, or a research process (such as experiment, observation, investigation, medical process). Such as: The technique of ... was applied to study....

? The voice of abstracts
? What kind of voice, it is necessary to consider the abstract of the characteristics, but also to meet the needs expressed. A abstract is very short, just try not to mix, but do not mix in a sentence. Passive voice can be used in most cases. ? Active voice. Now try to advocate the use of active voice more and more, because it helps the text is clear, concise and forceful expression.

Language Focus
? The voice of abstracts
? Passive voice. Previous emphasis on multi-passive voice, reason is that the facts of scientific papers mainly through, as that thing is who did it, without going to prove.

In fact, in the indicative abstract, to emphasize the action taker, to use the passive
voice is better.

? The person and parts of the English abstract
? In recent years, the beginning of abstract often use the third person,such as: This
paper ..., and now tend to use more concise passive voice, infinitive or sub-word phrase at beginning.

? Numerals. Avoid using Arabic numerals as the first word, eg: Three hundred ... are
collected ... in Three hundred do not write 300 ? Singular and plural. Singular and plural forms of nouns is not easy to identify,

results predicate form error.

Language Focus
? Sentences
? To be familiar with common English abstract sentence ? (1) research purposes, commonly used in the summary of the first In order to ...,

this paper describes .... The purpose of this study is ... This paper intends / aims to
... ? (2) indicates research objects and methods The effect/sensitivity/function of certain

… was observed/detected/studied, to emphasize the action taker, to use the passive
voice is better.

Practice

Welcome Dong Chengpeng ! o(^▽^)o

Case Analysis
? Informative abstract (报道性摘要)
? Its characteristics are summarizes paper's the purpose, methods, key data and conclusions comprehensively and briefly

? Indicative abstract (指示性摘要)
? Also called descriptive abstract, descriptive abstract or topic abstract, generally only two or three Sentences summarize the themes, without involving the evidence

and conclusions. This abstract can be used to help potential readers to decide
whether to read the full text.

? Informative- indicative abstract (报道-指示性摘要)
? Informative abstract form in order to express a higher value section of information
in the literature ,indicative abstract form in the rest of the presentation.

Case Analysis
? Sequence of Writing Abstract
? The first sentence: You talk about the significance of this paper. ? The second sentence: Using “To eluicdatie the mechanism ..., To investigate ...., or

for the purpose of .... ”beginning to tell the purpose of your research.
? The third sentence: tells you the contents of the study, research methods. ? The fourth sentence: telling the main result of yours research.

? The

fifth

sentence:

the

results

of

your

research

conclusions

SCI informative abstract case

SCI indicative abstract case

SCI informative- indicative abstract

case

Case Analysis
? SCI abstract commonly used method of expression
? Results section ? (1) show study result, there are common vocabularies: show, result, present, etc.

?

(2) Introduction conclusions have common vocabularies:summary, introduce, conclude

? Discussion section ? (1) state views of the author, there are common vocabularies : present, expect, describe , etc. ? (2) Description demonstration, common vocabularies: support, provide, indicate, identify, find, demonstrate, confirm, clarify, etc. suggest, repot,

?

(3)

Recommendations

and

suggestions,

common

vocabularies:

suggest,suggestion,recommend,recommendation,propose,necessity,necessary,expect , etc .

Case Analysis

review the background

Case Analysis

Case Analysis

Case Analysis

Case Analysis

Case Analysis

Description of writing or research purposes

Case Analysis

Case Analysis

Description of writing or research purposes

Case Analysis

describes the focus content of the paper or scope of the study,

Case Analysis

describes the focus content of the paper or scope of the study,

Case Analysis

Case Analysis

Case Analysis

Case Analysis

Case Analysis

Case Analysis


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