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如何写英文Abstract


How to Write an Abstract
一、什么是摘要 Abstract? an abstract comprises one paragraph which describes the main content of a paper and appears at the very beginning of the paper. 摘要是叙述文章主要内容的一个段落,并且位于文章的开头部分。 摘要是以梗概形式呈现的一篇文章要点的总结, 它强调了一篇文章所包含的 重要的信息。 它也可以帮助读者快速的了解到是否这篇文章是他们感兴趣的,是 否他们需要来阅读整篇文章。 而且,国家或国际出版社的编辑通常通过浏览投稿 文章的摘要来决定是否投稿人的文章是可以被录用的。因此,对于学者和研究人 员来说,写一份好的摘要至关重要。 二、写作 Abstract 的目的 对于科技论文的摘要,Abstract 的目的有以下几点: 1.Introduce journal articles. 2.Inform readers about article`s content. 3.Help readers decide whether or not to read article. 4.Overview conference programs,abstract collections,and book chapters. 三、学习写作 Abstract 的必要性 1.Helps you present complex information in a clear,concise manner. 2.Helps you read abstracts more effectively. 3.Helps you conduct research. 4.Helps you write abstracts for future publications. 5.Helps you condense report information into a short format for database searches. 四、Abstract 的写作要求 1.Use one or more well-developed paragraphs,which are unified,coherent,concise,and able to stand alone(200-300 words). 2.Use an introduction-body conclusion structure in which the parts of the parts of the report are discussed in order:purpose,researcquestions,method,findings,conclusions,recommendations.

3.Follows strictly the chronology of the report. 五、Abstract 的分类 1.informative abstract 内容摘要 - the primary research objective or purpose - method employed in solving the problems - principal findings or results - major conclusions and serves as a substitute for the full paper 2.descriptive abstract 指示性摘要 outlines the topics covered in the paper and is like a table of contents in paragraph form. 六、Abstract 的结构 1.Background – why do you want to do the research? 2.Research question – what question are you trying to answer and what is the research topic of your paper? 3.Method – how (what material, what method, and what procedures) do you get answers to your research question? 4.Results – what is your answer to the question? 5.Conclusions – what implications does the answer imply? 七、Abstract 的特点 1.Concise – write everything relevant to the paper in as simple terms as possible. 2.Objective – states objectively the main points of the paper. 3.Consistent – be consistent with the other parts of the whole paper, and never include what has not been mentioned in the paper. 4.Complete – cover all the main points of the paper and be a miniature of the paper. 5.Brief – conveys in as few words as possible the essential information contained in the body of the paper. 八、Abstract 的常用句式 1、介绍文章背景和目前研究的问题

(1) Although (the research subject)…, (the related problem)… is as yet undetermined. (2) (The research subject)…, however, (the related problem)… remains unsolved. (3) (Previous studies) have examined…, (the related problem) is that…, despite… (4) (Problems in certain research area) are…, yet (the present solution) has frequently been questioned because… (5) This paper describes/presents… (the argument) within… (a theoretical context) (6) While (the debate on certain research subject) seems to…, (the present agreement) is still problematic. 2、叙述研究目的 (1) This paper advances the view that… (2) The article advocates/discusses/develops/focuses on/gives detailed explanation for/investigates into/proposes/holds that/… (3) The purpose/intention of this paper is… (4) The primary goal/aim of this research is… (5) The overall objective of this study is… (6) In this paper/study, we aim at… (7) The work/investigation presented in this paper focuses on… (8) This research is designed to determine/measure/evaluate… (9) The author intends/attempts o outline the framework of/obtain some knowledge of… 3、指出观察问题的视角 (1) … from the angle of… (2) … in the light of the context that… (3) To view something at a different angle/from various angles… (4) From the point of view of… (5) From the perspective of…

4、指出文章参与者 (1) The present study has investigated… by using/analyzing… (participants/materials) (2) In this study, we inquired/examined/evaluated… (participants/materials) (3) The experiments/investigations of the present study involved… (participants/materials) 5、研究方法和过程 (1) Detailed information has been acquired by the authors using.. (2)Several sets of experiments have been performed to test the validity of… (3) The technique the author adopted is referred to as… (4) The experiments consisted of four steps, which are described in… (5) The method/approach used in the present study is… (6) The experiment/investigation in the paper is conducted by adopting… (7)The procedure the present study followed can be briefly described as… (8) The experiment/study consisted of the following steps: … (9) Included in the experiment were… (10) Based on the idea that…, we conducted the present study, categorized…, and evaluated… 6、研究结果、发现、结论 (1) The results of the experiment indicate/suggest that…; it is also found that… (2) The results are as follows: … (3) The analysis of the samples indicates that.. (4) The data obtained seem to be very similar o those reported earlier by… (5) It is concluded that..; the results also imply the further study into… (6) The investigation/experiment varied by… and the results also revealed that… (7) These findings of the research have led the author to the conclusion that… (8) Based on/upon the outcome/findings of the research, … (9) The data/results obtained appear to…, thus we may conclude that… (10) As a result of the current experiments, we conclude that…

(11) The author points out/recommends/concludes that… (12) In summing up it may be stated that… (13) All the preliminary results throw light on the nature of… (14) These findings of the research have naturally led the author to the conclusion that… 九、写一份摘要的步骤 (1) 在完成整篇论文之后再来起草你的摘要, 因为这样你对文章所表达的观 点和发现等才能有一个清楚的轮廓。 (2) 以行文相同的顺序来构架摘要。用关键句开头来陈述相关研究的主题表 明文章的目的;之后继续简要的总结研究的方法,实验,步骤,调研,结果, 分析和议论;最后以总结结论收尾。 由于论文所研究的主题不同,每种摘要都有其自身的特点。通常它按原文的 顺序来构架,并且强调原文的基本要点。


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