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2015-2016学年高考英语二轮复习精品课件专题二语法 第3讲定语从句.ppt_图文

语 法
第 3讲 定语从句

定语从句一直是高考测试的重点和热点。定语从句 由关系代词who, whom, whose, which, that, as和关系副 词where, when, why等引导,但须记住: 1. what不能引导定语从句。 2. 关系词的分析须考虑它在定语从句中的成分。

一、指人的关系代词有who, whose, whom, that The old man who/whom /that we visited yesterday is a famous artist. Miss Wang is taking care of the child whose parents have gone to Beijing.

The man with whom my father shook hands just now is our headmaster. (=The man who/whom that my father shook hands with just now is our headmaster.)

一、指人的关系代词有who, whose, whom, that
注: 1. 指人时关系代词有时只用who,不宜用that。 ①先行词为one, ones或anyone等不定代词时 The comrade I want to learn from is the one who studies hard and works hard. ②先行词为these, those等指示代词时 These who are going to Beijing are the best students of our school. ③在there be 开头的句子中 There is a student who wants to see you. ④一个句子中带有两个定语从句,其中一个定语从句的关系代词是that, 另一个宜用who,以免重复 The student that won the first prize is the monitor who works hard. ⑤在非限制性定语从句中 I met a friend of mine in the street, who had just come from Japan. 2. 主句以who开头的句子中,关系代词只用that,不用who。

二、指物的关系代词有which, whose(=of which), that 1. I like the books which/that were written by Lu Xun.

2. The desks (which/that) we made last year were very good.
3. This is the house in which we lived last year. (= This is the house which /that we lived in last year.) 4. I live in the room whose windows face south. (= I live in the room, the windows of which face south.)

二、指物的关系代词有which, whose(=of which), that 注: 1. 在“介词+关系代词”引导定语从句的用法中,关 系代词只能用whom, which,不能用who或that。

The girl about whom they were talking is our monitor.
2. 部分短语动词中的介词不可与动词拆开,在定语 从句中其介词不可前置,只能放在其动词之后。 Is this the book which she is looking for? The child who/whom she is looking after is Wang Ping’s

son.

二、指物的关系代词有which, whose(=of which), that 注: 3. 指物时,下列情况只能用that,不宜用which。 ①先行词为不定代词时,如:all, much, anything, everything, nothing, something, none, the one等。 We are willing to do anything that is good to the people. All that can be done has been done. ②先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰时。 The first book that I read last night was an English novel. ③先行词是形容词最高级或被最高级修饰时。 This is one of the most interesting films that I have ever seen.

二、指物的关系代词有which, whose(=of which), that 注: 3. 指物时,下列情况只能用that,不宜用which。 ④如果有两个或两个以上分别表示人和物的先行词 时(先行词既有人又有物)。 We know nothing about the doctors and the hospitals that you are talking about. ⑤如果先行词被the only, the very, the last, the same, any, few, little, no, all, one of, just修饰时。 This is the only book that can be lent to you. ⑥当主句是以which开头的特殊问句时。 Which is the dictionary that he used yesterday?

二、指物的关系代词有which, whose(=of which), that 注: 4.指物时,下列情况只能用which,不宜用that。 ①关系代词放在介词之后 This is the factory in which we once worked. ②非限制性定语从句中

This is the book, which is written by Lu Xun.
③that,those作主语时 Those which are on the desk are English books.

二、指物的关系代词有which, whose(=of which), that 注: 5.先行词前有such, the same, as时, 关系代词用as,不 用that, 但the same · · ·as· · · 表示相似的事物, the same · · · that · · · 表示相同的事物。 He knows as many people as are present at the meeting. Such people as you refer to are rare nowadays.

三、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别 All the students who study hard have passed.学习努力 的学生都考试及格了。(只有努力的及格了,不努力的没 及格。) All the students, who study hard have passed.所有的学 生都及格了,他们学习努力。(没有人不及格,这些学 生都很努力。)

三、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别

用 途

限制性定语 从句 是先行词不可 缺少的定语 (不可去掉)

标点 作用 翻译

非限制性定 语从句 对先行词的附 加说明(可去 掉,不影响原 意) 不用标点符号 必须用逗号与 主句分开 译在先行词前, 译在主句

四、关系代词as和which的区别

先研究下面两个例句:
1. This elephant is like a snake, as /which everybody can see. =As everybody can see, this elephant is like a snake.

2. Tom didn’t pass the physics exam, which made his parents very angry.
这两个例句中,as和which所代表的都是整个主句所 表示的内容。但有两点不同之处:

四、关系代词as和which的区别 1. 在形式上,as引导的非限制性定语从句可位于主句 的后面,也可位于主句的前面;而which引导的非限制性 定语从句只能位于主句的后面,不能位于主句的前面。 2. 在意义上,as引导的定语从句和主句的关系一般为 一致关系,常译为“正如 · · · · · · ,就像 · · · · · · ” ;而 which 引 导的定语从句和主句的关系是因果关系,或which引导的 定语从句是对主句的评论。因此,在意思通顺的情况下, which 可代替 as ,而 as许多时候不能代替 which,如第2 句。 再如:

四、关系代词as和which的区别 He was late again, as/which we had expected. =As we had expected, he was late again. The street hasn’t been cleared for weeks, which makes it very dirty.(不用as) He takes exercise everyday, which has done a lot of good to his health. (不用as) As has already been pointed out, English is rather difficult for a foreigner.

四、关系代词as和which的区别 注意:在such· · · as· · · , the same· · · as· · · , as· · · , as many/Much as· · · 等结构中, as不能用which代替。如: Such books as this are too difficult for beginners. (这样的书对于初学者来说太难了。) =Books such as this are· · · =Books like this are· · · I live in the same building as he (does).(同一幢楼)

四、关系代词as和which的区别 3.两者均可引导非限制性定语从句,有时可以互换, 但下列情况多用as。 ① 关系代词引导的定语从句居句首时。 As we all know, the earth is round. ② 当与such或the same连用时,一般用as。 Such books as you tell me are interesting. I have the same plan as you.

四、关系代词as和which的区别 3.两者均可引导非限制性定语从句,有时可以互换,但 下列情况多用as。 ③ 当从句和主句语义一致时,用as,反之则用which。 She has married again, as was expected. She has married again, which was unexpected. ④ as在从句中作主语时,后面常接行为动词的被动语 态,如be known,be said,be reported等,如从句中行为动 词是主动语态,一般要用which作主语。 Tom has made great progress, which made us happy.

五、“one of the +复数名词”后面定语从句中谓语单复数情况 这一结构后面的定语从句的谓语动词通常用复数形式, 跟定语从句所靠近的那个复数名词在数上保持一致。 但如果 one of + 复数名词这一结构前面带有 the only, the very之类的限定语,后面定语从句的谓语动词则要用单数 形式,这是因为定语从句在意义上修饰的是 one 而不是那 个复数名词。

五、“one of the +复数名词”后面定语从句中谓语单复数情况 1. He is the only one of the teachers who knows French in our school.( 修饰the only one) He is one of the teachers who know French in our school. ( 修饰the teachers)

2. This is the only one of the rooms that is free now. (修饰the only one)
This is one of the rooms that are free now. (修饰rooms)

考点一: 考查关系词的基本用法 关系词是用在定语从句中来代替先行词的 , 选择 关系词的关键是看先行词在定语从句中作何成分。 作主语、宾语或表语时 ,用关系代词 , 指人用 who ( 宾 格用 whom) 或 that, 指物用 which 或 that; 如果作状语 , 则 选用关系副词,分别用when, where, why代替时间、地 点、原因状语;如果先行词在定语从句中作定语,则不 管指人还是指物,都可用whose。

福建)It’s helpful to put children in a situation 例 (2009· can see themselves differently.

they

A. that
C. which 剖析

B. when
D. where

考查定语从句。先行词是 situation ,指物,亦可 指地点,关系词在从句中作地点状语,用关系副词 where,选D。

考点二 : 考查 as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句 , 用来代替整个主句或主句中的一部分内容的用法 山东)Whenever I met her, 例 (2009· she greeted me with a sweet smile. A. who C. when was fairly often, B. which D. that

剖析 非限制性定语从句,指代前面一个句子,故用which。

考点三: “介词 + 关系代词”引导定语从句的用 法 当先行词在定语从句中作介词的宾语时,往往可以把 介词放在关系代词之前,构成“介词 + 关系代词

(whom/which)”结构。但一些短语动词(如look after等)中
的介词不能与动词分开,故不能放在关系代词之前。

陕西)Gun control is a subject 例 (2009· argued for a long time.
A. of which

Americans have
B. with which

C. about which
剖析

D. into which

考查定语从句,先行词是Gun control,指物,关 系词在从句中作介词的宾语,介词前置,介词与从 句动词构成搭配argue about sth,选C。

考点四:分隔式定语从句的用法 定语从句一般紧跟在先行词的后面, 但有些时候也会 被同位语、状语、谓语、其他定语等成分分隔。此时能

够理清句子结构, 慧眼识别先行词就显得特别重要。

四川)She’ll never forget her stay there she 例 (2009· found her son who had gone missing two years before.
A. that B. which

C. where
剖析

D. when

考查定语从句的用法。 her stay 为先行词,可以 理解为抽象的一段时间(她待在那里期间), when 指代her stay在定语从句中作时间状语。

定语从句易与状语从句、同位语从句、并列句以 及强调结构等混淆,在做题时要细心识别。 天津)I travel to the Binhai New Area by light railway 例 (2009· every day, do many businessmen who live in downtown Tianjin. A. as B. which

C. when
剖析

D. though

本句as引导的是一个状语从句,且状语从句倒装。 句意:正如许多住在天津市内的商务人士一样,我 每天乘坐轻轨去滨海新区。

感谢观赏!