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2016届高考英语大二轮复习 第二部分 完型填空 专题四 说明文素能特训


说明文

建议用时:50 分钟 Ⅰ.完形填空 [2015·云南师大附中适应考试 ]Visitors to the dry, hot Sonoran Desert of the southern Arizona and northern Mexico are amazed at the many?armed giants. They are the saguaro cacti (树形仙人掌), a giant which gives the landscape its __1__ appearance. In the dry desert the saguaro cacti can live for more than 200 years, grow to a __2__ of 60 feet, and have as many as 50 arms. More __3__ , the saguaro cacti still persist despite the unbearable desert climate. Those that have grown to old age have __4__ droughts, freezes, flash floods, and bush fires as well as the __5__ caused by groups of rats that eat their seedlings (秧苗). Like all other desert __6__, these leafless giants can store water for use during the desert's long dry seasons by __7__ water through their long roots. Naturally, the great saguaro cacti are a(n) __8__ part of the desert life. Actually the giants may be __9__ to many animals, including woodpeckers, owls, doves, bats and insects. In addition, after a saguaro __10__ the age of 50 or so, cold?resistant flowers __11__ at the top of the plants once a year. These flowers __12__ birds, bats and bees, which come for the honey and for the tasty flowers with their black seeds. __13__ the splendid saguaros are plentiful in the Southwest, they are unfortunately __14__. These giant cacti have great value in landscape gardening, and the thieves can earn thousands of dollars by uprooting and __15__ them to nurseries (苗圃). To protect these southwestern __16__, agents for the Arizona Department of Agriculture go around and __17__ the desert. It's a most important job though a hard one. But without the saguaro cacti, many desert animals would suffer a lack of __18__ and loss of nesting sites. The Southwest, too, would __19__ something of unique importance, since these desert giants have become a __20__ of the dry region. 本文是一篇环境类的说明文。文章从奇特的形状、生活特性、经济价值等方面介绍了 Sonoran Desert(索诺兰沙漠)的标志性植物——树形仙人掌。 1.A.general B.basic C.unique D.lovely 答案:C 根据下文可知,树形仙人掌有多达 50 个手形分支,所以形状“独特”,故选 unique“独特的”。general“普通的”;basic“基本的”;lovely“可爱的”。 2.A.length C.size B.height D.width

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答案:B

根据前面的“giant”及后面的“60 feet”可知,此处表示的是“高度”, B.inspiringly D.amazingly

因此选 height。length“长度”;size“尺寸”;width“宽度”。 3.A.pleasingly C.interestingly 答案:D

根据上文可知,游客对树形仙人掌的形状惊讶不已,现在更令人惊讶的是它

们的适应能力, 因此选 amazingly。 pleasingly“令人愉快地”; inspiringly“鼓舞人心地”; interestingly“有趣地”。 4.A.lived through B.broken through C.cut through D.got through 答案:A 根据上下文可知,树形仙人掌“经历”了恶劣环境的考验,live through“经 历”符合语境。break through“突破”;cut through“接通电话,通过考试”。 5.A.crisis B.damage C.destruction D.load 答案:B 除了恶劣的气候外,树形仙人掌还要遭受老鼠的“破坏”,因此选 damage。 crisis“危机”;destruction“毁灭”;load“负担”。 6.A.plants B.lives C.animals D.creatures 答案: A 像沙漠里其他所有的“植物”一样, 因此选 plants。 life“生命”; animal“动 物”;creature“生物”。 7.A.pouring B.squeezing C.pumping D.absorbing 答案: D 树形仙人掌通过它们的长根茎吸收水。 absorb“吸收”, 符合语境。 pour“倒, 灌”;squeeze“挤压”;pump“抽出”。 8.A.independent C.original B.vital D.mysterious through“抄近路穿过,走近路”; get

答案: B 根据下文可知, 作为许多动物赖以生存的食物和家园, 树形仙人掌是沙漠“极 为重要的”部分, 因此选 vital“极重要的”。 independent“独立的”; original“原始的”; mysterious“神秘的”。 9.A.spot B.field C.home 答案: C D.camp 根据最后一段的倒数第二句“But without the saguaro cacti...loss of

nesting sites”可知, 树形仙人掌可能是许多动物的栖息地。 因此选 home“家园”。 spot“地 点”;field“田地”;camp“营地”。 10.A.turns C.meets B.takes D.gains

答案:A 树形仙人掌长到 50 岁左右。此处选 turn“到(某年龄或某个时间)”,其后直 接跟数字。take“带走”;meet“遇到”;gain“获得”。 11.A.come up B.come out
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C.show off

D.show up

答案: B 根据上下文可知, 这里指树形仙人掌开花了, 因此选 come out“(花朵)开放”。 come up“走近,被提出”;show off“炫耀”;show up“露面,到达”。 12.A.call B.trap C.fascinate 答案:C stick“粘”。 13.A.As 答案:C B.But D.Yet 尽管在西南这壮丽的树形仙人掌很多,但它们却面临着危险。逗号前后表示 B.in demand C.Although D.stick 根据下文中的“which come for the honey”可知,树形仙人掌的花吸引了

一些动物,因此此处选 fascinate“迷住,深深吸引”。call“召集”;trap“困住”;

让步关系,although“尽管”,符合语境。as“因为”;but“但是”;yet“然而”。 14.A.in danger C.in need D.in control 答案:A 根据上题解析可知,此处应选 in danger“处于危险之中”。in demand“需 求大,受欢迎”;in need“需要”;in control“掌管”。 15.A.exchanging C.offering and B.trading D.selling

答案:D 根据空格前的“These giant cacti have great value in landscape gardening, the thieves can earn thousands of dollars” 可 知 , 树 形 仙 人 掌 被 偷 去 卖 钱 , 16.A.treasures B.decorations sell“卖”, 符合语境。 exchange“交换”; trade“从事贸易, 以物易物”; offer“提供”。 C.possessions D.creations 答案:A 根据全文可知,树形仙人掌是应该受到保护的沙漠珍宝,treasure“珍宝”, 符合语境。decoration“装饰”;possession “拥有物”;creation“发明,创造”。 17.A.look over B.hand over C.watch over D.turn over 答案: C 为了保护这些珍宝, Arizona 农业部派代理人保护沙漠。 因此选 watch over“监 督,保护”。look over“浏览,迅速地检查”;hand over“移交”;turn over“翻转”。 18.A.food B.scenery C.water 答案:A 道”。 19.A.affect C.increase B.abandon D.lose D.flavor 根据第三段的最后一句可知,树形仙人掌还是动物们的食物。没有了它们,

就意味着“食物”的短缺,因此此处选 food。scenery“风景”;water“水”;flavor“味

答案:D 西南部也将失去这些极具重要性的东西,因此此处选 lose。affect“影响”; abandon“遗弃,放弃”;increase“增加”。 20.A.signal B.sign
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C.mark 答案:D

D.symbol 这些沙漠巨型植物已经变成了这个干燥区域的标志。根据句意可知,此处选

symbol“标志”。signal“信号”;sign“征兆”;mark“记号”。 Ⅱ.阅读理解 A [2015·江西南昌调研] Voice and onscreen directions TeleNav GPS Navigator (导航仪) is easy to use as you drive, and it will give you all the information you need, such as: ?The current
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street

?The next turn to take ?The next street to turn on to ?The number of miles left on your trip Along the way, on your phone. directions will be announced in a clear voice and displayed it will say,
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For example,

“Go 12 miles and turn right on Elm

Street.” As you approach the turn, you will hear, “Turn right on Elm Street.” Hit the road by previewing
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your route before you go. You even get the total
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distance and estimate of the travel time to your destination .
Biz(行业) finder With TeleNav GPS Navigator, it's easy to find restaurants, banks, cafes, hotels and more from over 10 million points of interest. Once you've found what you

are looking for, you can use TeleNav to get directions or to call ahead to make a reservation .
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List price: $199.99; our price: $142.77. Comments from users “It's easy to use. The voice that tells you the turn directions-with names and streets-is clear and easy to understand.” ——Dory Delvin “TeleNav helps professionals on the road make the most of
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their time.” ——Dale Hein

这是一则广告,广告主要向人们推荐一种导航仪,并介绍了它的功能、价格以及顾客的 好评。 1.If you buy ten TeleNav GPS Navigators, you can save ________. A.$142.77 C.$552.2 B.$572.2 D.$420

答案: B 考查数字计算。 根据文章中的“List price: $199.99; our price: $142.77” 可知,买一台 TeleNav 导航仪可以节省$57.22,10 台可以节省$57.22×10=$572.2,即 B 项正
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确。 2.The author quotes customers' comments in the ad to________. A.teach people how to use the product correctly B.describe how to make the most of the product C.convince people of the product's top quality D.persuade people not to use paper maps 答案:C 考查推理判断。广告中作者引用顾客的好评是为了让人们相信该产品顶级的 质量,然后去购买这一产品。故选 C 项。 3.How does TeleNav GPS Navigator give users directions? A.By speaking and shaking. B.By displaying and writing. C.By shaking and displaying. D.By speaking and displaying. 答案:D 考查细节理解。根据文章中“Voice and onscreen directions”下的“Along the way, directions will be announced in a clear voice and displayed on your phone” 可知,应选 D 项。 4.________ is not a feature of the TeleNav GPS Navigator. A.Finding out how much gas is left in your car B.Guiding you to a restaurant C.Informing the left miles to your destination D.Identifying where you are 答案:A 考查推理判断。根据文中的“it's easy to find restaurants”“The number of miles left on your trip”及“The current street”可知,B、C、D 三项都是 TeleNav 导航仪的特点,A 项在文中未提及,故选 A 项。 W重点词汇 1.current adj./n. 现在的;流通的;电流 2.display vt./n. 陈列;展览 3.preview vt. 预览;预习 4.distance n. 距离;远方;间隔 5.destination n. 目的地 P重点短语 1.make a reservation 预约;预定 2.make the most of 充分利用;十分重视 S句式仿写 原文:Once you've found what you are looking for, you can use TeleNav to get directions or to call ahead to make a reservation. (once 引导状语从句) 译文:一旦你发现你所寻找的,你就可以用 TeleNav 指引方向或提前打电话预约。 仿写:Once_she_makes_up_her_mind_to_do_something,_you won't change her mind.
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一旦她下定决心去干什么,没有人能改变她的主意。

B [2015·河北五个一名校联盟质检二] Thirteen can be a challenging age. Not only did I have to adapt to my changing

body, but I also had to deal with my parents' bitter divorce, a new family and the
upsetting move from my country home to a crowded town. When we moved, my beloved companion, a small brown pony had to be sold. I was heartbroken and terribly lonely. I couldn't eat or sleep and cried all the time . Finally, realizing how much I missed my pony, my father bought me another horse, Cowboy. Cowboy was without doubt
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S

the ugliest

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horse in the world. But I didn't care.

I loved him beyond all reasons. I joined a riding club. When Cowboy and I entered the events where the horse was judged by appearance, we were quickly “shown the gate”. I knew nothing could turn Cowboy into a beauty. My only chance to compete would be in the timed speed events. I chose the jumping race. For the whole next month we practiced running and jumping for hours in the hot sun and then I would walk Cowboy home, totally exhausted . All of our hard work didn't make me feel confident by the time the show came. One girl named Becky rode a big brown horse in the race events. She always won the blue ribbons. I sat at the gate and sweated all out while I watched Becky and her horse charge
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through the court and finish in first place.

My turn finally came. At the signal, we dashed toward the first fence, jumped over it without trouble and raced on to the next one. Cowboy then flew over the second, third and fourth fences like a bird and I turned him toward the finish line. No cheers filled the air. The end of our run was met with
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surprising silence.

Cowboy and I had beaten Becky and her fancy horse by two seconds. I gained
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much more than a blue ribbon that day. At thirteen, I realized that

no matter what the odds are, I'd always come out a winner if I wanted something badly enough to work for it. I can be the owner of my fate. 年仅 13 岁的作者承受着家庭的变故且失去了自己心爱的小马,她感到痛苦、孤独。后 来,父亲又给她买了一匹马 Cowboy,它虽长得丑却给作者带来了许多安慰。在一场比赛中作 者明白:只要努力奋斗,每个人都可以主宰自己的命运。 5.Why did the author like Cowboy so much in spite of its ugliness? A.Because she loved horses more than anything else.
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B.Because Cowboy was a strong and smart young horse. C.Because Cowboy had a lot in common with her pony. D.Because she was sad and lonely and needed a companion. 答案:D 考查推理判断。根据第一段可知,13 岁的作者承受着家庭的变故;第二段中 介绍作者失去棕色的小矮种马后的伤心与孤独,由此可推知,尽管父亲给她新买的马 Cowboy 很丑,她还是喜欢有它的陪伴,故选择 D 项。 6.The audience fell into silence at the end of the run probably because ________. A.they didn't expect Cowboy would win the event B.they were unhappy that Becky was beaten in the event C.they didn't like Cowboy, for it was too ugly D.they never saw a horse running as fast as Cowboy 答案:A 考查推理判断。根据第六段中的“One girl named Becky rode a big brown horse in the race events. She always won the blue ribbons”和倒数第二段中的“The end of our run was met with surprising silence”可知,Becky 夺冠是众望所归,所以当作者 和其貌不扬的 Cowboy 获胜时,人们感到非常意外,一下都变得沉默了。 7.After the competition, the author came to realize that________. A.she ought to gather the courage to solve all the problems B.it was time to forget her pony and treat Cowboy better C.she needed to work harder to win more blue ribbons D.she could be the god of her own fate if she tried hard enough 答案: D 考查细节理解。 根据最后一段中的“At thirteen, I realized that no matter what the odds are, I'd always come out a winner if I wanted something badly enough to work for it. I can be the owner of my fate”可知,作者意识到自己通过足够的努力 可以主宰自己的命运。 8.It can be inferred from the passage that ________. A.all of their hard training was totally in vain B.a blue ribbon must be the second highest prize C.Cowboy lost in the events of being judged by appearance D.both Becky and the author won the jumping event 答案:C 考查推理判断。第三段的第一句表示 Cowboy 是世界上最丑的马,结合第四段 中的“When Cowboy and I entered the events where the horse was judged by appearance, we were quickly ‘shown the gate’”可知,在外形比赛中 Cowboy 输了。 W重点词汇 1.bitter adj. 痛苦的;尖刻的 2.ugly adj. 丑陋的 3.exhausted adj. 疲惫的;耗尽的 4.charge n./vt. 充电,掌管;向前冲 5.gain v. 获得;赢得
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P重点短语 1.all the time 始终;一直 2.without doubt 无疑地;确实地 3.meet with 偶遇,经历;遭受 S句式仿写 原文:Not only did I have to adapt to my changing body, but I also had to deal with my parents' bitter divorce. (倒装句) 译文:我不仅要适应身体上的改变,而且我还要不得不处理父母残酷的离婚。 仿 to do so. 就我个人而言,我认为不仅我们自己应做一些小事而且应呼吁更多的人来这么做。 写 : As_far_as_I'm_concerned,_I think not only should_we_do_small_things_by_ourselves,_but also we ought to appeal to more people

Ⅲ.七选五 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余 选项。 [2015·江西师大附中鹰潭一中联考]TV is not only a convenient and cheap service of entertainment, but also a splendid mass medium of communication. People only have to pay once to buy the TV set, then they can sit at home enjoying the items on TV. __1__TV keeps us well informed about the current events at home and abroad and the latest development in science and technology. The most distant countries and the strangest customs are brought right into our room. On TV everything is much more living and much more real.__2__ Some people even say that life without television is not worth living. __3__ They think the TV viewers need do nothing. The viewer does not even have to use his legs if he has a remote control. Many people are glued to seats to look at the movements on TV.__4__As a result, TV is taking up too much of a person's life and making him lazy, notto mention its harmful influence upon him, such as the items of violence and pornography on television in some countries. On the whole, there are more advantages than TV.__5__But we must disadvantages in the use of realize that television itself is neither good nor bad. Its

value to people and society depends on how we look at it. A.A large number of TV sets are produced every year. B.All they have to do is to push a button or turn a knob,and they can see plays, films, operas and shows of every kind. C.Some people argue against TV. D.Yet different people may have different attitudes towardTV. E.They become so dependent on its pictures that it begins to control their lives.
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F.As a matter of fact, it has become so much a part of human life that a modern world without television is unimaginable. G.Most people are couch potatoes. 本文讲述的是关于电视的情况:电视既是一种娱乐工具,也是一种很不错的信息传媒。 1.B 上文中“People...then they...”中的代词 they 与选项中的代词 they 为关键 信息,也是选答案时要考虑的重要信息。 2.F 上文中讲述的是“电视上的一切形象逼真”,下文讲述的是“没有电视的生活便 失去意义”,可知该空应讲述的是电视的特点。 3.C 从下文中的内容可知,该段讲述的是电视给人们带来的负面影响,故该题的答案 应为过渡句。 4.E 从首句主题可知,该段内容讲述要与“电视给人们带来负面影响”有关,故应选 E。 5.D 上文讲述的是对电视的整体评论,由下文的 But 一词可知,对电视的影响观点不 一,故该空选 D 进行过渡。 Ⅳ.书面表达 [2015·吉林长春质检二]假定你是红星中学的学生李华,你校正在开展提高社会公德活 动。请你根据下列要求,用英文写一篇演讲稿。 1.不守公德现象; 2.改进的方法; 3.呼吁。 注意:1.词数 100 左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯; 3.开头语已为你写好。 Dear friends. Nowadays we can still see some behaviors against public morals. ______________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ Thank you! One possible version: Dear_friends._Nowadays_we_can_still_see_some_behaviors_against_public_moral s. As is often the case, people tend to talk loud in public places, annoying others around. Spitting and littering rubbish can be seen everywhere. What's more, it's common that the young or middle?aged sit on the bus while the elderly stand. Measures must be taken to change this situation. First of all, as students, we should manage our own behaviors and help people around us form good habits. Meanwhile,
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it is necessary for the government and authorized organizations to encourage people to behave properly. Don't underestimate the role you can play. Do remember, we can make a difference! Take action right now! Thank_you!

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