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扬州市 2014 高考英语阅读理解精品训练(5)及答案解析
C8[2012· 福建卷] Do you know how it is when you see someone yawn and you start yawning too? Or how hard it is to be among people laughing and not laugh yourself? Well, apparently it's because we h ave mirror neurons(神经元)in our brains. Put simply, the existence of mirror neurons suggests that every time we see someone else do something, our brains imitate(模仿)it, whether or not we actually perform the same action. This explains a great deal about how we learn to smile, talk, walk, dance or play sports. But the idea goes further: mirror neurons not only appear to explain physical actions, they also tell us that there is a biological basis for the way we understand other people.
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Mirror neurons can undoubtedly be found all over our brains, but especially in the areas which relate to our ability to use languages, and to understand how other people feel. Researchers have found that mirror neurons relate strongly to language. A group of researchers discovered that if they gave people sentences to listen to (for example:“The hand took hold of the ball”), the same mirror neurons were triggered as when the action was actually performed (in this example, actually taking hold of a ball). Any problems with mirror neurons may well result in problems with behavior. Much research suggests that people with social and behavioral problems have mirror neurons which are not fully functioning. However, it is not yet known exactly how these discoveries might help find treatments for social disorders. Research into mirror neurons seems to provide us with ever more information concerning how humans behave and interact(互动).Indeed, it may turn out to be the equivalent(相等物)for neuroscience of what Einstein's theory of relativity was for physics. And the next time you feel the urge to cough in the cinema when someone else does—well, perhaps you'll understand why. 67.Mirror neurons can explain ________. A.why we cry when we are hurt B.why we cough when we suffer from a cold C.why we smile when we see someone else smile D.why we yawn when we see someone else stay up late 68.The underlined word “triggered” in the third paragraph probably means “________”. A.set off B.cut off C.built up D.broken up 69.We can learn from the passage that mirror neurons ________. A.relate to human behavior and interaction B.control human physical actions and feelings

C.result in bad behavior and social disorders D.determine our knowledge and language abilities 70.What is the passage mainly about? A.Ways to find mirror neurons. B.Problems of mirror neurons. C.Existence of mirror neurons. D.Functions of mirror neurons. 【要点综述】本文是一篇科普说明文。介绍了镜像神经元的作用。 67.C 推理判断题。 从第二段的第一句话“every time we see someone else do something, our brains imitate it”可知镜像神经元的作用就是当我们看到别人做某事,我们也会跟着做。 68. A 词义猜测题。根据第三段镜像神经元对语言的作用,当人们听到“手抓住球”
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这句话 时,神经元就开始起作用了,就像手抓住球这个动作真的发生一样。set off:出发;触 发。 69. A 细节理解题。根据最后一段第一句可知答案。 70. D 主旨大意题。本文主要介绍了人体镜像神经元的作用。

A (2011· 南京二模,A) French tourist outsmarts Dutch thief AMSTERDAM—A quickthinking French tourist outsmarted a Dutch thief after the thief tried to seize his bag, Amsterdam police said Wednesday. After winning a brief tug- war over the sports bag, the 27ofyear- tourist ran into a nearby old police station with the thief in hot pursuit. The thief“realized too late he had run straight into ?the_long_arm_of_the_law?”,police spokeswoman Wilma Verheij said of the incident,which took place Tuesday. After it dawned on the thief, a 28year- man whose identity was not released, said that he old was in the middle of a police station, so he tried to run away again. But he was quickly caught by officers and arrested,Verheij said. Liz Taylor remains hospitalized LOS ANGELES—Heart trouble is keeping Elizabeth Taylor hospitalized in Los Angeles for some time, but her publicist says the 78year- actress is OK and has been visiting with family and old friends. Taylor's spokeswoman Sally Morrison said in a statement Tuesday that the twotime Oscar

winner is comfortable at Cedars?Sinai Medical Center and“there has been steady improvement in her condition” since she was admitted last week. Taylor is being treated for symptoms of heart failure, a condition she revealed in November 2004. “Her medical team is satisfied by her progress to date, and it is hoped and expected that this will continue over the next few days. For now, she will remain under their care in the hospital for continued monitoring, Morrison said. “Friends and fans around the world should be convinced that ” Elizabeth Taylor is in good health and receiving the best possible care from her skilled and devoted doctors and nurses.” Morrison described Taylor's condition as stable but offered no other details. Japan halts(暂停) whale hunt after chase by protesters TOKYO—Japan has halted its annual Antarctic whale hunt following protests from a campaign group. Activists from the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society,a USbased environmental group, have been chasing the Japanese fishing ship. Commercial whaling was banned in 1986 but Japan uses a regulation permitting hunting for scientific research. Iceland and Norway have claimed official objections to the ban and continue to hunt commercially. “Putting safety as a priority, the ship has halted scientific whaling for now. We are currently considering what to do,” Tatsuya Nakaoku, an official at the fisheries agency, told Reuters news agency. The Sea Shepherd Conservation Society says one of its boats has been blocking the ship loading ramp(斜梯) ,preventing any hunted whales from being loaded on to the ship. “Every whale saved is a victory to us, so we've gotten a lot of victories down here this year,” Sea Shepherd captain Paul Watson told Reuters news agency by satellite phone from the Steve Irwin ship. 本文为三则新闻。 1.The underlined part“the long arm of the law”refers to ______ in Amsterdam. A. a travel agency C. a police station B. a policeman D. a police spokeswoman

答案:C。词义猜测题。从画线短语的上—段段尾的 police station 可推测出答案为 C。 2.What can we know about Elizabeth Taylor from the news? A. She has been suffering from heart illness for some years. B. She will go back home in a day or two. C. She is feeling quite well in hospital. D. She will receive her Oscar Award in the hospital. 答案:A。事实细节题。从第二则新闻的第 3 段可知,自 2004 年 11 月以来 Taylor 就患了 心脏病,故 A 项正确。从倒数第 2 段中的“it is hoped and expected that this will continue over the

next few days”,可知 B 项错误;文中自始至终没有提到 Taylor 自己的感受,故 C 项错误;由 第 2 段内容可知 Taylor 是两度奥斯卡奖得主,而不是将在医院接受颁奖,故 D 项错误。 3.Which of the following is NOT true? A. Japanese fishing ships go to the Antarctic for whale hunt every year. B. Iceland and Norway will not stop hunting whales. C. Commercial whale hunt has been ban ned for about twenty- years. five D. Japan will not hunt whales any more. 答案:D。事实细节题。文中只是说日本的捕鲸船被暂时阻止,而没有信息表明日本将不再捕 鲸,故 D 项符合题意要求,为正确答案。从该新闻的第 2 段可知自 1986 年以商业为目的的捕 鲸禁令颁布以来,日本依然以科研为借口继续捕鲸,故 A 项是正确的;从第 3 段可知 B 项正 确;从第 2 段捕鲸禁令发布的时间是 1986 年可推知 C 项正确。综上所述,A、B、C 不符合题 干中的 NOT true 的要求。
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C6 [2013· 重庆卷] C Almost every machi ne with moving parts has wheels, yet no one knows exactly when the first wheel was invented or what it was used for.We do know,however,that they existed over 5,500 years ago in ancient Asia. The oldest known transport wheel was discovered in 2002 in Slovenia.It is over 5,100 years old.Evidence suggests that wheels for transport didn't become popular for a while, though.This could be because animals did a perfectly good job of carrying farming tools and humans around. But it could also be because of a difficult situation.While wheels need to roll on smooth surfaces, roads with smooth surfaces weren't going to be constructed until there was plenty of demand for them.Eventually,road surfaces did become smoother, but this difficult situation appeared again a few centuries later.There had been no important changes in wheel and vehicle design before the arrival of modern road design. In the mid-1700s,a Frenchman came up with a new design of road—a base layer (层)of large stones covered with a thin layer of smaller stones.A Scotsman improved on this design in the 1820s and a strong,lasting road surface became a reality.At around the same time,metal hubs(the central part of a wheel) came into being,followed by the pneumatic tyre(充气轮胎) in 1846. Alloy wheels were invented in 1967, sixty years after the appearance of tarmacked roads(柏油路).As wheel design took off, vehicles got faster and faster.
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64.What might explain why transport wheels didn't become popular for some time? A.Few knew how to use transport wheels. B.Humans carried farming tools just as well. C.Animals were a good means of transport. D.The existence of transport wheels was not known. 65.What do we know about road design from the passage? A.It was easier than wheel design. B.It improved after big changes in vehicle design. C.It was promoted by fast-moving vehicles. D.It provided c onditions for wheel design to develop. 66.How is the last paragraph mainly developed? A.By giving examples. B.By making comparis ons. C.By following time order. D.By making classifications. 67.What is the passage mainly about? A.The beginning of road design. B.The development of transport wheels. C.The history of public transport. D.The invention of fast-moving vehicles. 【要点综述】 本文介绍轮子的演进历史。 64.C 细节理解题。第二段最后一句说明 wheels 长期未能流行的缘由:动物长期以来充 当交通工具。 65.D 推理判断题。短文最后一段说明路况的改良促进了车轮业的巨大发展。

66.C 篇章结构题。该段看似举例,但这些例子均是按时间由远及近而叙述的。 67. 主旨大意题。 B 该文主要介绍 wheels 由一般的发明物到广泛运用于交通的历史演进 过程。

C6 [2013· 重庆卷] D

Not all bodies of water are so evidently alive as the Atlantic Ocean, an S-shaped body of water cove ring 33 million square miles.The Atlantic has, in a sense, replaced the Mediterranean as the inland sea of Western civilization.Unlike real inland seas, which seem strangely still, the Atlantic is rich in oceanic liveliness.It is perhaps not surprising that its vitality has been much written about by ancient poets. “Storm at Sea”, a short poem written around 700, is generally regarded as one of mankind's earliest artistic representations of the Atlantic. When the wind is from the west All the waves that cannot rest To the east must thunder on Where the bright tree of the sun Is rooted in the ocean's breast. As the poem suggests, the Atlantic is never dead and dull.It is an ocean that moves, impressively and endlessly.It makes all kinds of noise—it is forever thundering,boiling, crashing, and whistling. It is easy to imagine the Atlantic trying to draw breath—perhaps not so noticeably out in mid- ocean,but where it meets land, its waters bathing up and down a sandy beach.It mimics(模 仿)nearly perfectly the steady breathing of a living creature.It is filled with symbiotic existences, too; unimaginable quantities of creatures, little and large alike, within its depths in a kind o f oceanic mix harmony, giving to the waters a feeling of heartbeat, a kind of sub-ocean vitality.And it has a psychology.It has personalities: sometimes peaceful and pleasant, on rare occasions rough and wild; always it is strong and striking. 68.Unlike real inland seas, the Atlantic Ocean is ________. A.always energetic B.lacking in liveliness C.shaped like a square D.favored by ancient poets 69.What is the purpose of using the poem “Storm at Sea” in the passage? A.To describe the movement of the waves. B.To show the strength of the storm.

C.To represent the power of the ocean. D.To prove the vastness of the sea. 70.What does the underlined word “symbiotic” mean? A.Living together. B.Growing fast. C.Moving harmoniously. D.Breathing peacefully. 71.In the last paragraph, the Atlantic is compared to ________. A.a beautiful and poetic place B.a flesh and blood person C.a wonderful world D.a lovely animal 【要点综述】 该文既是对地理知识的陈列,也是对文学作品的铺陈。大西洋的壮美和静 态的内海迥然不同,大西洋好比是一个富有生命力且有血有肉的人。 68.A 细节理解和逻辑推理题。inland seas 比较平静,而大西洋充满生命律动的浩瀚与

同为西方文化摇篮的地中海形成鲜明的对比。 69.C 写作方法题。该诗句描写大西洋的壮美:当西风信然而至时,大西洋的波浪开始 涌动,以雷霆万钧之势,凸显大西洋的磅礴气势。 70. 词义推断题。 A 作者先把大西洋比作生命的律动, 然后又把她的其他禀赋铺陈于后, 因此该词此处应该指“共生共存”。 71.B 写作方法题。该文通过诗词和拟人化的描写把大西洋比作有血有肉的人。

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