# GMAT真题8

Math Section

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q1: A wire that weighs 24 kilograms is cut into two pieces so that one of the pieces weighs 16 kilograms and is 34 meters long. If the weight of each piece is proportional to its length, how many meters long is the other piece of wire? A. B. C. D. E. 8 11 13 17 20

Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q2: If a certain machine produces bolts at a constant rate, how many seconds will it take the machine to produce 300 bolts? (1) It takes the machine 56 seconds to produce 40 bolts. (2) It takes the machine 1.4 seconds to produce 1 bolt. A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q3: If k, m, and p are integers, is k – m – p odd? (1) k and m are even and p is odd. (2) k, m, and p are consecutive integers. A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Q4: If x is the product of the positive integers from 1 to 8, inclusive, and if i, k, m, and p are positive integers such that x = 2i3k5m7p, then i + k + m + p = A. B. C. D. E. 4 7 8 11 12

Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q5: If a code word is defined to be a sequence of different letters chosen from the 10 letters A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and J, what is the ratio of the number of 5-letter code words to the number of 4-letter code words? A. B. C. D. E. 5 to 4 3 to 2 2 to 1 5 to 1 6 to 1

Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q6: If two copying machines work simultaneously at their respective constant rates, how many copies do they produce in 5 minutes? (1) One of the machines produces copies at the constant rate of 250 copies per minute. (2) One of the machines produces copies at twice the constant rate of the other machine. A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q7: Is xy > x2y2? (1) 14x2 = 3 (2) y2 = 1 A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

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C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q8:

R P

Q For the cube shown above, what is the degree measure of ∠ PQR? A. B. C. D. E. 30 45 60 75 90

Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q9: If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers 1 to 96, inclusive, what is the probability that n(n + 1)(n + 2) will be divisible by 8? A.
B. C. D. E. 1 4 3 8 1 2 5 8 3 4 Answer:

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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q10: A total of \$60,000 was invested for one year. Part of this amount earned simple annual interest at the rate of x percent per year, and the rest earned simple annual interest at the rate of y percent per year. If the total interest earned by the \$60,000 for that year was \$4,080, what is the value of x? 3y (1) x = 4 (2) The ratio of the amount that earned interest at the rate of x percent per year to the amount that earned interest at the rate of y percent per year was 3 to 2.
A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q11: If n and k are positive integers, is n divisible by 6? (1) n = k(k + 1)(k - 1) (2) k – 1 is a multiple of 3. A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q12: What was the cost of a certain telephone call? (1) The call lasted 8 minutes. (2) The cost of the first minute of the call was \$0.32, which was twice the cost of each minute of the call after the first. A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Q13: Company S produces two kinds of stereos: basic and deluxe. Of the stereos produced by 2 7 Company S last month, were basic and the rest were deluxe. If it takes as many 3 5 hours to produce a deluxe stereo as it does to produce a basic stereo, then the number of hours it took to produce the deluxe stereos last month was what fraction of the total number of hours it took to produce all the stereos?

A.
B. C. D. E.

7 17 14 31 7 15 17 35 1 2

Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q14: 99,9992 - 12 = A. B. C. D. E. 1010 - 2 (105 – 2)2 104(105 – 2) 105(104 – 2) 105(105 – 2)

Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q15: Is x2 + y2 > 6? (1) (x + y)2 > 6 (2) xy = 2 A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q16:

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What is the probability that a student randomly selected from a class of 60 students will be a male who has brown hair? (1) One-half of the students have brown hair. (2) One-third of the students are males. A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q17: The number of defects in the first five cars to come through a new production line are 9, 7, 10, 4, and 6, respectively. If the sixth car through the production line has either 3, 7, or 12 defects, for which of theses values does the mean number of defects per car for the first six cars equal the median?

I. II. III.

3 7 12

A. B. C. D. E.

I only II only III only I and III only I, II, and III

Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q18: Which of the following is equal to (2k)(5k 1)? A. B. C. D. E. 2(10k 1) 5(10k 1) 10k 2(10k ) 102k 1

Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q19: If x = 25, then x3 – x2 = A. 512

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B. C. D. E.

520 6(55) 54(52 + 1) 58(54 1)

z

In the parallelogram shown, what is the value of x? (1) y = 2x (2) x + z = 120 A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q21: ● ● ● ● A B C D Note: Figure not drawn to scale.

On line segment AD shown, AB =
A. B. C. D. E. 40 45 50 55 60

1 CD and BC = 10. If AD = 100, then CD = 2

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At a garage sale, all of the prices of the items sold were different. If the price of a radio sold at the garage sale was both the 15th highest price and the 20th lowest price among the prices of the items sold, how many items were sold at the garage sale? A. B. C. D. E. 33 34 35 36 37

Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q23: x2 If x ≠ 0, is < 1? x (1) x < 1 (2) x > 1 A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q24: At a certain company, each employee has a salary grade s that is at least 1 and at most 5. Each employee receives an hourly wage p, in dollars, determined by the formula p = 9.50 + 0.25(s – 1). An employee with a salary grade of 5 receives how many more dollars per hour than an employee with a salary grade of 1? A. B. C. D. E. \$0.50 \$1.00 \$1.25 \$1.50 \$1.75

Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q25: In the sequence 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, …, each term after the first is twice the previous term. What is the sum of the 16th, 17th, and 18th terms in the sequence? A. B. C. D. 218 3(217) 7(216) 3(216) 22

E. 7(215) Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q26: 2 In the xy-plane, the line with equation ax + by + c = 0, where abc ≠ 0, has slope . What 3 is the value of b? a=4 (1)
(2) c = 6 A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q27: Of the cans of peaches inspected yesterday at a certain plant, 1.5 percent failed to pass 5 inspection. Of the cans that failed inspection, were incorrectly labeled and the rest 6 were dented. If all of the cans that were incorrectly labeled or dented failed inspection, how many of the cans of peaches inspected yesterday at the plant were dented? (1) 450 of the cans of peaches inspected yesterday at the plant failed to pass inspection. (2) 29,550 of the cans of peaches inspected yesterday at the plant passed inspection. A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q28: A car traveling at a certain constant speed takes 2 seconds longer to travel 1 kilometer than it would take to travel 1 kilometer at 75 kilometers per hour. At what speed, in kilometers per hour, is the car traveling? A. 71.5 B. 72 C. 72.5

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D. 73 E. 73.5 Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q29: The annual rent collected by a corporation from a certain building was x percent more in 1998 than in 1997 and y percent less in 1999 than in 1998. Was the annual rent collected by the corporation from the building more in 1999 than in 1997? (1) x > y xy (2) <x–y 100
A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q30:

4 X

O

4

Note: Figure not drawn to scale. In the figure above, O is the center of the circle. If the area of the shaded region is 2π, what is the value of x?
45 2 B. 30

A.

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C. 45 D. 60 E. 90 Answer: C -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q31: The numbers x and y are three-digit positive integers, and x + y is a four-digit integer. The tens digit of x equals 7 and the tens digit of y equals 5. If x < y, which of the following must be true?

I. The units digit of x + y is greater than the units digit of either x or y. II. The tens digit of x + y equals 2. III. The hundreds digit of y is at least 5.

A. B. C. D. E.

II only III only I and II I and III II and III

Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q32: If m and v are integers, what is the value of m + v? (1) mv = 6 (2) (m + v)2 = 25 A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q33: A teacher gave the same test to three history classes: A, B, and C. The average (arithmetic mean) scores for the three classes were 65, 80, and 77, respectively. The ratio of the numbers of students in each class who took the test was 4 to 6 to 5, respectively. What was the average score for the three classes combined? A. 74 B. 75 C. 76

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D. 77 E. 78 Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q34: The number n of units of its product that Company X is scheduled to produce in month t 900 of its next fiscal year is given by the formula n = , where c is a constant and t is a 1 + c 2 t positive integer between 1 and 6, inclusive. What is the number of units of its product that Company X is scheduled to produce in month 6 of its next fiscal year? (1) Company X is scheduled to produce 180 units of its product in month 1 of its next fiscal year. (2) Company X is scheduled to produce 300 units of its product in month 2 of its next fiscal year.
A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q35: x The operation is defined for all nonzero x and y by x y = x + . If a > o, then 1 (1 y a) = A. a B. a + 1 a C. a +1 a+2 D. a +1 2a + 1 E. a +1 Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q36: If n is an integer and 100 < n <200, what is the value of n? n (1) is an odd integer. 36 n (2) is an even integer. 45

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A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q37: If an automobile averaged 22.5 miles per gallon of gasoline, approximately how many kilometers per liter of gasoline did the automobile average? (1 mile = 1.6 kilometers and 1 gallon = 3.8 liters, both rounded to the nearest tenth.) A. B. C. D. E. 3.7 9.5 31.4 53.4 136.8

Verbal Section
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q1: The four-million-year-old fossilized skeleton known as Lucy is so small compared with many other skeletons presumed to be of the same species, and so some paleontologists have argued that Lucy represents a different lineage. presumed to be of the same species, and so presumed to be of the same species that presumed that they are of the same species, and so that they have presumed to be of the same species, so that that they have presumed are of the same species, and Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A. B. C. D. E.

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Q2: In Creek theology the supreme being was Esaugetu Emissee (Master of Breath), who dwelt in an upper realm in which the sky was the floor, and who had the power to give and to take away the breath of life. in which the sky was the floor, and who had the power to give and to take where the sky was the floor, having the power to give and to take whose floor was the sky, and who has the power of giving and of taking in which the sky was the floor, with the power of giving and taking whose floor was the sky, having the power to give and take Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q3: Today’s technology allows manufacturers to make small cars more fuel-efficient now than at any time in their production history. small cars more fuel-efficient now than at any time in their small cars that are more fuel-efficient than they were at any time in their small cars that are more fuel-efficient than those at any other time in more fuel-efficient small cars than those at any other time in their more fuel-efficient small cars now than at any time in Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q4: A new hair-growing drug is being sold for three times the price, per milligram, as the drug’s maker charges for another product with the same active ingredient. A. B. C. D. E. as than that of what at which A. B. C. D. E. A. B. C. D. E.

Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q5 to Q7: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly industrialization and urbanization, conLine tributes to the growth of participatory (5) democracy; according to this theory, it would seem logical that women would both demand and gain suffrage in ever greater numbers whenever economic development expanded their economic (10) opportunities. However, the economic development theory is inadequate to

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explain certain historical facts about the implementation of women’s suffrage. For example, why was women’s suf(15) frage, instituted nationally in the United States in 1920, not instituted nationally in Switzerland until the 1970’s? Industrialization was well advanced in both countries by 1920: over 33 percent (20) of American workers were employed in various industries, as compared to 44 percent of Swiss workers. Granted, Switzerland and the United States diverged in the degree to (25) which the expansion of industry coincided with the degree of urbanization: only 29 percent of the Swiss population lived in cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants by 1920. However, urbanization (30) cannot fully explain women’s suffrage. Within the United States prior to 1920, for example, only less urbanized states had granted women suffrage. Similarly, less urbanized countries (35) such as Cambodia and Ghana had voting rights for women long before Switzerland did. It is true that Switzerland’s urbanized cantons (political subdivisions) generally enacted (40) women’s suffrage legislation earlier than did rural cantons. However, these cantons often shared other characteristics—similar linguistic backgrounds and strong leftist parties—that may help to explain this phenomenon. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q5: The passage states which of the following about Switzerland’s urbanized cantons? A. These cantons shared characteristics other than urbanization that may have contributed to their implementation of women’s suffrage. B. These cantons tended to be more politically divided than were rural cantons. C. These cantons shared with certain rural cantons characteristics such as similar linguistic backgrounds and strong leftist parties. D. The populations of these cantons shared similar views because urbanization furthered the diffusion of ideas among them.

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E. These cantons were comparable to the most highly urbanized states in the United States in their stance toward the implementation of women’s suffrage. Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q6: The primary purpose of the passage is to A. contrast two explanations for the implementation of women’s suffrage B. demonstrate that one factor contributes more than another factor to the implementation of women’s suffrage C. discuss the applicability of a theory for explaining the implementation of women’s suffrage D. clarify certain assumptions underlying a particular theory about the implementation of women’s suffrage E. explain how a particular historical occurrence was causally connected to the implementation of women’s suffrage Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q7: The passage suggests which of the following about urbanization in Switzerland and the United States by 1920? A. A greater percentage of Swiss industrial workers than American industrial workers lived in urban areas. B. There were more cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants in Switzerland than there were in the United States. C. Swiss workers living in urban areas were more likely to be employed in industry than were American workers living in urban areas. D. Urbanized areas of Switzerland were more likely than similar areas in the United States to have strong leftist parties. E. A greater percentage of the United States population than the Swiss population lived in urban areas. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q8: From 1980 to 1989, total consumption of fish in the country of Jurania increased by 4.5 percent, and total consumption of poultry products there increased by 9.0 percent. During the same period, the population of Jurania increased by 6 percent, in part due to immigration to Jurania from other countries in the region. If the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true on the basis of them? A. During the 1980’s in Jurania, profits of wholesale distributors of poultry products increased at a greater rate than did profits of wholesale distributors of fish.

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B. For people who immigrated to Jurania during the 1980’s, fish was less likely to be a major part of their diet than was poultry. C. In 1989 Juranians consumed twice as much poultry as fish. D. For a significant proportion of Jurania’s population, both fish and poultry products were a regular part of their diet during the 1980’s. E. Per capita consumption of fish in Jurania was lower in 1989 than in 1980. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q9 to Q12: In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United States Supreme Court rejected the Line efforts of three Native American tribes (5) to prevent the opening of tribal lands to non-Indian settlement without tribal consent. In his study of the Lone Wolf case, Blue Clark properly emphasizes the Court’s assertion (10) of a virtually unlimited unilateral power of Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate) over Native American affairs. But he fails to note the decision’s more far-reaching (15) impact: shortly after Lone Wolf, the federal government totally abandoned negotiation and execution of formal written agreements with Indian tribes as a prerequisite for the implemen(20) tation of federal Indian policy. Many commentators believe that this change had already occurred in 1871 when— following a dispute between the House and the Senate over which (25) chamber should enjoy primacy in Indian affairs—Congress abolished the making of treaties with Native American tribes. But in reality the federal government continued to nego(30) tiate formal tribal agreements past the turn of the century, treating these documents not as treaties with sovereign nations requiring ratification by the Senate but simply as legislation to be (35) passed by both houses of Congress. The Lone Wolf decision ended this era of formal negotiation and finally

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did away with what had increasingly become the empty formality of obtaining tribal consent. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q9: The author of the passage is primarily concerned with identifying similarities in two different theories evaluating a work of scholarship analyzing the significance of a historical event debunking a revisionist interpretation exploring the relationship between law and social reality Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q10: According to the passage, which of the following was true of relations between the federal government and Native American tribes? A. Some Native American tribes approved of the congressional action of 1871 because it simplified their dealings with the federal government. B. Some Native American tribes were more eager to negotiate treaties with the United States after the Lone Wolf decision. C. Prior to the Lone Wolf decision, the Supreme Court was reluctant to hear cases involving agreements negotiated between Congress and Native American tribes. D. Prior to 1871, the federal government sometimes negotiated treaties with Native American tribes. E. Following 1871, the House exercised more power than did the Senate in the government’s dealings with Native American tribes. Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q11: As an element in the argument presented by the author of the passage, the reference to Blue Clark’s study of the Lone Wolf case serves primarily to A. point out that this episode in Native American history has received inadequate attention from scholars B. support the contention of the author of the passage that the Lone Wolf decision had a greater long-term impact than did the congressional action of 1871 C. challenge the validity of the Supreme Court’s decision confirming the unlimited unilateral power of Congress in Native American affairs D. refute the argument of commentators who regard the congressional action of 1871 as the end of the era of formal negotiation between the federal government and Native American tribes E. introduce a view about the Lone Wolf decision that the author will expand upon Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------A. B. C. D. E.

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Q12: According to the passage, which of the following resulted from the Lone Wolf decision? A. The Supreme Court took on a greater role in Native American affairs. B. Native American tribes lost their legal standing as sovereign nations in their dealings with the federal government, but their ownership of tribal lands was confirmed. C. The federal government no longer needed to conclude a formal agreement with a Native American tribe in order to carry out policy decisions that affected the tribe. D. The federal government began to appropriate tribal lands for distribution to nonIndian settlers. E. Native American tribes were no longer able to challenge congressional actions by appealing to the Supreme Court. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q13: A leading figure in the Scottish enlightenment, Adam Smith’s two major books are to democratic capitalism what Marx’s Das Kapital is to socialism. Adam Smith’s two major books are to democratic capitalism what Adam Smith’s two major books are to democratic capitalism like Adam Smith’s two major books are to democratic capitalism just as Adam Smith wrote two major books that are to democratic capitalism similar to Adam Smith wrote two major books that are to democratic capitalism what Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q14: Guidebook writer: I have visited hotels throughout the country and have noticed that in those built before 1930 the quality of the original carpentry work is generally superior to that in hotels built afterward. Clearly carpenters working on hotels before 1930 typically worked with more skill, care, and effort than carpenters who have worked on hotels built subsequently. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the guidebook writer’s argument? A. The quality of original carpentry in hotels is generally far superior to the quality of original carpentry in other structures, such as houses and stores. B. Hotels built since 1930 can generally accommodate more guests than those built before 1930. C. The materials available to carpenters working before 1930 were not significantly different in quality from the materials available to carpenters working after 1930. D. The better the quality of original carpentry in a building, the less likely that building is to fall into disuse and be demolished. E. The average length of apprenticeship for carpenters has declined significantly since 1930. Answer: A. B. C. D. E.

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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q15: Brochure: Help conserve our city’s water supply. By converting the landscaping in your yard to a water-conserving landscape, you can greatly reduce your outdoor water use. A water-conserving landscape is natural and attractive, and it also saves you money. Criticism: For most people with yards, the savings from converting to a waterconserving landscape cannot justify the expense of new landscaping, since typically the conversion would save less than twenty dollars on a homeowner’s yearly water bills. Which of the following, if true, provides the best basis for a rebuttal of the criticism? A. Even homeowners whose yards do not have water-conserving landscapes can conserve water by installing water-saving devices in their homes. B. A conventional landscape generally requires a much greater expenditure on fertilizer and herbicide than does a water-conserving landscape. C. A significant proportion of the residents of the city live in buildings that do not have yards. D. It costs no more to put in water-conserving landscaping than it does to put in conventional landscaping. E. Some homeowners use more water to maintain their yards than they use for all other purposes combined. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q16: Economist: Tropicorp, which constantly seeks profitable investment opportunities, has been buying and clearing sections of tropical forest for cattle ranching, although pastures newly created there become useless for grazing after just a few years. The company has not gone into rubber tapping, even though greater profits can be made from rubber tapping, which leaves the forest intact. Thus, some environmentalists conclude that Tropicorp has not acted wholly out of economic self-interest. However, these environmentalists are probably wrong. The initial investment required for a successful rubber-tapping operation is larger than that needed for a cattle ranch. Furthermore, there is a shortage of workers employable in rubber-tapping operations, and finally, taxes are higher on profits from rubber tapping than on profits from cattle ranching. In the economist’s argument, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles? A. The first supports the conclusion of the economist’s argument; the second calls that conclusion into question. B. The first states the conclusion of the economist’s argument; the second supports that conclusion. C. The first supports the environmentalists’ conclusion; the second states that conclusion.

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B. coyote, because of its amazing ability of adapting to the presence of humans, have been able to expand their C. coyote, because of its amazing ability to adapt to the presence of humans, has been able to expand its D. amazing ability of the coyote to adapt to the presence of humans have enabled it to expand the E. amazing ability of the coyote to adapt to the presence of humans has enabled it to expand the Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q20: Community activist: If Morganville wants to keep its central shopping district healthy, it should prevent the opening of a huge SaveAll discount department store on the outskirts of Morganville. Records from other small towns show that whenever SaveAll has opened a store outside the central shopping district of a small town, within five years the town has experienced the bankruptcies of more than a quarter of the stores in the shopping district. The answer to which of the following would be most useful for evaluating the community activist’s reasoning? A. Have community activists in other towns successfully campaigned against the opening of a SaveAll store on the outskirts of their towns? B. Do a large percentage of the residents of Morganville currently do almost all of their shopping at stores in Morganville? C. In towns with healthy central shopping districts, what proportion of the stores in those districts suffer bankruptcy during a typical five-year period? D. What proportion of the employees at the SaveAll store on the outskirts of Morganville will be drawn from Morganville? E. Do newly opened SaveAll stores ever lose money during their first five years of operation? Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q21: Hunter: Hunters alone are blamed for the decline in Greenrock National Forest’s deer population over the past ten years. Yet clearly, black bears have also played an important role in this decline. In the past ten years, the forest’s protected black bear population has risen sharply, and examination of black bears found dead in the forest during the deer hunting season showed that a number of them had recently fed on deer. In the hunter’s argument, the boldface portion plays which of the following roles? A. B. C. D. It is the main conclusion of the argument. It is an objection that has been raised against the main conclusion of the argument. It is a judgment that the argument opposes. It is a finding that the argument seeks to explain.

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E. It provides evidence in support of the main conclusion of the argument. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q22 to Q25: Many managers are influenced by dangerous myths about pay that lead to counterproductive decisions about Line how their companies compensate (5) employees. One such myth is that labor rates, the rate per hour paid to workers, are identical with labor costs, the money spent on labor in relation to the productivity of the labor force. (10) This myth leads to the assumption that a company can simply lower its labor costs by cutting wages. But labor costs and labor rates are not in fact the same: one company could pay (15) its workers considerably more than another and yet have lower labor costs if that company’s productivity were higher due to the talent of its workforce, the efficiency of its work (20) processes, or other factors. The confusion of costs with rates persists partly because labor rates are a convenient target for managers who want to make an impact on their com(25) pany’s budgets. Because labor rates are highly visible, managers can easily compare their company’s rates with those of competitors. Furthermore, labor rates often appear to be a (30) company’s most malleable financial variable: cutting wages appears an easier way to control costs than such options as reconfiguring work processes or altering product design. (35) The myth that labor rates and labor costs are equivalent is supported by business journalists, who frequently confound the two. For example, prominent business journals often remark on (40) the “high” cost of German labor, citing as evidence the average amount paid to German workers. The myth is also

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A. some prehistoric cave paintings in France also depict other animals as having a hump B. fossils of the giant deer are much more common in Ireland than in France C. animal humps are composed of fatty tissue, which dose not fossilize D. the cave paintings of the giant deer were painted well before 16,000 years ago E. only one currently existing species of deer has any anatomical feature that even remotely resembles a hump Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q27: Newspaper editorial: In an attempt to reduce the crime rate, the governor is getting tough on criminals and making prison conditions harsher. Part of this effort has been to deny inmates the access they formerly had to college-level courses. However, this action is clearly counter to the governor’s ultimate goal, since after being released form prison, inmates who had taken such courses committed far fewer crimes overall than other inmates. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends? A. Not being able to take college-level courses while in prison is unlikely to deter anyone from a crime that he or she might otherwise have committed. B. Former inmates are no more likely to commit crimes than are members of the general population. C. The group of inmates who chose to take college-level courses were not already less likely than other inmates to commit crimes after being released. D. Taking high school level courses in prison has less effect on an inmate’s subsequent behavior than taking college-level courses does. E. The governor’s ultimate goal actually is to gain popularity by convincing people that something effective is being done about crime. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q28: Antarctica receives more solar radiation than does any other place on Earth, yet the temperatures are so cold and the ice cap is reflective, so that little polar ice melts during the summer; otherwise, the water levels of the oceans would rise 250 feet and engulf most of the world’s great cities. is reflective, so that little polar ice melts during the summer; otherwise, is so reflective that little of the polar ice melts during the summer; were it to do so, so reflective that little polar ice melts during the summer, or else reflective, so that little of the polar ice melts during the summer, or reflects so that little of the polar ice melts during the summer; if it did Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q29: A. B. C. D. E.

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In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them. A. much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them B. much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined C. much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images as well as constructing and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined D. creating images of Buddha accounted for much of the local artisans’ creative energy, and also constructing and decorating the temples enshrining them E. the creating of Buddha images accounted for much of the local artisans’ creative energy as well as construction and decoration of the temples that enshrined them Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q30: Data gathered by weather satellites has been analyzed by scientists, reporting that the Earth’s northern latitudes have become about ten percent greener since 1980, due to more vigorous plant growth associated with warmer temperatures and higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A. Data gathered by weather satellites has been analyzed by scientists, reporting that the Earth’s northern latitudes have B. Data gathered by weather satellites has been analyzed by scientists, and they report the Earth’s northern latitudes as having C. After analyzing data gathered by weather satellites, scientists report that the Earth’s northern latitudes have D. After analysis of data, gathered by weather satellites, scientists report the Earth’s northern latitudes as having E. After data gathered by weather satellites was analyzed by scientists, who report that the Earth’s northern latitudes have Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q31: Twenty-two feet long and 10 feet in diameter, the AM-1 is one of the many new satellites that is a part of 15 years effort of subjecting the interactions of Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces to detailed scrutiny from space. A. satellites that is a part of 15 years effort of subjecting the interactions of Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces B. satellites, which is a part of a 15-year effort to subject how Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces interact

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D. It was once predominantly grain-producing, but competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western farms was gradually causing Pennsylvania’s farmers to turn to livestock raising. E. Pennsylvania was once a predominantly grain-producing state, but competition in the mid-nineteenth century from large western farms gradually caused the state’s farmers to turn to livestock raising. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q34: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources. A. based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting B. based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of C. and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of D. and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting E. and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q35 to Q37: In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains very dim galaxies that until Line recently went unnoticed by (5) astronomers. Possibly as numerous as conventional galaxies, these galaxies have the same general shape and even the same approximate number (10) of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral, but tend to be much larger. Because these galaxies’ mass is spread out over (15) larger areas, they have far fewer stars per unit volume than do conventional galaxies. Apparently these low-surfacebrightness galaxies, as they (20) are called, take much longer

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than conventional galaxies to condense their primordial gas and convert it to stars—that is, they evolve much more slowly. (25) These galaxies may constitute an answer to the longstanding puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe. Baryons—subatomic particles (30) that are generally protons or neutrons—are the source of stellar, and therefore galactic, luminosity, and so their numbers can be estimated based on how (35) luminous galaxies are. However, the amount of helium in the universe, as measured by spectroscopy, suggests that there are far more baryons (40) in the universe than estimates based on galactic luminosity indicate. Astronomers have long speculated that the missing baryonic mass might eventually (45) be discovered in intergalactic space or as some large population of galaxies that are difficult to detect. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q35: The primary purpose of the passage is to describe a phenomenon and consider its scientific significance contrast two phenomena and discuss a puzzling difference between them identify a newly discovered phenomenon and explain its origins compare two classes of objects and discuss the physical properties of each discuss a discovery and point out its inconsistency with existing theory Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q36: The author mentions the fact that baryons are the source of stars’ luminosity primarily in order to explain A. how astronomers determine that some galaxies contain fewer stars per unit volume than do others B. how astronomers are able to calculate the total luminosity of a galaxy A. B. C. D. E.

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C. why astronomers can use galactic luminosity to estimate baryonic mass D. why astronomers’ estimates of baryonic mass based on galactic luminosity are more reliable than those based on spectroscopic studies of helium E. how astronomers know bright galaxies contain more baryons than do dim galaxies Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q37: It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is an accurate physical description of typical low-surface-brightness galaxies? A. They are large spiral galaxies containing fewer stars than do conventional galaxies. B. They are compact but very dim spiral galaxies. C. They are diffuse spiral galaxies that occupy a large volume of space. D. They are small, young spiral galaxies that contain a high proportion of primordial gas. E. They are large, dense spirals with low luminosity. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q38: Two centuries ago, Tufe Peninsula became separated form the mainland, isolating on the newly formed Tufe Island a population of Turfil sunflowers. This population’s descendants grow to be, on average, 40 centimeters shorter than Turfil sunflowers found on the mainland. Tufe Island is significantly drier than Tufe Peninsula was. So the current average height of Tufe’s Turfil sunflowers is undoubtedly at least partially attributable to changes in Tufe’s environmental conditions. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends? A. There are no types of vegetation on Tufe Island that are known to benefit from dry conditions. B. There were about as many Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Peninsula two centuries ago as there are on Tufe Island today. C. The mainland’s environment has not changed in ways that have resulted in Turfil sunflowers on the mainland growing to be 40 centimeters taller than they did two centuries ago. D. The soil on Tufe Island, unlike that on the mainland, lacks important nutrients that help Turfil sunflowers survive and grow tall in a dry environment. E. The 40-centimeter height difference between the Turfil sunflowers on Tufe Island and those on the mainland is the only difference between the two populations. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q39: Minivans carry as many as seven passengers and, compared with most sport utility vehicles, cost less, get better gas mileage, allow passengers to get in and out more easily, and have a smoother ride.

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A. Minivans carry as many as seven passengers and, compared with most sport utility vehicles, cost less, B. Minivans, which carry as many as seven passengers, compared with most sport utility vehicles, they cost less, C. Minivans carry as many as seven passengers, in comparison with most sport utility vehicles, and have a lower cost, they D. Minivans, carrying as many as seven passengers, compared with most sport utility vehicles, cost less, E. Minivans, which carry as many as seven passengers, compared with most sport utility vehicles the cost is lower, and they Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q40. Press Secretary: Our critics claim that the President’s recent highway project cancellations demonstrate a vindictive desire to punish legislative districts controlled by opposition parties. They offer as evidence the fact that 90 percent of the projects canceled were in such districts. But all of the canceled projects had been identified as wasteful in a report written by respected nonpartisan auditors. So the President’s choice was clearly motivated by sound budgetary policy, not partisan politics. Which of the following is an assumption on which the press secretary’s argument depends? A. Canceling highway projects was not the only way for the President to punish legislative districts controlled by opposition parties. B. The scheduled highway projects identified as wasteful in the report were not mostly projects in districts controlled by the President’s party. C. The number of projects canceled was a significant proportion of all the highway projects that were to be undertaken by the government in the near future. D. The highway projects canceled in districts controlled by the President’s party were not generally more expensive than the projects canceled in districts controlled by opposition parties. E. Reports by nonpartisan auditors are not generally regarded by the opposition parties as a source of objective assessments of government projects. Answer: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q41: The coyote is one of several recent ecological success stories: along with the white-tailed deer, the moose, and other species that are enlarging their natural domains, they have established themselves as supreme adapters in an era when the capability to adjust to the environmental changes wrought by human beings has created a whole new class of dominant large mammals.

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A. they have established themselves as supreme adapters in an era when the capability B. they have established themselves as being supreme adapters in an era when being able C. it has established itself as a supreme adapter in an era when to be able D. it has established itself as being a supreme adapter in an era when its ability E. it has established itself as a supreme adapter in an era when the ability Answer: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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